42 Works

Cheilanthes ecuadorensis: A new species of Cheilanthes s.s. (Pteridaceae) from northern South America

Karla Sosa
Ongoing research on the taxonomically complex genus Cheilanthes (Pteridaceae; Cheilanthoideae) has resulted in the identification of a new species from Loja Province in Ecuador—Cheilanthes ecuadorensis, described and illustrated herein. Originally collected in 1988 and identified as C. cf. rufopunctata, C. ecuadorensis is clearly distinct from that species in having pubescent adaxial blade surfaces and narrow, poorly-differentiated false indusia. Among the South American species currently included in Cheilanthes, C. ecuadorensis is superficially most similar to C....

Efficient parallelization of tensor network contractions for simulating quantum computation

Cupjin Huang, Fang Zhang, Michael Newman, Xiaotong Ni, Dawei Ding, Junjie Cai, Xun Gao, Tenghui Wang, Feng Wu, Gengyan Zhang, Hsiang-Sheng Ku, Zhengxiong Tian, Junyin Wu, Haihong Xu, Huanjun Yu, Bo Yuan, Mario Szegedy, Yaoyun Shi, Hui-Hai Zhao, Chunqing Deng & Jianxin Chen
In this paper, we demonstrate a classical simulation framework for quantum computation by contracting tensor networks of sizes previously deemed out of reach. The main contribution of this work is a parallelization scheme called index slicing that breaks down an infeasibly large tensor network contraction task into smaller subtasks that can be executed fully in parallel, without interdependencies or intermediate communications. As a benchmarking example, we show that our algorithm can reduce the simulation of...

Data from: Constraints and variation in food web link-species space

Jean Gibert
Predicting food web structure in future climates is a pressing goal of ecology. These predictions may be impossible without a solid understanding of the factors that structure current food webs. The most fundamental aspect of food-web structure—the relationship between the number of links and species—is still poorly understood. Some species interactions may be physically or physiologically ‘forbidden’—like consumption by non-consumer species—with possible consequences for food web structure. We show that accounting for these ‘forbidden interactions’...

Inverse Correlation between Dengue Fever and COVID-19 spread in Latin America, the Caribbean and Asia

Diego Marcondes, Miguel A. L. Nicolelis & Pedro S. Peixoto
Here we investigated whether the dengue fever pandemic of 2019-2020 may have influenced COVID-19 incidence and spread around the world. In Brazil, the geographic distribution of dengue fever was highly complementary to that of COVID-19. This was accompanied by an inverse correlation between COVID-19 and dengue fever incidence that could not be explained by socioeconomic factors. This inverse correlation was observed for 5,016 Brazilian municipalities reporting COVID-19 cases, 558 micro- and 137 meso-regions, 27 states...

Data from: Mesozoic cupules and the origin of the angiosperm second integument

Gongle Shi, Fabiany Herrera, Patrick Herendeen, Elizabeth Clark & Peter Crane
This dataset is embargoed. Please contact Gongle Shi with any questions.

The Long Lives of Primates and the 'Invariant Rate of Ageing' Hypothesis

Susan Alberts & Fernando Colchero
Is it possible to slow the rate of ageing, or do biological constraints limit its plasticity? We test the ‘invariant rate of ageing’ hypothesis, which posits that the rate of ageing is relatively fixed within species, with a collection of 39 human and nonhuman primate datasets across seven genera. We first recapitulate, in nonhuman primates, the highly regular relationship between life expectancy and lifespan equality seen in humans. We next demonstrate that variation in the...

Acoustic particle motion detection in the snapping shrimp (Alpheus richardsoni)

Jason Dinh & Craig Radford
Many crustaceans produce sounds that might be used in communication. However, little is known about sound detection in crustaceans, hindering our understanding of crustacean acoustic communication. Sound detection has been determined only for a few species, and for many species, it is unclear how sound is perceived: as particle motion or sound pressure. Snapping shrimp are amongst the loudest and most pervasive marine sound sources. They produce snaps during interactions with conspecifics, and they also...

Recommended fossil calibrators for time-scaled molecular phylogenies of Afrotheria

Steven Heritage, Erik Seiffert & Matthew Borths
A phylogenetic framework provides the necessary evolutionary context for studies of comparative anatomy, life history, behavior, biogeography, systematics, and conservation. Time-scaled phylogenetic analyses require researchers to include calibration ages which are used to fit a model that transforms tree branch lengths into units of time. The inclusion of multiple calibration ages (if they are available) is a best practice that brings all the available evidence to bear on the temporal model. While selecting the appropriate...

Supporting data for: Gene-rich UV sex chromosomes harbor conserved regulators of sexual development (Carey et al., 2021)

Sarah Carey, Shenqiang Shu, John Lovell, Avinash Shenqiang, Florian Maumus, George Tiley, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Kerrie Barry, Cindy Chen, Mei Wang, Anna Lipzen, Chris Daum, Christopher Saski, Adam Payton, Jordan McBreen, Roth Conrad, Leslie Kollar, Sanna Olsson, Sanna Huttunen, Jacob Landis, Norman Wickett, Matthew Johnson, Stefan Rensing, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz … & Adam Healey
Non-recombining sex chromosomes, like the mammalian Y, often lose genes and accumulate transposable elements, a process termed degeneration. The correlation between suppressed recombination and degeneration is clear in animal XY systems, but the absence of recombination is confounded with other asymmetries between the X and Y. In contrast, UV sex chromosomes, like those found in bryophytes, experience symmetrical population genetic conditions. Here we generate and use nearly gapless female and male chromosome-scale reference genomes of...

Seascape genetics of the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) based on mitochondrial DNA

Karina Bohrer Do Amaral, Dalia C. Barragán-Barrera, Roosevelt A. Mesa-Gutiérrez, Nohelia Farias-Curtidor, Susana J. Caballero Gaitán, Paula Méndez-Fernandez, Marcos C. Oliveira Santos, Caroline Rinaldi, Renato Rinaldi, Salvatore Siciliano, Vidal Martín, Manuel Carillo, Ana Carolina O. De Meirelles, Valentina Franco-Trecu, Nelson J. R. Fagundes, Ignacio Benites Moreno, L. Lacey Knowles & Ana Rita Amaral
The Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) is endemic to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Throughout its distribution, both geographic distance and environmental variation may contribute to population structure of the species. In this study we follow a seascape genetics approach to investigate population differentiation of Atlantic spotted dolphins based on a large worldwide dataset and the relationship with marine environmental variables. The results revealed that the Atlantic spotted dolphin exhibits...

Photoperiod throughout the maternal life cycle influences seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana, but seed photoperiod does not

Toshiyuki Imaizumi, Gabriela Auge & Kathleen Donohue
Premise of the study: Plants adjust their phenology in response to seasonal cues experienced both by their parents and by themselves, and coordinating responses to these cues is necessary for expressing adaptive phenology. We investigated how cues are integrated across time to influence an important progeny phenotype, i.e., seed germination. Methods: We used Arabidopsis thaliana to investigate how the photoperiod experienced by maternal parents and by progeny influences seed germination. We examined when maternal photoperiod...

Microbiome reduction and endosymbiont gain from a switch in sea urchin life-history

Tyler Carrier, Brittany Leigh, Dione Deaker, Hannah Devens, Gregory Wray, Seth Bordenstein, Maria Byrne & Adam Reitzel
Animal gastrointestinal tracts harbor a microbiome that is integral to host function, yet species from diverse phyla have evolved a reduced digestive system or lost it completely. Whether such changes are associated with alterations in the diversity and/or abundance of the microbiome remains an untested hypothesis in evolutionary symbiosis. Here, using the life-history transition from planktotrophy (feeding) to lecithotrophy (non-feeding) in the sea urchin Heliocidaris, we demonstrate that the lack of a functional gut corresponds...

Genetic architecture and adaptation of flowering time among environments

Thomas Mitchell-Olds, Baosheng Wang, Wenjie Yan & Emily Chan
1. The genetic basis of flowering time changes across environments, and pleiotropy may limit adaptive evolution of populations in response to local conditions. However, little is known about how genetic architecture changes among environments. 2. We used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Boechera stricta (Graham) Al-Shehbaz, a relative of Arabidopsis, to examine flowering variation among environments and associations with climate conditions in home environments. Also, we used molecular population genetics to search for evidence of...

A target enrichment probe set for resolving the flagellate land plant tree of life

Jesse W. Breinholt, Sarah B. Carey, George P. Tiley, E. Christine Davis, Lorena Endara, Stuart F. McDaniel, Leandro Neves, Emily B. Sessa, Matt Von Konrat, Susan Fawcett, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Paulo H. Labiak, Juan Larraín, Marcus Lehnert, Lily R. Lewis, Nathalie S. Nagalingum, Nikisha Patel, Stefan A. Rensing, Weston Testo, Alejandra Vasco, Juan Carlos Villarreal, Evelyn Webb Williams, J. Gordon Burleigh, Sahut Chantanaorrapint, Leandro G. Neves … & Stefanie M. Ickert‐Bond
Premise of the Study: New sequencing technologies enable the possibility of generating large-scale molecular datasets for constructing the plant tree of life. We describe a new probe set for target enrichment sequencing to generate nuclear sequence data to build phylogenetic trees with any flagellate land plants, including hornworts, liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, ferns, and all gymnosperms. Methods and Results: We leveraged existing transcriptome and genome sequence data to design a set of 56,989 probes for target...

Data from: An open spatial capture–recapture model for estimating density, movement, and population dynamics from line-transect surveys

Timothy Gowan, Nathan Crum & Jason Roberts
The purpose of many wildlife population studies is to estimate density, movement, or demographic parameters. Linking these parameters to covariates, such as habitat features, provides additional ecological insight and can be used to make predictions for management purposes. Line-transect surveys, combined with distance sampling methods, are often used to estimate density at discrete points in time, whereas capture–recapture methods are used to estimate movement and other demographic parameters. Recently, open population spatial capture–recapture models have...

Data from: Ecological factors influence balancing selection on leaf chemical profiles of a wildflower

Lauren Carley, Julius Mojica, Baosheng Wang, Chia-Yu Chen, Ya-Ping Lin, Kasavajhala Prasad, Emily Chan, Che-Wei Hsu, Rose Keith, Chase Nuñez, Carrie Olson-Manning, Catherine Rushworth, Maggie Wagner, Jing Wang, Pei-Min Yeh, Michael Reichelt, Kathryn Ghattas, Jonathan Gershenzon, Cheng-Ruei Lee & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Balancing selection is frequently invoked as a mechanism to maintain variation within and across populations. However, rigorous tests demonstrating balancing selection operating in nature are scarce, particularly on complex traits, which frequently display high levels of variation. Leveraging a focal polymorphism, leaf chemical profile in a perennial wildflower (Boechera stricta, Brassicaceae), we investigated the ecological and genetic mechanisms that may influence the maintenance of variation in this trait. A suite of common garden and greenhouse...

Behavioral data file following treatment of laboratory rats with paracetamol

William Parker
Based on several lines of evidence, numerous investigators have suggested that acetaminophen exposure during early development can induce neurological disorders. We had previously postulated that acetaminophen exposure early in life, if combined with antioxidants that prevent accumulation of NAPQI, the toxic metabolite of acetaminophen, might be innocuous. In this study, we administered acetaminophen at or below the currently recommended therapeutic dose to male laboratory rat pups aged 4-10 days. The antioxidants cysteine and mannitol were...

Bumble bee demographic data for functional linear models

Natalie Kerr, Elizabeth Crone, Neal Williams & Rosemary Malfi
1. Behavior and organization of social groups is thought to be vital to the functioning of societies, yet the contributions of various roles within social groups towards population growth and dynamics have been difficult to quantify. A common approach to quantifying these role-based contributions is evaluating the number of individuals conducting certain roles, which ignores how behavior might scale up to effects at the population-level. Manipulative experiments are another common approach to determine population-level effects,...

In the eye of the beholder: Is color classification consistent amongst human observers?

Kim Valenta, Sally Bornbusch, Yan-Daniel Jacques & Omer Nevo
Colorful displays have evolved in multiple plant and animal species as signals to mutualists, antagonists, competitors, mates, and other potential receivers. Studies of color have long relied on subjective classifications of color by human observers. However, humans have a limited ability to perceive color compared to other animals, and human biological, cultural, and environmental variables can influence color perception. Here, we test the consistency of human color classification using fruit color as a model system....

Prevalence of Ranavirus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, B. salamandrivorans, and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Amphibians and Reptiles of North Carolina, USA

Thomas Lentz, Stephanie Thi, Andrew Duncan, Adam Miranda, Jeffrey Beane, Daniel Dombrowski, Brenna Forester, Christopher Akcali, Nathan Shepard, , Alvin Braswell, Lori Williams, Charles Lawson, Christopher Jenkins, Joseph Pechmann, Jacqueline Blake, Melissa Hooper, Keenan Freitas, Ann Somers & Bryan Stuart
The viral pathogen Ranavirus (Rv) and the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo) infect amphibians and reptiles. In recent years, there has been increased interest in reporting the occurrences of these pathogens. North Carolina, USA has a rich diversity of amphibians and reptiles, and is notably the most species-rich U.S. state in salamanders. We assessed prevalence of Rv, Bd, Bsal, and Oo in a broad taxonomic and geographic representation...

Data for: Pendulum-based measurements reveal impact dynamics at the scale of a trap-jaw ant

Justin Jorge, Sarah Bergbreiter & Sheila Patek
Small organisms can produce powerful, sub-millisecond impacts by moving tiny structures at high accelerations. We developed and validated a pendulum device to measure the impact energetics of microgram-sized trap-jaw ant mandibles accelerated against targets at 105 m s-2. Trap-jaw ants (Odontomachus brunneus; 19 individuals; 212 strikes) were suspended on one pendulum and struck swappable targets that were either attached to an opposing pendulum or fixed in place. Mean post-impact kinetic energy (energy from strike converted...

Canalization of seasonal phenology in the presence of developmental variation: seed dormancy cycling in an annual weed

Kathleen Donohue & Brianne Edwards
Variation in the developmental timing in one life stage may ramify within and across generations to disrupt optimal phenology of other life stages. By focusing on a common mechanism of developmental arrest in plants-seed dormancy-we investigated how variation in flowering time influenced seed germination behavior and identified potential processes that can lead to canalized germination behavior despite variation in reproductive timing. We quantified effects of reproductive timing on dormancy cycling by experimentally manipulating the temperature...

Explaining the worldwide distributions of two highly mobile species: Cakile edentula and C. maritima

Roger Cousens, Elliot Shaw, Rachael Fowler, Sara Ohadi, Michael Bayly, Rosemary Barrett, Josquin Tibbits, Allan Strand, Charles Willis, Kathleen Donohue & Philipp Robeck
Aim: If we are able to determine the geographic origin of an invasion, as well as its known area of introduction, we can better appreciate the innate environmental tolerance of a species and the strength of selection for adaptation that colonising populations have undergone. It also enables us to maximise the success of searches for effective biological control agents. We determined the number of successful colonisation events that have occurred throughout the world for two...

Plasticity of the gastrocnemius elastic system in response to decreased work and power demand during growth

Suzanne Cox, Jonas Rubenson, Stephen Piazza, Matthew Salzano, Kavya Katugam & Adam DeBoef
Elastic energy storage and release can enhance performance that would otherwise be limited by the force-velocity constraints of muscle. While functional influence of a biological spring depends on tuning between components of an elastic system (the muscle, spring, driven mass, and lever system), we do not know whether elastic systems systematically adapt to functional demand. To test whether altering work and power generation during maturation alters the morphology of an elastic system, we prevented growing...

Cooperative communication with humans evolved to emerge early in domestic dogs

Hannah Salomons, Kyle C.M. Smith, Megan Callahan-Beckel, Margaret Callahan, Kerinne Levy, Brenda S. Kennedy, Emily E. Bray, Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, Daniel J. Horschler, Margaret Gruen, Jingzhi Tan, Philip White, Bridgett M. VonHoldt, Evan L. MacLean & Brian Hare
While we know that dogs evolved from wolves, it remains unclear how domestication affected dog cognition. One hypothesis suggests dog domestication altered social maturation by a process of selecting for an attraction to humans. Under this account, dogs became more flexible in using inherited skills to cooperatively-communicate with a new social partner that was previously feared and expressed these unusual social skills early in development. Here we tested dog (N=44) and wolf (N=37) puppies, 5-18...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Duke University
  • University of Florida
  • Princeton University
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of California, Davis
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • University of North Carolina
  • The University of Texas at San Antonio
  • Philipp University of Marburg