22 Works

Facemasks: Perceptions and use in an ED population during COVID-19

Vidya Eswaran, Anna Marie Chang, R Gentry Wilkerson, Kelli O'Laughlin, Brian Chinnock, Stephanie Eucker, Brigitte Baumann, Nancy Anaya, Daniel Miller, Adrianne Haggins, Jesus Torres, Erik Anderson, Stephen Lim, Martina Caldwell, Ali Raja & Robert Rodriguez
Study Objective: Facemask use is associated with reduced transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Most surveys assessing perceptions and practices of mask use miss the most vulnerable racial, ethnic, and socio-economic populations. These same populations have suffered disproportionate impacts from the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess beliefs, access, and practices of mask wearing across 15 urban emergency department (ED) populations. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study of ED patients from...


Sara Lipshutz, Clara Howell, Aaron Buechlein, Rusch Douglas, Kimberly Rosvall & Elizabeth Derryberry
In a rapidly warming world, exposure to high temperatures may impact fitness, but the gene regulatory mechanisms that link sublethal heat to sexually selected traits are not well understood, particularly in endothermic animals. Our experiment used zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), songbirds that experience extreme temperature fluctuations in their native Australia. We exposed captive males to an acute thermal challenge (43°C) compared with thermoneutral (35°C) and lower (27°C) temperatures. We found significantly more heat dissipation behaviors...

Characterizing North American Ipomoea grandifolia (Convolvulaceae), a member of Ipomoea series batatas

Irene Liao, Avery Fulford, Kate Ostevik & Mark Rausher
Species in the genus Ipomoea are often difficult to identify due to their similar morphologies and their ability to hybridize with one another. An undescribed North American Ipomoea morphotype in series Batatas, referred here as Ipomoea Carolina morphotype, was found to be morphologically, genetically, and reproductively isolated from other locally co-occurring Ipomoea species. A previous phylogenetic analysis that included a broader sampling of species in Ipomoea series Batatas suggested that Ipomoea Carolina morphotype may be...

Data from: Network analysis of sea turtle movements and connectivity: a tool for conservation prioritization

Connie Y. Kot, Susanne Åkesson, Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto, Diego Fernando Amorocho Llanos, Marina Antonopoulou, George H. Balazs, Warren R. Baverstock, Janice M. Blumenthal, Annette C. Broderick, Ignacio Bruno, Ali Fuat Canbolat, Paolo Casale, Daniel Cejudo, Michael S. Coyne, Corrie Curtice, Sarah DeLand, Andrew DiMatteo, Kara Dodge, Daniel C. Dunn, Nicole Esteban, Angela Formia, Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes, Ei Fujioka, Julie Garnier, Matthew H. Godfrey … & Patrick N. Halpin
Aim: Understanding the spatial ecology of animal movements is a critical element in conserving long-lived, highly mobile marine species. Analysing networks developed from movements of six sea turtle species reveals marine connectivity and can help prioritize conservation efforts. Location: Global. Methods: We collated telemetry data from 1,235 individuals and reviewed the literature to determine our dataset’s representativeness. We used the telemetry data to develop spatial networks at different scales to examine areas, connections, and their...

Discovery of thermostable fluorescently responsive glucose biosensors by structure-assisted function extrapolation

Homme Hellinga & Malin Allert
Accurate assignment of protein function from sequence remains a fascinating and difficult challenge. The periplasmic binding protein (PBP) superfamily present an interesting case of function prediction, because they are both ubiquitous in prokaryotes, and they tend to diversify through gene duplication “explosions” that can lead to large numbers of paralogs in a genome. An engineered version of the moderately thermostable glucose-binding PBP from Escherichia coli has been used successfully as a reagentless fluorescent biosensor both...

Long-distance dependencies in birdsong syntax

William Searcy, Jill Soha, Susan Peters & Stephen Nowicki
Songbird syntax is generally thought to be simple, lacking in particular long-distance dependencies in which one element affects choice of another occurring considerably later in the sequence. Here we test for long-distance dependencies in the sequences of songs produced by song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Song sparrows sing with eventual variety, repeating each song type in a consecutive series termed a “bout.” We show that in switching between song types, song sparrows follow a “cycling rule,”...

Phylogenomic analyses highlight innovation and introgression in the continental radiations of Fagaceae across the Northern Hemisphere

Baosheng Wang & Paul Manos
Northern Hemisphere forests changed drastically in the early Eocene with the diversification of the oak family (Fagaceae). Cooling climates over the next 20 million years fostered the spread of temperate biomes that became increasingly dominated by oaks and their chestnut relatives. Here we investigate the timing and pattern of major macroevolutionary events and ancient genome-wide signatures of hybridization across Fagaceae. An unparalleled transformation of forest dynamics began with the rapid diversification of major lineages within...

Improving landscape-scale productivity estimates by integrating trait-based models and remotely-sensed foliar-trait and canopy-structural data

Daniel Wieczynski, Sandra Diaz, Sandra Duran, Nikolaos Fyllas, Norma Salinas, Roberta Martin, Alexander Shenkin, Miles Silman, Gregory Asner, Lisa Bentley, Yadvinder Malhi, Brian Enquist & Van Savage
Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic degradation and climate change on global carbon cycling is hindered by a lack of clear, flexible, and easy-to-use productivity models along with scarce trait and productivity data for parameterizing and testing those models. We provide a simple solution: a mechanistic framework (RS-CFM) that combines remotely-sensed foliar-trait and canopy-structural data with trait-based metabolic theory to efficiently map productivity at large spatial scales. We test this framework by quantifying net primary productivity...

Data from: The roles of growth regulation and appendage patterning genes in the morphogenesis of treehopper pronota

Anna Kudla, Ximena Miranda & H. Frederik Nijhout
Treehoppers of the insect family Membracidae have evolved enlarged and elaborate pronotal structures, which is hypothesized to involve co-opted expression of genes that are shared with the wings. Here, we investigate the similarity between the pronotum and wings in relation to growth. We show that the ontogenetic allometry of the pronotum is similar to that of wings in Membracidae, but not the outgroup. Using transcriptomics, we find genes related to protein synthesis and translation are...

Peeling back the layers: First phylogenomic insights into the Ledebouriinae (Scilloideae, Asparagaceae)

Cody Howard, Andrew Crowl, Timothy Harvey & Nico Cellinese
The Ledebouriinae (Scilloideae, Asparagaceae) are a widespread group of bulbous geophytes found predominantly throughout seasonal climates in sub-Saharan Africa, with a handful of taxa in Madagascar, the Middle East, India, and Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic relationships within the groups have been historically difficult to elucidate. Here, we provide the first phylogenomic perspective into the Ledebouriinae. Using the Angiosperms353 targeted enrichment probe set, we consistently recovered four major clades (i.e., two Ledebouria clades, Drimiopsis, and Resnova). The...

Hemotological and morphometric measurements from geladas

Kenneth L. Chiou, Mareike C. Janiak, India A. Schneider-Crease, Sharmi Sen, Ferehiwot Ayele, Idrissa S. Chuma, Sascha Knauf, Alemayehu Lemma, Anthony V. Signore, Anthony M. D’Ippolito, Belayneh Abebe, Abebaw Azanaw Haile, Fanuel Kebede, Peter J. Fashing, Nga Nguyen, Colleen McCann, Marlys L. Houck, Jeffrey D. Wall, Andrew S. Burrell, Christina M. Bergey, Jeffrey Rogers, Jane E. Phillips-Conroy, Clifford J. Jolly, Amanda D. Melin, Jay F. Storz … & Noah Snyder-Mackler
Primates have adapted to numerous environments and lifestyles but very few species are native to high elevations. Here, we investigated high-altitude adaptations in the gelada (Theropithecus gelada), a monkey endemic to the Ethiopian Plateau. We examined genome-wide variation in conjunction with measurements of haematological and morphological traits. Our new gelada reference genome is highly intact and assembled at chromosome-length levels. Unexpectedly, we identified a chromosomal polymorphism in geladas that could potentially contribute to reproductive barriers...

Measuring intraoperative surgical instrument use with radio-frequency identification

Ian Hill, Lindsey Olivere, Joshua Helmkamp, Elliot Le, Westin Hill, John Wahlstedt, Philip Khoury, Jared Gloria, Marc Richard, Laura Rosenberger & Patrick Codd
Objective: Surgical instrument oversupply drives cost, confusion, and workload in the operating room (OR). With an estimated 78-87% of instruments being unused, many health systems have recognized the need for supply refinement. By manually recording instrument use and tasking surgeons to review instrument trays, previous quality improvement initiatives have achieved an average 52% reduction in supply. While demonstrating the degree of instrument oversupply, previous methods for identifying required instruments are qualitative, expensive, lack scalability and...

Moving beyond the diversity paradox: the limitations of competition-based frameworks in understanding species diversity

Anita Simha, Carlos Pardo-De La Hoz & Lauren Carley
Over the last century, ecologists have attempted to understand patterns of species diversity by showing stable coexistence arising from a baseline expectation of competitive exclusion. This expectation stems from an explicit assumption of resource scarcity and implicit assumptions of Malthusian struggle and winner-take-all dynamics. Fidelity to the competitive exclusion principle (CEP) presents species diversity as a paradox: if species compete for limited resources, how can they coexist? In this essay, we investigate the contradiction between...

Data from: A data-driven geospatial workflow to map species distributions for conservation assessments

Ruben Dario Palacio, Pablo Jose Negret, Jorge Veláquez-Tibatá & Andrew P Jacobson
We developed a geospatial workflow that refines the distribution of a species from its extent of occurrence (EOO) to area of habitat (AOH) within the species range map. The range maps are produced with an inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation procedure using presence and absence points derived from primary biodiversity data (GBIF and eBird hotspots respectively). Here we provide sample data to run the geospatial workflow for nine forest species across Mexico and Central America.

Data from: Dynamic body acceleration as a proxy to predict the cost of locomotion in bottlenose dolphins

Austin Allen, Andrew Read, K. Alex Shorter, Joaquin Gabaldon, Ashley Blawas, Julie Rocho-Levine & Andreas Fahlman
Estimates of the energetic costs of locomotion (COL) at different activity levels are necessary to answer fundamental eco-physiological questions and to understand the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance to marine mammals. We combined estimates of energetic costs derived from breath-by-breath respirometry with measurements of overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) from biologging tags to validate ODBA as a proxy for COL in trained common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR); mean individual RMR...

Heterogeneous genetic structure in eastern North American peatmosses (Sphagnum)

Aaron M. Duffy, Mariana Ricca, Sean Robinson, Blanka Aguero, Matthew G. Johnson, Hans K. Stenoien, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Kristian Hassel & A. Jonathan Shaw
Bryophytes generally have broad geographic ranges that suggest high dispersal ability. The aim of this study was to test hypotheses about dispersal limitation, as indicated by isolation by distance (IBD), in four spore producing species of the moss genus Sphagnum (S. carolinianum, S. missouricum, S. macrophyllum, S. pylaesii), and to assess whether plants in the southern United States harbor high levels of unique alleles and/or other indicators of exceptional genetic diversity. IBD was detected in...

Data and code from: Correlates of individual participation in boundary patrols by male chimpanzees

Anthony Massaro, Ian Gilby, Nisarg Desai, Alexander Weiss, Joseph Feldblum, Anne Pusey & Michael Wilson
Group territory defense poses a collective action problem: individuals can free-ride, benefiting without paying the costs. Individual heterogeneity has been proposed to solve such problems, as individuals high in reproductive success, rank, fighting ability, or motivation may benefit from defending territories even if others free-ride. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed 30 years of data from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the Kasekela community, Gombe National Park, Tanzania (1978-2007). We examined the extent to which individual...

Molecular data of Sphagnum majus ssp. majus and ssp. norvegicum (Bryophyta: Sphagnaceae) relative to taxonomy and geography

Marta Nieto-Lugilde, Sean Robinson, Blanka Aguero, Aaron Duffy, Karn Imwattana, Kristian Hassel, Kjell I. Flatberg, Hans K. Stenoien, Anna V. Shkurko, Vladimir E. Fedosov & Jonathan A. Shaw
Species delimitation is problematic in many plant groups and among the mosses, Sphagnum is one of the more contentious genera because of high levels of morphological variation. The allopolyploid species, Sphagnum majus, comprises one such problematic complex. Two morphologically differentiated but overlapping subspecies have been described. We conducted morphometric and molecular analyses with samples from around the Northern Hemisphere to test for phenotypic and phylogenetic differentiation between the subspecies. Although field collections of the two...

Amazon forests capture high levels of atmospheric mercury pollution from artisanal gold mining

Jacqueline Gerson, Natalie Szponar, Arianna Agostini, Rand Alotaibi, Bridget Bergquist, Arabella Chen, Luis Fernandez, Kelsey Lansdale, Anne Lee, Maria Machicao, Melissa Marchese, Simon Topp, Claudia Vega & Emily Bernhardt
AbstractMercury emissions from artisanal and small-scale gold mining throughout the Global South exceed coal combustion as the largest global source of mercury. We examined mercury deposition and storage in an area of the Peruvian Amazon heavily impacted by artisanal gold mining. Intact forests in the Peruvian Amazon near gold mining receive extremely high inputs of mercury and experience elevated total mercury and methylmercury in the atmosphere, canopy foliage, and soils. Here we show for the...

Spy in the sky: a method to identify pregnant small cetaceans

Barbara Cheney, Julian Dale, Paul Thompson & Nicola Quick
Data on sex ratios, age classes, reproductive success and health status are key metrics to manage populations yet can be difficult to collect in wild cetacean populations. Long-term individual-based studies provide a unique opportunity to apply unoccupied aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry to non-invasively measure body morphometrics of individuals with known life history information. The aims of this study were 1) to compare length measurements from UAS photogrammetry with laser photogrammetry and 2) to explore whether...

Recent reconfiguration of an ancient developmental gene regulatory network in Heliocidaris Sea Urchins

Phillip Davidson, Haobing Guo, Abdull Massri, Jane Swart, Allison Edgar, Haobing Guo, Hannah Devens, Alejandro Berrio, Lingyu Wang, Demian Koop, Paula Cisternas, He Zhang, Yaloei Zhang, Maria Byrne, Guangyi Fan & Gregory Wray
Changes in developmental gene regulatory networks (dGRNs) underlie much of the diversity of life, but the evolutionary mechanisms that operate on interactions with these networks remain poorly understood. Closely related species with extreme phenotypic divergence provide a valuable window into the genetic and molecular basis for changes in dGRNs and their relationship to adaptive changes in organismal traits. Here we analyze genomes, epigenomes, and transcriptomes during early development in two sea urchin species in the...

Data for: Morphological and molecular characterization of variation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Kate Ostevik, Sidra Nasar, Ghulam Murtaza & Mark Rausher
Phaseolus vulgaris, an essential food and source of protein, is cultivated across the world. This study was carried out to investigate the diversity and population structure of 34 P. vulgaris landrace accessions collected from the Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K) regions of Pakistan. The samples were analyzed both morphologically and using genetic variation identified through RNA sequencing. Our results indicated that most genetic variation occurs among local accessions, with little genetic variation occurring between geographical...

Registration Year

  • 2022

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Duke University
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor
  • Arizona State University
  • University of Washington
  • University of Minnesota
  • Wildlife Conservation Society
  • SUNY Oneonta
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • Pontifical Catholic University of Peru
  • Massachusetts General Hospital