48 Works

The Long Lives of Primates and the 'Invariant Rate of Ageing' Hypothesis

Susan Alberts & Fernando Colchero
Is it possible to slow the rate of ageing, or do biological constraints limit its plasticity? We test the ‘invariant rate of ageing’ hypothesis, which posits that the rate of ageing is relatively fixed within species, with a collection of 39 human and nonhuman primate datasets across seven genera. We first recapitulate, in nonhuman primates, the highly regular relationship between life expectancy and lifespan equality seen in humans. We next demonstrate that variation in the...

Supporting data for: Gene-rich UV sex chromosomes harbor conserved regulators of sexual development (Carey et al., 2021)

Sarah Carey, Shenqiang Shu, John Lovell, Avinash Shenqiang, Florian Maumus, George Tiley, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Kerrie Barry, Cindy Chen, Mei Wang, Anna Lipzen, Chris Daum, Christopher Saski, Adam Payton, Jordan McBreen, Roth Conrad, Leslie Kollar, Sanna Olsson, Sanna Huttunen, Jacob Landis, Norman Wickett, Matthew Johnson, Stefan Rensing, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz … & Adam Healey
Non-recombining sex chromosomes, like the mammalian Y, often lose genes and accumulate transposable elements, a process termed degeneration. The correlation between suppressed recombination and degeneration is clear in animal XY systems, but the absence of recombination is confounded with other asymmetries between the X and Y. In contrast, UV sex chromosomes, like those found in bryophytes, experience symmetrical population genetic conditions. Here we generate and use nearly gapless female and male chromosome-scale reference genomes of...

Cheilanthes ecuadorensis: A new species of Cheilanthes s.s. (Pteridaceae) from northern South America

Karla Sosa
Ongoing research on the taxonomically complex genus Cheilanthes (Pteridaceae; Cheilanthoideae) has resulted in the identification of a new species from Loja Province in Ecuador—Cheilanthes ecuadorensis, described and illustrated herein. Originally collected in 1988 and identified as C. cf. rufopunctata, C. ecuadorensis is clearly distinct from that species in having pubescent adaxial blade surfaces and narrow, poorly-differentiated false indusia. Among the South American species currently included in Cheilanthes, C. ecuadorensis is superficially most similar to C....

Data from: Constraints and variation in food web link-species space

Jean Gibert
Predicting food web structure in future climates is a pressing goal of ecology. These predictions may be impossible without a solid understanding of the factors that structure current food webs. The most fundamental aspect of food-web structure—the relationship between the number of links and species—is still poorly understood. Some species interactions may be physically or physiologically ‘forbidden’—like consumption by non-consumer species—with possible consequences for food web structure. We show that accounting for these ‘forbidden interactions’...

Recommended fossil calibrators for time-scaled molecular phylogenies of Afrotheria

Steven Heritage, Erik Seiffert & Matthew Borths
A phylogenetic framework provides the necessary evolutionary context for studies of comparative anatomy, life history, behavior, biogeography, systematics, and conservation. Time-scaled phylogenetic analyses require researchers to include calibration ages which are used to fit a model that transforms tree branch lengths into units of time. The inclusion of multiple calibration ages (if they are available) is a best practice that brings all the available evidence to bear on the temporal model. While selecting the appropriate...

Data from: Mesozoic cupules and the origin of the angiosperm second integument

Gongle Shi, Fabiany Herrera, Patrick Herendeen, Elizabeth Clark & Peter Crane
The second integument of the angiosperm ovule is unique among seed plants, with developmental genetics that are distinct from those of the inner integument. Understanding how the second integument should be compared to structures in other seed plants is therefore crucial to resolving the long-standing question of the origins of angiosperms. Attention has focused on several extinct plants with recurved cupules that are reminiscent of the anatropous organization of the basic bitegmic ovules of angiosperms,...

Acoustic particle motion detection in the snapping shrimp (Alpheus richardsoni)

Jason Dinh & Craig Radford
Many crustaceans produce sounds that might be used in communication. However, little is known about sound detection in crustaceans, hindering our understanding of crustacean acoustic communication. Sound detection has been determined only for a few species, and for many species, it is unclear how sound is perceived: as particle motion or sound pressure. Snapping shrimp are amongst the loudest and most pervasive marine sound sources. They produce snaps during interactions with conspecifics, and they also...

Efficient parallelization of tensor network contractions for simulating quantum computation

Cupjin Huang, Fang Zhang, Michael Newman, Xiaotong Ni, Dawei Ding, Junjie Cai, Xun Gao, Tenghui Wang, Feng Wu, Gengyan Zhang, Hsiang-Sheng Ku, Zhengxiong Tian, Junyin Wu, Haihong Xu, Huanjun Yu, Bo Yuan, Mario Szegedy, Yaoyun Shi, Hui-Hai Zhao, Chunqing Deng & Jianxin Chen
In this paper, we demonstrate a classical simulation framework for quantum computation by contracting tensor networks of sizes previously deemed out of reach. The main contribution of this work is a parallelization scheme called index slicing that breaks down an infeasibly large tensor network contraction task into smaller subtasks that can be executed fully in parallel, without interdependencies or intermediate communications. As a benchmarking example, we show that our algorithm can reduce the simulation of...

Inverse Correlation between Dengue Fever and COVID-19 spread in Latin America, the Caribbean and Asia

Diego Marcondes, Miguel A. L. Nicolelis & Pedro S. Peixoto
Here we investigated whether the dengue fever pandemic of 2019-2020 may have influenced COVID-19 incidence and spread around the world. In Brazil, the geographic distribution of dengue fever was highly complementary to that of COVID-19. This was accompanied by an inverse correlation between COVID-19 and dengue fever incidence that could not be explained by socioeconomic factors. This inverse correlation was observed for 5,016 Brazilian municipalities reporting COVID-19 cases, 558 micro- and 137 meso-regions, 27 states...

Seascape genetics of the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) based on mitochondrial DNA

Karina Bohrer Do Amaral, Dalia C. Barragán-Barrera, Roosevelt A. Mesa-Gutiérrez, Nohelia Farias-Curtidor, Susana J. Caballero Gaitán, Paula Méndez-Fernandez, Marcos C. Oliveira Santos, Caroline Rinaldi, Renato Rinaldi, Salvatore Siciliano, Vidal Martín, Manuel Carillo, Ana Carolina O. De Meirelles, Valentina Franco-Trecu, Nelson J. R. Fagundes, Ignacio Benites Moreno, L. Lacey Knowles & Ana Rita Amaral
The Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) is endemic to tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Throughout its distribution, both geographic distance and environmental variation may contribute to population structure of the species. In this study we follow a seascape genetics approach to investigate population differentiation of Atlantic spotted dolphins based on a large worldwide dataset and the relationship with marine environmental variables. The results revealed that the Atlantic spotted dolphin exhibits...

Patterns of hybrid seed inviability in perennials of the Mimulus guttatus sp. complex reveal a potential role of parental conflict in reproductive isolation

Jennifer Coughlan, John Willis & Maya Wilson Brown
Genomic conflicts may play a central role in the evolution of reproductive barriers. Theory predicts that early-onset hybrid inviability may stem from conflict between parents for resource allocation to offspring. Here we describe M. decorus; a group of cryptic species within the M. guttatus species complex that are largely reproductively isolated by hybrid seed inviability (HSI). HSI between M. guttatus and M. decorus is common and strong, but populations of M. decorus vary in the...

Cooperative communication with humans evolved to emerge early in domestic dogs

Hannah Salomons, Kyle C.M. Smith, Megan Callahan-Beckel, Margaret Callahan, Kerinne Levy, Brenda S. Kennedy, Emily E. Bray, Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, Daniel J. Horschler, Margaret Gruen, Jingzhi Tan, Philip White, Bridgett M. VonHoldt, Evan L. MacLean & Brian Hare
While we know that dogs evolved from wolves, it remains unclear how domestication affected dog cognition. One hypothesis suggests dog domestication altered social maturation by a process of selecting for an attraction to humans. Under this account, dogs became more flexible in using inherited skills to cooperatively-communicate with a new social partner that was previously feared and expressed these unusual social skills early in development. Here we tested dog (N=44) and wolf (N=37) puppies, 5-18...

Canalization of seasonal phenology in the presence of developmental variation: seed dormancy cycling in an annual weed

Kathleen Donohue & Brianne Edwards
Variation in the developmental timing in one life stage may ramify within and across generations to disrupt optimal phenology of other life stages. By focusing on a common mechanism of developmental arrest in plants-seed dormancy-we investigated how variation in flowering time influenced seed germination behavior and identified potential processes that can lead to canalized germination behavior despite variation in reproductive timing. We quantified effects of reproductive timing on dormancy cycling by experimentally manipulating the temperature...

Data for: Pendulum-based measurements reveal impact dynamics at the scale of a trap-jaw ant

Justin Jorge, Sarah Bergbreiter & Sheila Patek
Small organisms can produce powerful, sub-millisecond impacts by moving tiny structures at high accelerations. We developed and validated a pendulum device to measure the impact energetics of microgram-sized trap-jaw ant mandibles accelerated against targets at 105 m s-2. Trap-jaw ants (Odontomachus brunneus; 19 individuals; 212 strikes) were suspended on one pendulum and struck swappable targets that were either attached to an opposing pendulum or fixed in place. Mean post-impact kinetic energy (energy from strike converted...

Plasticity of the gastrocnemius elastic system in response to decreased work and power demand during growth

Suzanne Cox, Jonas Rubenson, Stephen Piazza, Matthew Salzano, Kavya Katugam & Adam DeBoef
Elastic energy storage and release can enhance performance that would otherwise be limited by the force-velocity constraints of muscle. While functional influence of a biological spring depends on tuning between components of an elastic system (the muscle, spring, driven mass, and lever system), we do not know whether elastic systems systematically adapt to functional demand. To test whether altering work and power generation during maturation alters the morphology of an elastic system, we prevented growing...

Prevalence of Ranavirus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, B. salamandrivorans, and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in Amphibians and Reptiles of North Carolina, USA

Thomas Lentz, Stephanie Thi, Andrew Duncan, Adam Miranda, Jeffrey Beane, Daniel Dombrowski, Brenna Forester, Christopher Akcali, Nathan Shepard, , Alvin Braswell, Lori Williams, Charles Lawson, Christopher Jenkins, Joseph Pechmann, Jacqueline Blake, Melissa Hooper, Keenan Freitas, Ann Somers & Bryan Stuart
The viral pathogen Ranavirus (Rv) and the fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), and Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo) infect amphibians and reptiles. In recent years, there has been increased interest in reporting the occurrences of these pathogens. North Carolina, USA has a rich diversity of amphibians and reptiles, and is notably the most species-rich U.S. state in salamanders. We assessed prevalence of Rv, Bd, Bsal, and Oo in a broad taxonomic and geographic representation...

Explaining the worldwide distributions of two highly mobile species: Cakile edentula and C. maritima

Roger Cousens, Elliot Shaw, Rachael Fowler, Sara Ohadi, Michael Bayly, Rosemary Barrett, Josquin Tibbits, Allan Strand, Charles Willis, Kathleen Donohue & Philipp Robeck
Aim: If we are able to determine the geographic origin of an invasion, as well as its known area of introduction, we can better appreciate the innate environmental tolerance of a species and the strength of selection for adaptation that colonising populations have undergone. It also enables us to maximise the success of searches for effective biological control agents. We determined the number of successful colonisation events that have occurred throughout the world for two...

Snaps of a tiny amphipod push the boundary of ultrafast, repeatable movement

Sarah Longo, William Ray, Grace Farley, Jacob Harrison, Justin Jorge, Tomonari Kaji, A. Richard Palmer & Sheila Patek
Surprisingly, the fastest motions are not produced by large animals or robots. Rather, small organisms or structures, including cnidarian stinging cells, fungal shooting spores, and mandible strikes of ants, termites, and spiders hold the world acceleration records. These diverse systems share common features: they rapidly convert potential energy - stored in deformed material or fluid - into kinetic energy when a latch is released. However, the fastest and smallest known movements often cannot be used...

Scaling and development of elastic mechanisms: the tiny strikes of larval mantis shrimp

Jacob Harrison, Megan Porter, Matthew McHenry, H. Eve Robinson & Sheila Patek
Latch-mediated spring actuation (LaMSA) is used by small organisms to produce high acceleration movements. Mathematical models predict that acceleration increases as LaMSA systems decrease in size. Adult mantis shrimp use a LaMSA mechanism in their raptorial appendages to produce extremely fast strikes. Until now, however, it was unclear whether mantis shrimp at earlier life-history stages also strike using elastic recoil and latch mediation. We tested whether larval mantis shrimp (Gonodactylaceus falcatus) use LaMSA and, because...

Pedigree-based and phylogenetic methods support surprising patterns of mutation rate and spectrum in the gray mouse lemur

Ryan Campbell, George Tiley, Jelmer Poelstra, Kelsie Hunnicutt, Peter Larsen, Hui-Jie Lee, Jeffrey Thorne, Mario Dos Reis & Anne Yoder
Mutations are the raw material on which evolution acts, and knowledge of their frequency and genomic distribution is crucial for understanding how evolution operates at both long and short timescales. At present, the rate and spectrum of de novo mutations have been directly characterized in relatively few lineages. Our study provides the first direct mutation rate estimate for a strepsirrhine (i.e., the lemurs and lorises), which comprise nearly half of the primate clade. Using high-coverage...

Sex differences in the plasticity of life history in response to social environment

Elizabeth Lange, Margaret Ptacek, Joseph Travis & Kimberly Hughes
Predicting how social environment affects life history variation is critical to understanding if, and when, selection favors alternative life history development, especially in systems in which social interactions change over time or space. While sexual selection theory predicts that males and females should respond differently to variation in the social environment, few studies have examined the responses of both male and female phenotypes to the same gradient of social environment. In this study, we used...

The genetic architecture and evolution of life history divergence among perennials in the Mimulus guttatus species complex

Jennifer Coughlan, Maya Wilson Brown & John Willis
Ecological divergence is a main source of trait divergence between closely related species. Despite its importance in generating phenotypic diversity, the genetic architecture of most ecologically relevant traits is poorly understood. Differences in elevation can impose substantial selection for phenotypic divergence of both complex, correlated suites of traits (such as life history), as well as novel adaptations. Here, we use the Mimulus guttatus species complex to assess if divergence in elevation is accompanied by trait...

Automated, high-throughput image calibration for parallel-laser photogrammetry

Emily Levy & Jack Richardson
This contains the data required to recreate the analyses in this paper. The code for performing the machine learning and image processing methods presented in the paper are available as supplemental files to the manuscript, and are also available at https://github.com/ejlevy/Photogrammetry_Coding_InterLaser_Distance. Paper abstract: Parallel-laser photogrammetry is growing in popularity as a way to collect non-invasive body size data from wild mammals. Despite its many appeals, this method requires researchers to hand-measure (i) the pixel distance...

Functional biogeography of Neotropical moist forests: trait-climate relationships and assembly patterns of tree communities

Bruno Pinho, Marcelo Tabarelli, Cajo Ter Braak, S. J. Wright, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Maíra Benchimol, Bettina Engelbrecht, Simon Pierce, Peter Hietz, Bráulio Santos, Carlos Peres, Sandra Müller, Ian Wright, Frans Bongers, Madelon Lohbeck, Ülo Niinemets, Martijn Slot, Steven Jansen, Davi Jamelli, Renato Augusto Ferreira De Lima, Nathan Swenson, Richard Condit, Jos Barlow, Ferry Slik, Manuel Hernández-Ruedas … & Felipe Melo
Aim: Here we examine the functional profile of regional tree species pools across the latitudinal distribution of Neotropical moist forests, and test trait-climate relationships among local communities. We expected opportunistic strategies (acquisitive traits, small seeds) to be overrepresented in species pools further from the equator due to long-term instability, but also in terms of abundance in local communities in currently wetter, warmer and more seasonal climates. Location: Neotropics. Time period: Recent. Major taxa studied: Trees....

Data from: The role of taxonomic expertise in interpretation of metabarcoding studies

Paula Pappalardo, Allen G. Collins, Katrina M. Pagenkopp Lohan, Kate M. Hanson, Sarit B. Truskey, William Jaeckle, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Jessica A. Goodheart, Stephanie L. Bush, Leann M. Biancani, Ellen E. Strong, Michael Vecchione, M. G. Harasewych, Karen Reed, Chan Lin, Elise Hartil, Jessica Whelpley, Jamie Blumberg, Kenan Matterson, Niamh E. Redmond, Allison Becker, Michael J. Boyle & Karen J. Osborn
The performance of DNA metabarcoding approaches for characterizing biodiversity can be influenced by multiple factors. Here we used morphological assessment of taxa in zooplankton samples to develop a large barcode database and to assess the congruence of taxonomic identification with metabarcoding under different conditions. We analyzed taxonomic assignment of metabarcoded samples using two genetic markers (COI, 18S V1-2), two types of clustering into molecular operational taxonomic units (OTUs, ZOTUs), and three methods for taxonomic assignment...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Duke University
  • University of Florida
  • Princeton University
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of North Carolina
  • University of California, Davis
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • The University of Texas at San Antonio
  • Philipp University of Marburg