47 Works

Data from: Genetic and life-history changes associated with fisheries-induced population collapse

Lilian Pukk, Anna Kuparinen, Leili Järv, Riho Gross & Anti Vasemägi
Over the recent years, growing number of studies suggests that intensive size-selective fishing can cause evolutionary changes in life-history traits in the harvested population, which can have drastic negative effects on populations, ecosystems and fisheries. However, most studies to date have overlooked the potential role of immigration of fish with different phenotypes as an alternative plausible mechanism behind observed phenotypic trends. Here, we investigated the evolutionary consequences of intensive fishing simultaneously at phenotypic and molecular...

Data from: Reproductive behaviour indicates specificity in resource use: phylogenetic examples from temperate and tropical insects

Sille Holm, Juhan Javoiš, Erki Õunap, Robert B. Davis, Ants Kaasik, Freerk Molleman, Tõnis Tasane & Toomas Tammaru
Specificity (= the degree of ecological specialisation) is one of the fundamental concepts of the science of ecology. Ambiguities on how to define and measure specificity have however complicated respective research efforts. Here we propose that, in insects, a behavioural trait –adult oviposition latency in captivity without a favourable host plant – correlates with a species’ specificity in larval host use. In the absence of a suitable host, monophagous insects are expected to wait for...

Chesapeake Bay and Baltic Sea phytoplankton sample metadata

Kalle Olli
We analyze the relationship between species richness, salinity and resource use efficiency from 10712 summer (June to September) surface phytoplankton samples from the Chesapeake Bay (n=3967) and the Baltic Sea (n=6745). As sample species richness (alpha diversity) has a U-shape distribution along an estuarine salinity gradient and species richness is known to scale with resource use efficiency – an important ecosystem function, we hypothesized that the ecosystem function can be predicted from salinity.

Data from: The use of cattle Bos taurus for restoring and maintaining holarctic landscapes: conclusions from a long-term study (1946-2017) in northern England

Stephen J. G. Hall & Robert G. H. Bunce
Cattle Bos taurus can perform valuable ecological functions in the maintenance of high nature value (HNV) pastoral systems. They have also attracted attention as potentially filling the ecological niches of megaherbivores, notably the extinct aurochs Bos primigenius, in rewilding initiatives. Native cattle breeds are recognized under the 1992 Rio Convention as components of biodiversity. They are used in HNV settings, but their conservation as breeds has rarely been an important consideration for their management in...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Data from: Outlier loci detect intraspecific biodiversity amongst spring and autumn spawning herring across local scales

Riho Gross, Dorte Bekkevold, Sarah J. Helyar, Timo Arula & Henn Ojaveer
Herring, Clupea harengus, is one of the ecologically and commercially most important species in European northern seas, where two distinct ecotypes have been described based on spawning time; spring and autumn. To date, it is unknown if these spring and autumn spawning herring constitute genetically distinct units. We assessed levels of genetic divergence between spring and autumn spawning herring in the Baltic Sea using two types of DNA markers, microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and...

Data from: Is telomere length a molecular marker of past thermal stress in wild fish?

Paul V. Debes, Marko Visse, Bineet Panda, Petteri Ilmonen & Anti Vasemägi
Telomeres protect eukaryotic chromosomes; variation in telomere length has been linked (primarily in homoeothermic animals) to variation in stress, cellular ageing and disease risk. Moreover, telomeres have been suggested to function as biomarker for quantifying past environmental stress, but studies in wild animals remain rare. Environmental stress, such as extreme environmental temperatures in poikilothermic animals, may result in oxidative stress that accelerates telomere attrition. However, growth, which may depend on temperature, can also contribute to...

Data from: Structural controls on photosynthetic capacity through juvenile-to-adult transition and needle aging in Mediterranean pines

Vivian Kuusk, Ülo Niinemets & Fernando Valladares
1. Needle photosynthetic potentials strongly vary among primary (juvenile) and secondary (adult) needles (heteroblasty) in Pinus species, but there is limited understanding of the underlying structural, diffusional and chemical controls. 2. We studied differences in needle photosynthetic characteristics among current-year juvenile and adult needles and among different-aged adult needles in Mediterranean pines Pinus halepensis Mill., P. pinea L. and P. nigra J. F. Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco, hypothesizing that needle anatomical modifications upon juvenile-to-adult...

Data from: Widespread increases in iron concentration in European and North American freshwaters

Caroline Björnerås, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Chris D. Evans, Mark O. Gessner, Hans-Peter Grossart, Külli Kangur, Ilga Kokorite, Pirkko Kortelainen, Hjalmar Laudon, Jouni Lehoranta, Noah Lottig, Don T. Monteith, Peter Nõges, Tiina Nõges, Filip Oulehle, Gunnhild Riise, James A. Rusak, Antti Räike, Janis Sire, Shannon Sterling & Emma Kritzberg
Recent reports of increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters are of concern, given the fundamental role of Fe in biogeochemical processes. Still, little is known about the frequency and geographical distribution of Fe trends, or about the underlying drivers. We analyzed temporal trends of Fe concentrations across 340 water bodies distributed over 10 countries in northern Europe and North America in order to gain a clearer understanding of where, to what extent, and why Fe...

Data from: Generation of a neutral FST baseline for testing local adaptation on gill-raker number within and between European whitefish ecotypes in the Baltic Sea basin

Mikhail Yu Ozerov, Mikael Himberg, Tutku Aykanat, Dmitry S. Sendek, Henry Hägerstrand, Aare Verliin, Teet Krause, Jens Olsson, Craig R. Primmer & Anti Vasemägi
Divergent selection at ecologically important traits is thought to be a major factor driving phenotypic differentiation between populations. To elucidate the role of different evolutionary processes shaping the variation in gill-raker number of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus sensu lato) in the Baltic Sea basin, we assessed the relationships between genetic and phenotypic variation among and within three whitefish ecotypes (sea-, river and lake-spawners). To generate expected neutral distribution of FST and to evaluate whether highly...

Data from: Genomewide introgressive hybridization patterns in wild Atlantic salmon influenced by inadvertent gene flow from hatchery releases

Mikhail Y. Ozerov, Riho Gross, Matthieu Bruneaux, Juha-Pekka Vähä, Oksana Burimski, Lilian Pukk & Anti Vasemägi
Many salmonid fish populations are threatened by genetic homogenization, primarily due to introgressive hybridization with hatchery-reared conspecifics. By applying genomewide analysis using two molecular marker types (1986 SNPs and 17 microsatellites), we assessed the genetic impacts of inadvertent gene flow via straying from hatchery releases on wild populations of Atlantic salmon in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, over 16 years (1996–2012). Both microsatellites and SNPs revealed congruent population genetic structuring, indicating that introgression changed...

Functional biogeography of Neotropical moist forests: trait-climate relationships and assembly patterns of tree communities

Bruno Pinho, Marcelo Tabarelli, Cajo Ter Braak, S. J. Wright, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Maíra Benchimol, Bettina Engelbrecht, Simon Pierce, Peter Hietz, Bráulio Santos, Carlos Peres, Sandra Müller, Ian Wright, Frans Bongers, Madelon Lohbeck, Ülo Niinemets, Martijn Slot, Steven Jansen, Davi Jamelli, Renato Augusto Ferreira De Lima, Nathan Swenson, Richard Condit, Jos Barlow, Ferry Slik, Manuel Hernández-Ruedas … & Felipe Melo
Aim: Here we examine the functional profile of regional tree species pools across the latitudinal distribution of Neotropical moist forests, and test trait-climate relationships among local communities. We expected opportunistic strategies (acquisitive traits, small seeds) to be overrepresented in species pools further from the equator due to long-term instability, but also in terms of abundance in local communities in currently wetter, warmer and more seasonal climates. Location: Neotropics. Time period: Recent. Major taxa studied: Trees....

Consumption and wind production time series data

Andres Annuk, Mart Hovi, Janar Kalder & Maido Märss
Consumption data are measured in the real household for two weeks and then multiplied to the whole year. This is an average family with 4 members. Consumption behavior is quite similar whole the year. Production graph is measured in real wind generator as described in the paper and when scaled to certain annual production.

Data from: A small badge of longevity: opposing survival selection on the size of white and black wing markings

Tuul Sepp, Kalev Rattiste, Lauri Saks, Richard Meitern, Janek Urvik, Ants Kaasik & Peeter Hõrak
According to handicap principle, exaggerated ornamental traits are supposed to exert costs on their bearers. However, there is much less theoretical and practical consensus about whether and under which conditions ornament expression should positively correlate with survival. We measured age-related variation and survival selection on the size of white wing patches and black wing tips in a long-lived monogamous seabird, the common gull Larus canus. Males had larger white patches than females but patch size...

Data from: Weak and inconsistent associations between melanic darkness and fitness related traits in an insect

Siiri-Lii Sandre, Tanel Kaart, Nathan Morehouse & Toomas Tammaru
The idea that the fitness value of body colouration may be affected by biochemically mediated trade-offs has received much research attention. For example, melanisation is believed to interact with other fitness-related traits via competition for substrates, costs associated with the synthesis of melanin, or pleiotropic effects of the involved genes. However, genetic correlations between colouration and fitness-related traits remain poorly understood. Here we present a quantitative genetic study of a colouration trait correlated to melanin-based...

Data from: Molecular identification of cryptic bumblebee species from degraded samples using PCR-RFLP approach

Salla-Riikka Vesterlund, Jouni Sorvari & Anti Vasemägi
The worldwide decline and local extinctions of bumblebees has raised a need for fast and accurate tools for species identification. Morphological characters are often not sufficient and molecular methods have been increasingly used for reliable identification of bumblebee species. Molecular methods often require high quality DNA which makes them less suitable for analysis of low quality or older samples. We developed an efficient PCR-RFLP identification method for four bumblebee species of the subgenus Bombus s....

Data from: Patterns of modern pollen and plant richness across northern Europe

Triin Reitalu, Anne E. Bjune, Ansis Blaus, Thomas Giesecke, Aveliina Helm, Isabelle Matthias, Sylvia H. Peglar, J. Sakari Salonen, Heikki Seppa, Vivika Väli & H. John B. Birks
1. Sedimentary pollen offers excellent opportunities to reconstruct vegetation changes over past millennia. Number of different pollen taxa or pollen richness is used to characterise past plant richness. To improve the interpretation of sedimentary pollen richness, it is essential to understand the relationship between pollen and plant richness in contemporary landscapes. This study presents a regional-scale comparison of pollen and plant richness from northern Europe and evaluates the importance of environmental variables on pollen and...

Parental age does not influence offspring telomeres during early life in common gulls (Larus canus)

Tuul Sepp, Richard Meitern, Britt Heidinger, Kristina Noreikiene, Kalev Rattiste, Peeter Hõrak, Lauri Saks, Jeffrey Kittilson, Janek Urvik & Mathieu Giraudeau
Parental age can affect offspring telomere length through heritable and epigenetic-like effects, but at what stage during development these effects are established is not well known. To address this, we conducted a cross-fostering experiment in common gulls (Larus canus) that enabled us distinguish between pre- and post-natal parental age effects on offspring telomere length. Whole clutches were exchanged after clutch completion within and between parental age classes (young and old) and blood samples were collected...

The strength and form of natural selection on transcript abundance in the wild

Freed Ahmad, Paul Debes, Ilkka Nousiainen, Siim Kahar, Lilian Pukk, Riho Gross, Mikhail Ozerov & Anti Vasemägi
Gene transcription variation is known to contribute to disease susceptibility and adaptation, but we currently know very little about how contemporary natural selection shapes transcript abundance. Here, we propose a novel analytical framework to quantify the strength and form of ongoing natural selection at the transcriptome level in a wild vertebrate. We estimated selection on transcript abundance in a cohort of a wild salmonid fish (Salmo trutta) affected by an extracellular myxozoan parasite (Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae)...

A probable oligochaete from an Early Triassic Lagerstätte of the southern Cis-Urals and its evolutionary implications

Andrey Zhuravlev, Dmitry Shcherbakov, Tarmo Timm, Alexander Tzetlin & Olev Vinn
Oligochaetes, despite their important role in terrestrial ecosystems and a tremendous biomass, are extremely rare fossils. The palaeontological record of these worms is restricted to some cocoons, presumable trace fossils and a few body fossils the most convincing of which are discovered in Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata. The Olenekian (Lower Triassic) siliciclastic lacustrine Petropavlovka Lagerstätte of the southern Cis-Urals yields a number of extraordinary freshwater fossils including an annelid. The segmented body with a secondary...

Genomics of humic adaptation in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis): SNP genotypes of 32 perch individuals, supplementary figures and tables

Mikhail Ozerov, Kristina Noreikiene, Siim Kahar, Magnus Huss, Ari Huusko, Toomas Kõiv, Margot Sepp, María López, Anna Gårdmark, Riho Gross & Anti Vasemägi
Extreme environments are inhospitable to the majority of species, but some organisms are able to survive in such hostile conditions due to evolutionary adaptations. For example, modern bony fishes have colonized various aquatic environments, including perpetually dark, hypoxic, hypersaline and toxic habitats. Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) is among the few fish species of northern latitudes that is able to live in very acidic humic lakes. Such lakes represent almost “nocturnal” environments; they contain high levels...

Data recorded for leaf size, and leaf vein and areole measurements taken from nine Magnoliaceae species

Peijian Shi, Qinyue Miao, Ülo Niinemets, Mengdi Liu, Yirong Li, Kexin Yu & Karl Niklas
Across species, the density of major veins in leaves scales inversely with leaf area. Yet, minor vein density manifests no clear relationship with respect to leaf are, despite having the potential to provide important insights into the trade-off between investments in leaf mechanical support, hydraulics, and light interception. To examine this phenomenon, between 120−380 mature leaves from each of nine Magnoliaceae species were sampled from Nanjing Forestry University campus and Nanjing Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy...

Data from: Less is more: extreme genome complexity reduction with ddRAD using Ion Torrent semiconductor technology

Lilian Pukk, Freed Ahmad, Shihab Hasan, Veljo Kisand, Riho Gross & Anti Vasemägi
Massively parallel sequencing a small proportion of the whole genome at high coverage enables answering a wide range of questions from molecular evolution and evolutionary biology to animal and plant breeding and forensics. In this study, we describe the development of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing approach for Ion Torrent PGM platform. Our protocol results in extreme genome complexity reduction using two rare-cutting restriction enzymes and strict size selection of the library allowing sequencing of...

Data from: Genes that affect Atlantic salmon growth in hatchery do not have the same effect in the wild

Anti Vasemägi, Siim Kahar & Mikhail Y. Ozerov
Dissecting the genetic mechanisms of phenotypic traits that influence fitness in diverse environments provides the important first step towards understanding the robustness of the observed genotype–phenotype associations, the role of genotype-by-environment interaction (GEI) shaping fitness trade-offs and maintaining genetic variation of quantitative traits. However, the molecular basis of complex traits in vertebrates has rarely, if ever, been studied simultaneously in natural and controlled laboratory environments. To evaluate whether the same genomic regions affect the growth...

Data from: Are leaf functional traits “invariant” with plant size, and what is “invariance” anyway?

Charles A. Price, Ian J. Wright, David D. Ackerly, Ülo Niinemets, Peter B. Reich & Erik J. Veneklaas
Studies of size-related plant traits have established a suite of mathematical functions describing whole plant investment and allocation. In parallel, studies of plant “economic spectra” have measured the scaling and variance composition of traits related to the major dimensions of both structure and function. Here we explore the intersection of these two broad areas by exploring the notion that many leaf economic traits are invariant with species differences in adult plant size. Invariant traits are...

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