365 Works

Effect of Physical Activity Intelligence (PAI) monitoring in the maintenance phase of cardiac rehabilitation: A mixed methods evaluation

Amanda Hannan, Wayne Hing, Jeff Coombes, Suzanne Gough, Mike Climstein, Geoff Adsett, Satyajit Rohan Jayasinghe & James Furness
Dataset of the results of PAI monitoring on the amount and/or intensity of physical activity for people with cardiac disease and participants’ perceptions of this approach.

Data from: Species limits, quarantine risk and the intrigue of a polyphagous invasive pest with highly restricted host relationships in its area of invasion

Michelle A. Rafter, James P. Hereward & Gimme H. Walter
Scirtothrips aurantii is a generalist horticultural pest in its African range and recently established quite widely in Australia on the invasive succulent weed Bryophyllum. Paradoxically, this thrips is not polyphagous in its incursive range. The issue is principally one of quarantine. Will the thrips in Australia shift, perhaps adaptively, to citrus, and should the primary focus be on containment around Australian citrus, or does the real quarantine risk exist offshore with thrips present on citrus...

Data from: Sex-specific patterns of morphological diversification: evolution of reaction norms and static allometries in neriid flies

Elizabeth J. Cassidy, Eleanor Bath, Stephen F. Chenoweth & Russell Bonduriansky
The consequences of sex-specific selection for patterns of diversification remain poorly known. Because male secondary sexual traits are typically costly to express, and both costs and benefits are likely to depend on ambient environment and individual condition, such traits may be expected to diversify via changes in reaction norms as well as the scaling of trait size with body size (static allometry). We investigated morphological diversification within two species of Australian neriid flies (Telostylinus angusticollis,...

Data from: Triggerfish uses chromaticity and lightness for object segregation

Karen L. Cheney, N. Justin Marshall, Fabio Cortesi, Laurie Mitchell & Misha Vorobyev
Humans group components of visual patterns according to their colour, and perceive colours separately from shape. This property of human visual perception is the basis behind the Ishihara test for colour deficiency, where an observer is asked to detect a pattern made up of dots of similar colour with variable lightness against a background of dots made from different colour(s) and lightness. To find out if fish use colour for object segregation in a similar...

Data from: Evolutionary optimum for male sexual traits characterized using the multivariate Robertson–Price Identity

Matthieu Delcourt, Mark W. Blows, J. David Aguirre & Howard D. Rundle
Phenotypes tend to remain relatively constant in natural populations, suggesting a limit to trait evolution. Although stationary phenotypes suggest stabilizing selection, directional selection is more commonly reported. However, selection on phenotypes will have no evolutionary consequence if the traits do not genetically covary with fitness, a covariance known as the Robertson–Price Identity. The nature of this genetic covariance determines if phenotypes will evolve directionally or whether they reside at an evolutionary optimum. Here, we show...

Data from: Adoption in eastern grey kangaroos: a consequence of misdirected care?

Wendy J. King, David M. Forsyth, Graeme Coulson & Marco Festa-Bianchet
Adoption is rare in animals and is usually attributed to kin selection. In a 6-year study of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 11 of 326 juveniles were adopted. We detected eight adoptions by observing behavioural associations and nursing between marked mothers and young and three more by analysing the relatedness of mothers and young using microsatellite DNA. Four adoptions involved reciprocal switches and three were by mothers whose own pouch young were known to subsequently...

Data from: Filters of floristic exchange: how traits and climate shape the rainforest invasion of Sahul from Sunda

Jia-Yee S. Yap, Maurizio Rossetto, Craig Costion, Darren Crayn, Robert M. Kooyman, James Richardson & Robert Henry
Aim To evaluate how biogeographic and ecological processes influenced species distributions and community assembly in a continental rainforest flora with mixed biogeographic origins. Location Continental Australia. Methods We identified 795 species with Sahul ancestry (Australian rainforest flora of Gondwanan origin) and 604 species with Sunda ancestry (rainforest plant lineages of Indo-Malesian origin) from a total of 1872 free-standing Australian woody rainforest taxa. We then compared the distribution of Sunda to Sahul species in relation to...

Data from: Skin sloughing rate increases with chytrid fungus infection load in a susceptible amphibian

Michel E. B. Ohmer, Rebecca L. Cramp, Craig R. White, Craig E. Franklin & Michel E.B. Ohmer
1. Amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is responsible for the greatest disease-driven loss of vertebrate biodiversity in recorded history. Understanding drivers of host susceptibility to this cutaneous disease is hindered by gaps in our knowledge of the host–pathogen relationship. One such overlooked aspect of susceptibility is variation in skin maintenance processes, particularly skin turnover via routine sloughing. It has been suggested that sloughing plays a role in immune defence, by...

Data from: Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga

Pol Capdevila, Bernat Hereu, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Graciel·La Rovira, Alba Medrano, Emma Cebrian, Joaquim Garrabou, Diego K. Kersting & Cristina Linares
1. Understanding the combined effects of global and local stressors is crucial for conservation and management, yet challenging due to the different scales at which these stressors operate. Here we examine the effects of one of the most pervasive threats to marine biodiversity, ocean warming, on the early life stages of the habitat-forming macroalga Cystoseira zosteroides, its long-term consequences for population resilience and its combined effect with physical stressors. 2. First, we performed a controlled...

Data from: Rapid microsatellite marker development for African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis, Meliaceae) using next-generation sequencing and assessment of its intra-specific genetic diversity.

Mirko Karan, Darren S. Evans, Katharina Schulte, Carole Wright, David Innes, Timothy A. Holton, D. Garth Nikles & Geoff R. Dickinson
Khaya senegalensis (African mahogany or dry-zone mahogany) is a high-value hardwood timber species with great potential for forest plantations in northern Australia. The species is distributed across the sub-Saharan belt from Senegal to Sudan and Uganda. Due to heavy exploitation and constraints on natural regeneration and sustainable planting, it is now classified as a vulnerable species. Here we describe the development of microsatellite markers for K. senegalensis using next generation sequencing in order to assess...

Data from: Repeatability of locomotor performance and of morphology - locomotor performance relationships

Cara Conradsen, Jeffrey A Walker, Catherine Perna & Katrina McGuigan
There is good evidence that natural selection drives the evolution of locomotor performance, but the processes that generate among individual variation in locomotion, the substrate upon which selection acts, are relatively poorly understood. We measured prolonged swimming performance, Ucrit, and morphology in a large cohort (n=461) of wildtype zebrafish, Danio rerio, at ∼6 months and again at ∼9 months. Using mixed model analyses to estimate repeatability as the intraclass correlation coefficient, we determined that Ucrit...

Data from: Integrating phylogenetic and ecological distances reveals new insights into parasite host specificity

Nicholas J. Clark & Sonya M. Clegg
The range of hosts a pathogen infects (host specificity) is a key element of disease risk that may be influenced by both shared phylogenetic history and shared ecological attributes of prospective hosts. Phylospecificity indices quantify host specificity in terms of host relatedness, but can fail to capture ecological attributes that increase susceptibility. For instance, similarity in habitat niche may expose phylogenetically unrelated host species to similar pathogen assemblages. Using a recently proposed method that integrates...

Data from: Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area

Sarah Greenwood, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret, Thomas Kitzberger, Craig D. Allen, Rod Fensham, Daniel C. Laughlin, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bonisch, Nathan J. B. Kraft & Alistair S. Jump
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and...

Data from: Social genetic and social environment effects on parental and helper care in a cooperatively breeding bird

Mark James Adams, Matthew R. Robinson, Maria-Elena Mannarelli, Ben Hatchwell & Ben J. Hatchwell
Phenotypes expressed in a social context are not only a function of the individual, but can also be shaped by the phenotypes of social partners. These social effects may play a major role in the evolution of cooperative breeding if social partners differ in the quality of care they provide and if individual carers adjust their effort in relation to that of other carers. When applying social effects models to wild study systems, it is...

Data from: Fitness consequences of larval traits persist across the metamorphic boundary

Angela J Crean, Keyne Monro & Dustin J. Marshall
Metamorphosis is thought to provide an adaptive decoupling between traits specialised for each life-history stage in species with complex life cycles. However, an increasing number of studies are finding that larval traits can carry-over to influence post-metamorphic performance, suggesting that these life-history stages may not be free to evolve independently of each other. We used a phenotypic selection framework to compare the relative and interactive effects of larval size, time to hatching, and time to...

Data from: Anthropogenic debris ingestion by avifauna in eastern Australia

Lauren Roman, Qamar A. Schuyler, Britta Denise Hardesty & Kathy A. Townsend
Anthropogenic debris in the world’s oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia’s coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian...

Data from: Progression of phosphine resistance in susceptible Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) populations under different immigration regimes and selection pressures

Michelle A. Rafter, Graham A. McCulloch, Greg J. Daglish, Gimme H. Walter & Gregory J. Daglish
Insecticide resistance is an escalating global issue for a wide variety of agriculturally important pests. The genetic basis and biochemical mechanisms of resistance are well characterised in some systems, but little is known about the ecological aspects of insecticide resistance. We therefore designed a laboratory experiment to quantify the progression of phosphine resistance in Tribolium castaneum populations subject to different immigration regimes and selection pressures. Mated resistant females were added to originally susceptible populations under...

Data for the effect of optic flow cues on honeybee flight control in wind

Emily Baird, Norbert Boeddeker & Mandyam Srinivasan
To minimise the risk of colliding with the ground or other obstacles, flying animals need to control both their ground speed and ground height. This task is particularly challenging in wind, where head winds require an animal to increase its airspeed to maintain a constant ground speed and tail winds may generate negative airspeeds, rendering flight more difficult to control. In this study, we investigate how head and tail winds affect flight control in the...

Misinformation, internet honey trading, and beekeepers drive a plant invasion

Magdalena Lenda, Piotr Skórka, Karolina Kuszewska, Dawid Moroń, Michał Bełcik, Renata Baczek Kwinta, Franciszek Janowiak, David H. Duncan, Peter A. Vesk, Hugh P. Possingham & Johannes M. H. Knops
Biological invasions are a major human induced global change that is threatening global biodiversity by homogenizing the world’s fauna and flora. Species spread because humans have moved species across geographic boundaries and have changed ecological factors that structure ecosystems, such as nitrogen deposition, disturbance, etc. Many biological invasions are caused accidentally, as a byproduct of human travel and commerce driven product shipping. However, humans also have spread many species intentionally because of perceived benefits. Of...

Data from: Primate hippocampus size and organization are predicted by sociality but not diet

Orlin Todorov, Vera Weisbecker, Emmanuel Gilissen, Karl Zilles & Alexandra Allison De Sousa
The hippocampus is well known for its roles in spatial navigation and memory, but it is organized into regions that have different connections and functional specializations. Notably, the region CA2 has a role in social cognition, and not spatial cognition as is the case for the regions CA1 and CA3 that surround it. Here we investigated the evolution of the hippocampus in terms of its size and its organization into regions in relation to the...

Cardioespiratory physiological perturbations after acute smoke-induced lung injury and during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in sheep

Saul Chemonges
Background: Numerous successful therapies developed for human medicine involve animal experimentation. Animal studies that are focused solely on translational potential, may not sufficiently document unexpected outcomes. Considerable amounts of data from such studies could be used to advance veterinary science. For example, sheep are increasingly being used as models of intensive care and therefore, data arising from such models must be published. In this study, the hypothesis is that there is little information describing physiological...

Data from: Priorities and motivations of marine coastal restoration research

Elisa Bayraktarov, Shantala Brisbane, Phoebe J Stewart-Sinclair, Audrey Van Herwaarden, Keila Stark, Valerie Hagger, Carter S Smith, Kerrie A Wilson, Catherine E Lovelock, Chris Gillies, Andrew D L Steven & Megan I Saunders
Active restoration is becoming an increasingly important conservation intervention to counteract the degradation of marine coastal ecosystems. Understanding what has motivated the scientific community to research the restoration of marine coastal ecosystems and how restoration research projects are funded is essential if we want to scale-up restoration interventions to meaningful extents.Here, we systematically review and synthesize data to understand the motivations for research on the restoration of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, saltmarsh, and oyster reefs....

Global human influence maps reveal clear opportunities in conserving Earth’s remaining intact terrestrial ecosystems

Jason Riggio, Jonathan E. M. Baillie, Steven Brumby, Erle Ellis, Christina M. Kennedy, James R. Oakleaf, Alex Tait, Therese Tepe, David M. Theobald, Oscar Venter, James E.M. Watson & Andrew P. Jacobson
Leading up to the 2020 Convention on Biological Diversity there is momentum around setting bold conservation targets. Yet it remains unclear how much of Earth’s land area remains without significant human influence and where this land is located. We compare four recent global maps of human influences across Earth’s land, Anthromes, Global Human Modification, Human Footprint, and Low Impact Areas, to answer these questions. Despite using various methodologies and data, these different spatial assessments independently...

Rubble Biodiversity Samplers (RUBS): 3D-printed coral models to standardise biodiversity censuses

Kennedy Wolfe & Peter Mumby
1. To ensure standardised, quantitative and repeatable methodologies, marine ecologists have engineered a range of artificial units to survey benthic communities with varying designs depending on target taxa, life history stage and habitat. In tropical ecosystems, autonomous units have typically lacked microhabitat complexity (e.g. planar tiles), short-term efficacy (> 1 y deployment) and/or a truly standardised design to sample cryptobenthic diversity. 2. Coral rubble is characterised by high microhabitat complexity, which is unresolved in sampling...

Skull shape of a widely-distributed, endangered marsupial reveals little evidence of local adaptation between fragmented populations

Pietro Viacava, Vera Weisbecker, Simone P. Blomberg, Gabriele Sansalone, Thomas Guillerme, Skye F. Cameron, Robbie S. Wilson & Matthew J. Phillips
The biogeographical distribution of diversity among populations of threatened mammalian species is generally investigated using population genetics. However, intraspecific phenotypic diversity is rarely assessed beyond taxonomy-focused linear measurements or qualitative descriptions. Here, we use a technique widely used in the evolutionary sciences – geometric morphometrics – to characterize shape diversity in the skull of an endangered marsupial, the northern quoll, across its 5,000 km distribution range along Northern Australia. Skull shape is a proxy for...

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