90 Works

Data from: How diverse is Mitopus morio? Integrative taxonomy detects cryptic species in a small-scale sample of a widespread harvestman

Wolfgang Arthofer, Hannes Rauch, Barbara Thaler-Knoflach, Karl Moder, Christoph Muster, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner & Florian M. Steiner
Mitopus morio is a widespread harvestman species occurring in most of Europe and in moderate and cold-moderate zones of Asia and North America. The species is characterized by extreme variability in body size and leg length. As leg length is correlated with habitat temperature, M. morio has been considered as an example of Allen's rule. Recently, observations for a single location in Tyrol, Austria, indicated the absence of mating between short- and long-legged individuals. This...

Data from: Calculating structural complexity in phylogenies using ancestral ontologies

Martín J. Ramírez & Peter Michalik
Complexity is an important aspect of evolutionary biology, but there are many reasonable concepts of complexity, and its objective measurement is an elusive matter. Here we develop a simple measure of complexity based on counts of elements, incorporating the hierarchical information as represented in anatomical ontologies. Neomorphic and transformational characters are used to identify novelties and individuated morphological regions, respectively. By linking the characters to terms in an anatomical ontology a node-driven approach is implemented,...

Data from: The program STRUCTURE does not reliably recover the correct population structure when sampling is uneven: sub-sampling and new estimators alleviate the problem

Sébastien J. Puechmaille
Inferences of population structure and more precisely the identification of genetically homogeneous groups of individuals are essential to the fields of ecology, evolutionary biology, and conservation biology. Such population structure inferences are routinely investigated via the program STRUCTURE implementing a Bayesian algorithm to identify groups of individuals at Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. While the method is performing relatively well under various population models with even sampling between subpopulations, the robustness of the method to uneven...

Data from: Trait variation in response to varying winter temperatures, diversity patterns and signatures of selection along the latitudinal distribution of the widespread grassland plant Arrhenatherum elatius

Stefan G. Michalski, Andrey V. Malyshev & Juergen Kreyling
Across Europe, genetic diversity can be expected to decline toward the North because of stochastic and selective effects which may imply diminished phenotypic variation and less potential for future genetic adaptations to environmental change. Understanding such latitudinal patterns can aid provenance selection for breeding or assisted migration approaches. In an experiment simulating different winter temperatures, we assessed quantitative trait variation, genetic diversity, and differentiation for natural populations of the grass Arrhenatherum elatius originating from a...

Data from: Indirect genetic effects and sexual conflicts: Partner genotype influences multiple morphological and behavioural reproductive traits in a flatworm

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Nadja Vogt-Burri, Pierick Mouginot, Aline Schlatter, Dita B. Vizoso, Nathan W. Bailey & Lukas Schärer
The expression of an individual's phenotypic traits can be influenced by genes expressed in its social partners. Theoretical models predict that such indirect genetic effects (IGEs) on reproductive traits should play an important role in determining the evolutionary outcome of sexual conflict. However, empirical tests of (i) whether reproductive IGEs exist, (ii) how they vary among genotypes, and (iii) whether they are uniform for different types of reproductive traits are largely lacking. We addressed this...

Data from: Bat overpasses: an insufficient solution to restore habitat connectivity across roads

Fabien Claireau, Yves Bas, Sébastien J. Puechmaille, Jean-François Julien, Benjamin Allegrini & Christian Kerbiriou
1. Roads have many negative effects on wildlife, including their role in habitat fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation affects bats during their daily movements between roosts and foraging areas. As bats are protected in Europe, developers must implement specific mitigation measures that are hierarchically structured to achieve a null net impact. However, very few specific mitigation measures have been undertaken specifically for bats. Bat overpasses are among proposed improvements intended to reduce the impact of roads, but...

Contribution of genetic versus plastic responses to adaptive patterns in a widespread butterfly along a latitudinal cline

Franziska Günter, Michaël Beaulieu, Kasimir Freiberg, Ines Welzel, Nia Toshkova, Anamarija Žagar, Tatjana Simčič & Klaus Fischer
Understanding how organisms adapt to complex environments is a central goal of evolutionary biology and ecology. This issue is of special interest in the current era of rapidly changing climatic conditions. Here, we investigate clinal variation and plastic responses in life history, morphology, and physiology in the butterfly Pieris napi along a pan-European gradient by exposing butterflies raised in captivity to different temperatures. We found clinal variation in body size, growth rates and concomitant development...

Data for: Growing faster, longer or both? Modelling plastic response of Juniperus communis growth phenology to climate change

Jan Tumajer, Allan Buras, Jesús Julio Camarero, Marco Carrer, Rohan Shetti, Martin Wilmking, Jan Altman, Gabriel Sangüesa-Barreda & Jiří Lehejček
Aim: Plant growth and phenology plastically respond to changing climatic conditions both in space and time. Species-specific levels of growth plasticity determine biogeographical patterns and the adaptive capacity of species to climate change. However, a direct assessment of spatial and temporal variability in radial-growth dynamics is complicated, as long records of cambial phenology do not exist. Location: 16 sites across European distribution margins of Juniperus communis L. (the Mediterranean, the Arctic, the Alps and the...

Phylogenetic diversity rankings in the face of extinctions: The robustness of the fair proportion index

Mareike Fischer, Andrew Francis & Kristina Wicke
Planning for the protection of species often involves difficult choices about which species to prioritize, given constrained resources. One way of prioritizing species is to consider their "evolutionary distinctiveness'', i.e. their relative evolutionary isolation on a phylogenetic tree. Several evolutionary isolation metrics or phylogenetic diversity indices have been introduced in the literature, among them the so-called Fair Proportion index (also known as the "evolutionary distinctiveness" score). This index apportions the total diversity of a tree...

Long-term study shows that increasing body size in response to warmer summers is associated with a higher mortality risk in a long-lived bat species

Carolin Mundinger, Alexander Scheuerlein & Gerald Kerth
Change in body size is one of the universal responses to global warming, with most species becoming smaller. While small size in most species corresponds to low individual fitness, small species typically show high population growth rates in cross-species comparisons. It is unclear, there- fore, how climate-induced changes in body size ultimately affect population persistence. Unravelling the relationship between body size, ambient temperature and individual survival is especially important for the conservation of endangered long-lived...

Ecological impacts of photosynthetic light harvesting in changing aquatic environments: A systematic literature map

Nils Hendrik Hintz, Brian Schulze, Alexander Wacker & Maren Striebel
Underwater light is spatially as well as temporally variable and directly affects phytoplankton growth and competition. Here we systematically (following the guidelines of PRISMA-EcoEvo) searched and screened the published literature resulting in 640 individual articles. We mapped the conducted research for the objectives of (1) phytoplankton fundamental responses to light, (2) effects of light on the competition between phytoplankton species and (3) effects of climate change induced changes in the light availability in aquatic ecosystems....

Physiological responses of fen mosses along a nitrogen gradient point to competition restricting their fundamental niches

Izabela Jaszczuk, Wiktor Kotowski, Łukasz Kozub, Juergen Kreyling & Ewa Jabłońska
Nutrient availability determines vegetation patterns and ecological functioning of intact groundwater-fed peatlands (fens). Bryophytes, commonly referred to as ‘brown mosses’, dominate calcareous fens (rich fens), are an integral part of their unique biodiversity and contribute significantly to peat formation and carbon sequestration. Brown mosses are replaced by vascular plants as nutrient availability increases. The decline of brown mosses may either be due to their physiological intolerance of high nutrient levels or to them being outcompeted...

Additional file 2 of Metabolic engineering enables Bacillus licheniformis to grow on the marine polysaccharide ulvan

Theresa Dutschei, Marie-Katherin Zühlke, Norma Welsch, Tom Eisenack, Maximilian Hilkmann, Joris Krull, Carlo Stühle, Stefan Brott, Alexandra Dürwald, Lukas Reisky, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann, Dörte Becher, Thomas Schweder & Uwe T. Bornscheuer
Additional file 2: Table S6. Summary of the proteomic results.

Stay in shape: assessing the adaptive potential of shell morphology and its sensitivity to temperature in the invasive New Zealand Mud Snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum through phenotypic plasticity and natural selection in Europe

Lisa Männer, Carolin Mundinger & Martin Haase
Climate change may force organisms to adapt genetically or plastically to new environmental conditions. Invasive species show a remarkable potential for rapid adaptation. The ovoviviparous New Zealand mud snail (NZMS), Potamopyrgus antipodarum, has successfully established across Europe with two clonally reproducing mitochondrial lineages since its arrival in the first half of the 19th century. Its remarkable variation in shell morphology was shown to be fitness relevant. We investigated the effects of temperature on shell morphology...

Population-specific responses of an insect herbivore to variation in host-plant quality

Josephine Kuczyk, Ange Raharivololoniaina & Klaus Fischer
Anthropogenic climate change poses a substantial challenge to many organisms, to which they need to respond to avoid fitness reductions. Investigating responses to environmental change is particularly interesting in herbivores, as they are potentially affected by indirect effects mediated via variation in host-plant quality. We here use the herbivorous insect Pieris napi to investigate geographic variation in the response to variation in food quality. We performed a common garden experiment using replicated populations from Germany...

Additional file 4 of Multivariate analysis of independent determinants of ADL/IADL and quality of life in the elderly

Sebastian Beltz, Simone Gloystein, Thomas Litschko, Sonja Laag & Neeltje van den Berg
Additional file 4. Bivariate Analysis of WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOL-OLD.

Data from: Taking the discovery approach in integrative taxonomy: decrypting a complex of narrow-endemic Alpine harvestmen (Opiliones: Phalangiidae: Megabunus)

Gregor A. Wachter, Christoph Muster, Wolfgang Arthofer, Günther Raspotnig, Petra Föttinger, Christian Komposch, Florian M. Steiner & Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner
Species delimitation is fundamental for biological studies, yet precise delimitation is not an easy task, and every involved approach has an inherent failure rate. Integrative taxonomy, a method that merges multiple lines of evidence, can profoundly contribute to reliable alpha taxonomy and shed light on the processes behind speciation. In this study, we explored and validated species limits in a group of closely related Megabunus harvestmen (Eupnoi, Phalangiidae) endemic to the European Alps. Without a...

Data from: Genetic diversity in a long-lived mammal is explained by the past’s demographic shadow and current connectivity

Lisa Lehnen, Pierre-Loup Jan, Anne-Laure Besnard, Damien Fourcy, Gerald Kerth, Martin Biedermann, Pierrette Nyssen, Wigbert Schorcht, Eric Petit & Sébastien Puechmaille
Within-species genetic diversity is crucial for the persistence and integrity of populations and ecosystems. Conservation actions require an understanding of factors influencing genetic diversity, especially in the context of global change. Both population size and connectivity are factors greatly influencing genetic diversity; the relative importance of these factors can however change through time. Hence, quantifying the degree to which population size or genetic connectivity are shaping genetic diversity, and at which ecological time scale (past...

Data from: High male density favors maintenance over reproduction in a butterfly

Rina Geiger, Michaël Beaulieu, Kristin Franke & Klaus Fischer
Environmental factors exert strong effects on phenotypic expression. A particularly intriguing factor capable of inducing such plastic responses is the social environment experienced by a specific individual. Such social effects may alter the fitness of focal individuals if they affect the expression of reproductive traits and thus life-history strategies. To examine this question, we investigated the effects of individual density on morphology, reproduction, and behavior of male Bicyclus anynana butterflies. Increasing density significantly increased male...

Data from: Lowest drought sensitivity and decreasing growth synchrony towards the dry distribution margin of European beech

Lena Muffler, Robert Weigel, Andrew J. Hacket-Pain, Marcin Klisz, Ernst Van Der Maaten, Martin Wilmking, Juergen Kreyling & Marieke Van Der Maaten-Theunissen
Aim: Climate limits the potential distribution ranges of species. Establishment and growth of individuals at range margins is assumed to be more limited by extreme events such as drought or frost events than in the centre of their range. We explore whether the growth of beech is more sensitive to drought towards the dry distribution margin and more sensitive to frost towards the cold distribution margin. Furthermore, we aim to gain insight into the adaptive...

Phylogenomic resolution of sea spider diversification through integration of multiple data classes

Jesus Ballesteros, Emily Setton, Carlos Santibáñez-López, Claudia Arango, Georg Brenneis, Saskia Brix, Kevin Corbett, Esperanza Cano-Sánchez, Merai Dandouch, Geoffrey Dilly, Marc Eleaume, Guilherme Gainett, Cyril Gallut, Sean McAtee, Lauren McIntyre, Randy Moran, Pablo López-González, Gerhard Scholtz, Clay Williamson, Arthur Woods, Jakob Zehms, Ward Wheeler & Prashant Sharma
Despite significant advances in invertebrate phylogenomics over the past decade, the higher-level phylogeny of Pycnogonida (sea spiders) remains elusive. Due to the inaccessibility of some small-bodied lineages, few phylogenetic studies have sampled all sea spider families. Previous efforts based on a handful of genes have yielded unstable tree topologies. Here, we inferred the relationships of 89 sea spider species using targeted capture of the mitochondrial genome, 56 conserved exons, 101 ultraconserved elements, and three nuclear...

Data from: An initial comparative genomic autopsy of wasting disease in sea stars

Dannise V. Ruiz‐Ramos, Lauren M. Schiebelhut, Katharina J. Hoff, John P. Wares & Michael N. Dawson
Beginning in 2013, sea stars throughout the Eastern North Pacific were decimated by wasting disease, also known as ‘asteroid idiopathic wasting syndrome’ (AIWS) due to its elusive etiology. The geographic extent and taxonomic scale of AIWS meant events leading up to the outbreak were heterogeneous, multifaceted, and oftentimes unobserved; progression from morbidity to death was rapid, leaving few tell-tale symptoms. Here we take a forensic genomic approach to discover candidate genes that may help explain...

UV radiation affects anti-predatory defense traits in Daphnia pulex

Franceen Eshun-Wilson, Raoul Wolf, Tom Andersen, Dag Hessen & Erik Sperfeld
In aquatic environments prey perceive predator threats by chemical cues called kairomones, which can induce changes in their morphology, life histories and behavior. Predator-induced defenses have allowed for prey, such as Daphnia pulex, to avert capture by common invertebrate predators, such as Chaoborus sp. larvae. However, the influence of additional stressors, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), on the Daphnia-Chaoborus interaction is not settled as UVR may for instance deactivate the kairomone. In laboratory experiments, we...

Data from: Cardiomyocyte mechanodynamics under conditions of actin remodelling

Ricardo H. Pires, Nithya Shree, Emmanuel Manu, Ewa Guzniczak & Oliver Otto
The mechanical performance of cardiomyocytes is an important indicator of their maturation state and of primary importance for the development of therapies based on cardiac stem-cells. As the mechanical analysis of adherent cells at high-throughput remains challenging, we explore the applicability of real-time deformability cytometry (RT-DC) to probe cardiomyocytes in suspension. RT-DC is a microfluidic technology allowing for real-time mechanical analysis of thousands of cells with a throughput exceeding 1,000 cells per second. For cardiomyocytes...

Circum-Arctic distribution of chemical anti-herbivore compounds arctic shrubs

Elin Lindén, Mariska Te Beest, Ilka Abreu, Thomas Moritz, Maja Sundqvist, Isabel C Barrio, Julia Boike, John Bryant, Kari Anne Bråthen, Agata Buchwal, Guillermo Bueno, Alain Cuerrier, Dagmar Egelkraut, Bruce Forbes, Martin Hallinger, Monique Heijmans, Luise Hermanutz, David S Hik, Annika Hofgaard, Milena Holmgren, Diane C Huebner, Toke Hoye, Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Emilie Kissler … & Johan Olofsson
Spatial variation in plant chemical defence towards herbivores can help us understand variation in herbivore top-down control of shrubs in the Arctic and possibly also shrub responses to global warming. Less defended, non-resinous shrubs could be more influenced by herbivores than more defended, resinous shrubs. However, sparse field measurements limit our current understanding of how much of the circum-Arctic variation in defence compounds is explained by taxa or defence functional groups (resinous/non-resinous). We measured circum-Arctic...

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