1. Increasing landscape heterogeneity by restoring semi-natural elements to reverse farmland biodiversity declines is not always economically feasible or acceptable to farmers due to competition for land. We hypothesized that increasing the heterogeneity of the crop mosaic itself, hereafter referred to as crop heterogeneity, can have beneficial effects on within-field plant diversity. 2. Using a unique multi-country dataset from a cross-continent collaborative project covering 1451 agricultural fields within 432 landscapes in Europe and Canada, we...
Data from: Mercury exposure in an endangered seabird: long-term changes and relationships with trophic ecology and breeding successWilliam Mills, Paco Bustamante, Rona McGill, Orea Anderson, Stuart Bearhop, Yves Cherel, Stephen Votier & Richard Phillips
Mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant which, at high concentrations, can negatively influence avian physiology and demography. Albatrosses (Diomedeidae) have higher Hg burdens than all other avian families. Here, we measure total Hg (THg) concentrations of body feathers from adult grey-headed albatrosses (Thalassarche chrysostoma) at South Georgia. Specifically, we: (i) analyse temporal trends at South Georgia (1989–2013) and make comparisons with other breeding populations; (ii) identify factors driving variation in THg concentrations; and, (iii) examine...
Modelled mid-trophic pelagic prey fields improve understanding of marine predator foraging behaviourDavid Green, Sophie Bestley, Rowan Trebilco, Stuart Corney, Patrick Lehodey, Clive McMahon, C. Guinet & Mark A. Hindell
Biophysical interactions are influential in determining the scale of key ecological processes within marine ecosystems. For oceanic predators, this means foraging behaviour is influenced by processes shaping the distribution of prey. However, oceanic prey is difficult to observe and its abundance and distribution is regionally generalised. We use a spatiotemporally resolved simulation model to describe mid-trophic prey distribution within the Southern Ocean and demonstrate insights that this modelled prey field provides into the foraging behaviour...
Biparental care is widespread in avian species. Individuals may match the contribution of their partner, resulting in equal parental effort, or may exploit their partner, to minimise their own investment. These two hypotheses have received much theoretical and empirical attention in short-lived species, that change mates between seasons. However, in species with persistent pair bonds, where divorce rate is low and costly, selective pressures are different, as partners share the value of future reproduction. In...
Data from: The effects of food supply on reproductive hormones and timing of reproduction in an income-breeding seabirdShannon Whelan, Scott A. Hatch, Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks, Charline Parenteau, Olivier Chastel & Kyle Elliott
Current food supply is a major driver of timing of breeding in income-breeding animals, likely because increased net energy balance directly increases reproductive hormones and advances breeding. In capital breeders, increased net energy balance increases energy reserves, which eventually leads to improved reproductive readiness and earlier breeding. To test the hypothesis that phenology of income-breeding birds is independent of energy reserves, we conducted an experiment on food-supplemented (“fed”) and control female black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)....
1. Changes in marine ecosystems are easier to detect in upper-level predators, like seabirds, which integrate trophic interactions throughout the food web. 2. Here, we examined whether diving parameters and complexity in the temporal organisation of foraging sequences of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) are influenced by sea surface temperature (SST), water stratification and wind speed – three oceanographic features influencing prey abundance and distribution in the water column. 3. Using fractal time series analysis, we...
This study investigated the foraging niche of dimorphic males and females Westland petrel during the chick-rearing period. At-sea movements were recorded with GPS, behaviours and foraging behaviour were recorded with accelerometers, and trophic niche was inferred with stable isotopes (carbon, nitrogen). Altogether, these fine-scale data allowed to look at the foraging niche used by males and females.
A widespread hypothesis for the ontogeny of behaviour and decision-making is the early-exploration-later-canalization hypothesis. It postulates that juveniles are more exploratory and adults more consistent in their behavior. In addition, it is often assumed that naïve juveniles could overcome the costs of individual experience building by copying more the decisions of others than adults (early-conformism-later-self-defining hypothesis). Here we compare the central-place-foraging movements of adults and post-fledging juveniles in their first flights around the colony before...
Data from: Early-life exposure to artificial light at night elevates physiological stress in free-living songbirdsMelissa L. Grunst, Thomas Raap, Andrea S. Grunst, Rianne Pinxten, Charline Parenteau, Frédéric Angelier & Marcel Eens
Artificial light at night (ALAN) can disrupt adaptive patterns of physiology and behavior that promote high fitness, resulting in physiological stress and elevation of steroid glucocorticoids (corticosterone, CORT in birds). Elevated CORT may have particularly profound effects early in life, with the potential for enduring effects that persist into adulthood. Research on the consequences of early-life exposure to ALAN remains limited, especially outside of the laboratory, and whether light exposure affects CORT concentrations in wild...
Temporal and spatial differences in the post-breeding behaviour of a ubiquitous Southern Hemisphere seabird, the common diving petrelAymeric Fromant, Charles-Andre Bost, Paco Bustamante, Alice Carravieri, Yves Cherel, Yonina Eizenberg, Colin Miskelly, John Arnould & Karine Delord
The non-breeding period plays a major role in seabird survival and population dynamics. However, our understanding of the migratory behaviour, moulting and feeding strategies of non-breeding seabirds is still very limited, especially for small-sized species. The present study investigated the post-breeding behaviour of three distant populations (Kerguelen Archipelago, south-eastern Australia, New Zealand) of the common diving petrel (Pelecanoides urinatrix), an abundant, widely distributed zooplanktivorous seabird breeding throughout the southern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. The...
Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé10
Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa2
University of Quebec at Montreal1
Ecosystèmes, Biodiversité, Evolution1
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive1
University of Antwerp1
University of Strasbourg1
Collecte Localisation Satellites (France)1