64 Works

Experimental N and P additions relieve stoichiometric constraints on organic-matter flows through five stream food webs

Lee Demi, Jonathan Benstead, Amy Rosemond & John Maerz
1. Human activities have dramatically altered global patterns of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability. This pervasive nutrient pollution is changing basal resource quality in food webs, thereby affecting rates of biological productivity and the pathways of energy and material flow to higher trophic levels. 2. Here, we investigate how the stoichiometric quality of basal resources modulates patterns of material flow through food webs by characterizing the effects of experimental N and P enrichment on...

Landscape context mediates the physiological stress response of birds to farmland diversification

Christopher Latimer, Olivia Smith, Joseph Taylor, Amanda Edworthy, Jeb Owen, William Snyder & Christina M. Kennedy
1. Farmland diversification practices are increasingly adopted to help reverse biodiversity declines in agroecosystems. However, evidence for the effectiveness of this approach often comes from documenting the species attracted to particular farming systems or landscapes, rather than their underlying physiological states that ultimately determine population growth or decline over the longer term. 2. Across 38 organic, mixed-produce farms spanning the U.S. west coast, we quantified three physiological biomarkers that are widely used to capture variation...

More than DNA methylation: does pleiotropy drive the complex pattern of evolution of Dnmt1?

Patricia Moore, Ashley Amukamara, Joshua Washington, Zachary Sanchez, Elizabeth McKinney, Allen Moore & Robert Schmitz
DNA methylation is an important chromatin modification that can stably alter gene expression in cells and maintain genome integrity in plants and vertebrates. The function of DNA methylation outside of these well-studied systems, however, is unclear. Insects, in particular, represent an understudied group. Variation in the level of DNA methylation and gains and losses in the maintenance methyltransferase, DNMT1, across the insect tree of life suggests that there is much we don’t understand about DMNT1...

Data-driven models reveal mutant cell behaviors important for myxobacterial aggregation

Oleg Igoshin, Zhaoyang Zhang, Christopher R. Cotter, Lawrence J. Shimkets & Zhe Lyu
Single mutations frequently alter several aspects of cell behavior but rarely reveal whether a particular statistically significant change is biologically significant. To determine which behavioral changes are most important for multicellular self-organization, we devised a new methodology using Myxococcus xanthus as a model system. During development, myxobacteria coordinate their movement to aggregate into spore-filled fruiting bodies. We investigate how aggregation is restored in two mutants, csgA and pilC, that cannot aggregate unless mixed with wild...

Data from: Oxidative killing of encapsulated and nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae by lactoperoxidase-generated hypothiocyanite

Balazs Rada
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) infections affect millions of people worldwide, cause serious mortality and represent a major economic burden. Despite recent successes due to pneumococcal vaccination and antibiotic use, Pneumococcus remains a significant medical problem. Airway epithelial cells, the primary responders to pneumococcal infection, orchestrate an extracellular antimicrobial system consisting of lactoperoxidase (LPO), thiocyanate anion and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). LPO oxidizes thiocyanate using H2O2 into the final product hypothiocyanite that has antimicrobial effects against a wide...

Tree species rankings based on publication rate (North America)

Pete Bettinger
A ranking of North American tree species based on keyword searches of genus and species using Web of Science, AGRICOLA, and CAB Abstracts. A bibliographic analysis using three bibliographic databases was conducted to understand the importance of North American tree species in literature published since 1900 and since the development of the last Silvics of North America in the 1980s. The Silvics of North America is the most comprehensive guide to North American tree-like species...

Data from: Comparing traditional and Bayesian approaches to ecological meta-analysis

Paula Pappalardo, Kiona Ogle, Elizabeth Hamman, James Bence, Bruce Hungate & Craig Osenberg
1. Despite the wide application of meta-analysis in ecology, some of the traditional methods used for meta-analysis may not perform well given the type of data characteristic of ecological meta-analyses. 2. We reviewed published meta-analyses on the ecological impacts of global climate change, evaluating the number of replicates used in the primary studies (ni) and the number of studies or records (k) that were aggregated to calculate a mean effect size. We used the results...

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Do Synthesis Centers Synthesize? A Semantic Analysis of Topical Diversity in Research

Edward Hackett, Erin Leahy, John Parker, Ismael Rafols, Stephanie Hampton, Ugo Corte, Diego Chavarro, John Drake, Bart Penders, Laura Sheble, Niki Vermeulen & Todd Vision
Synthesis centers are a form of scientific organization that catalyzes and supports research that integrates diverse theories, methods and data across spatial or temporal scales to increase the generality, parsimony, applicability, or empirical soundness of scientific explanations. Synthesis working groups are a distinctive form of scientific collaboration that produce consequential, high-impact publications. But no one has asked if synthesis working groups synthesize: are their publications substantially more diverse than others, and if so, in what...

Assessing the effects of elephant foraging on the structure and diversity of an Afrotropical forest

Cooper Rosin, Kendall Beals, Michael Belovitch, Ruby Harrison, Megan Pendred, Megan Sullivan, Nicolas Yao & John Poulsen
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) are ecosystem engineers that browse and damage large quantities of vegetation during their foraging and movement. Though elephant trail networks and clearings are conspicuous features of many African forests, the consequences of elephant foraging for forest structure and diversity are poorly documented. In this study in northeastern Gabon, we compare stem size, stem density, proportional damage, species diversity, and species relative abundance of seedlings and saplings in the vicinity of...

Virulence-mediated infectiousness and activity trade-offs and their impact on transmission potential of patients infected with influenza

Brian McKay, Mark Ebell, Ariella Dale, Ye Shen & Andreas Handel
Communicable diseases are often virulent, i.e., they cause morbidity symptoms in those infected. While some symptoms may be transmission-enhancing, other symptoms are likely to reduce transmission potential. For human diseases, the reduction in transmission opportunities is commonly caused by reduced activity. There is limited data regarding the potential impact of virulence on transmission potential. We performed an exploratory data analysis of 324 influenza patients at a university health center during the 2016/2017 influenza season. We...

Movement rules determine nomadic species’ responses to resource supplementation and degradation

Claire Teitelbaum, Sonia Altizer & Richard Hall
1. In environments that vary unpredictably, many animals are nomadic, moving in an irregular pattern that differs from year to year. Exploring the mechanisms of nomadic movement is needed to understand how animals survive in highly variable environments, and to predict behavioral and population responses to environmental change. 2. We developed a network model to identify plausible mechanisms of nomadic animal movement by comparing the performance of multiple movement rules along a continuum from nomadism...

Analysis of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) titers of recovered COVID-19 patients

Jeffrey Gold, William Baumgartl, Ramazan Okyay, Warren Licht, Paul Fidel, Mairi Noverr, Larry Tilley, David Hurley, Balázs Rada & John Ashford
The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine has been theorized to provide protection against COVID-19. Our aim was to determine whether any MMR IgG titers are inversely correlated with severity in recovered COVID-19 patients previously vaccinated with MMR II. We divided 80 subjects into two groups, comparing MMR titers to recent COVID-19 severity. The MMR II group consisted of 50 subjects who would primarily have MMR antibodies from the MMR II vaccine, and a comparison group of 30...

Evolution of multiple postzygotic barriers between species of the Mimulus tilingii complex

Gabrielle D. Sandstedt, Carrie A. Wu & Andrea L. Sweigart
Species are often defined by their ability to interbreed (i.e., Biological Species Concept), but determining how and why reproductive isolation arises between new species can be challenging. In the Mimulus tilingii species complex, three species (M. caespitosa, M. minor, and M. tilingii) are largely allopatric and grow exclusively at high elevations (>2000m). The extent to which geographic separation has shaped patterns of divergence among the species is not well understood. In this study, we determined...

Freeze-tolerance of poleward-spreading mangrove species weakened by soil properties of resident salt marsh competitor

Enjian Chen, Julie Blaze, Rachel Smith, Shaolin Peng & James Byers
1. Background: Increasing temperatures associated with climate change are shifting plant species to higher latitudes. Soil communities could aid the plants’ shift into novel areas by harbouring fewer soil-borne antagonists or more mutualists that influence the fitness and stress tolerance of the shifting species. Alternatively, they could contain novel antagonists or fewer mutualists. Thus, soil communities could positively or negatively affect plant range expansion, particularly if they influence plants’ responses to climate, such as freeze...

Data from: Age influences the thermal suitability of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

Courtney Murdock, Kerri Miazgowicz, Erin Mordecai, Sadie Ryan, Richard Hall, Harry Owen, Temitayo Adanlawo, Kavya Balaji, Marta Shocket, Oswaldo Villena, Leah Johnson, Blanka Tesla, Leah Demakovsky, Matt Bonds, Calistus Ngonghala & Melinda Brindley
Models predicting disease transmission are vital tools for long-term planning of malaria reduction efforts, particularly for mitigating impacts of climate change. We compared temperature-dependent malaria transmission models when mosquito life history traits were estimated from a truncated portion of the lifespan (a common practice) to traits measured across the full lifespan. We conducted an experiment on adult female Anopheles stephensi, the Asian urban malaria mosquito, to generate daily per capita values for mortality, egg production,...

Landscape-level toxicant exposure mediates infection impacts on wildlife populations

Cecilia Sánchez, Sonia Altizer & Richard Hall
Anthropogenic landscape modification such as urbanization can expose wildlife to toxicants, with profound behavioural and health effects. Toxicant exposure can alter local transmission of wildlife diseases by reducing survival or altering immune defence. However, predicting the impacts of pathogens on wildlife across their ranges is complicated by heterogeneity in toxicant exposure across the landscape, especially if toxicants alter wildlife movement from toxicant-contaminated to uncontaminated habitats. We developed a mechanistic model to explore how toxicant effects...

Ecological and evolutionary drivers of hemoplasma infection and genotype sharing in a Neotropical bat community

Daniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Alexis Brown, Alex Washburne, Brock Fenton, Sonia Altizer, Daniel Streicker, Raina Plowright, Vladimir Chizhikov, Nancy Simmons & Dmitriy Volokhov
Most emerging pathogens can infect multiple species, underscoring the importance of understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that allow some hosts to harbor greater infection prevalence and share pathogens with other species. However, our understanding of pathogen jumps is primarily based around viruses, despite bacteria accounting for the greatest proportion of zoonoses. Because bacterial pathogens in bats (Order: Chiroptera) can have conservation and human health consequences, studies that examine the ecological and evolutionary drivers of...

Data from: Patterns of annual and seasonal immune investment in a temporal reproductive opportunist

Elizabeth Schultz, Christian Gunning, Jamie Cornelius, Dustin Reichard, Kirk Klasing & Thomas Hahn
Historically, investigations of how organismal investments in immunity fluctuate in response to environmental and physiological changes have focused on seasonally breeding organisms that confine reproduction to seasons with mild environmental conditions and abundant resources. The red crossbill, Loxia curvirostra, is a songbird that can breed opportunistically if conifer seeds are abundant, on both short, cold, and long, warm days, providing an ideal system to investigate interactions between immunity, reproduction, and environmental fluctuations. In this study,...

Data from: Pliant pathogens: estimating viral spread when confronted with new vector, host, and environmental conditions

Anita Krause, Eric Seabloom, Elizabeth Borer, Lauren Shoemaker, Andrew Sieben, Ryan Campbell, Alexander Strauss & Allison Shaw
1. Pathogen spread rates are determined, in part, by the performance of pathogens under altered environmental conditions and their ability to persist while switching among hosts and vectors. 2. To determine the effects of new conditions (host, vector, and nutrient) on pathogen spread rate, we introduced a vector-borne, viral plant pathogen, Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus PAV (BYDV-PAV) into hosts, vectors, and host nutrient supplies that it had not encountered for thousands of viral generations. We...

Data from: Assessing biological factors affecting post-speciation introgression

Jennafer Hamlin, Mark Hibbins & Leonie Moyle
An increasing number of phylogenomic studies have documented a clear ‘footprint’ of post-speciation introgression among closely-related species. Nonetheless, systematic genome-wide studies of factors that determine the likelihood of introgression remain rare. Here, we propose an a priori hypothesis-testing framework that uses introgression statistics—including a new metric of estimated introgression, Dp —to evaluate general patterns of introgression prevalence and direction across multiple closely related species. We demonstrate this approach using whole genome sequences from 32 lineages...

Herbicide, fertilization, and planting density effects on intensively managed loblolly pine early stand development

Gabriel Ferreira, Benjamin Rau & Doug Aubrey
Production forestry in the southeast US has been partially transitioned to intensively managed short rotations (~10 years), in which multiple silvicultural interventions are performed during forest development. Understanding the responses to silvicultural practices and continued refinement of site-specific recommendations is critical to sustainably maximize forest production. We evaluated the effects of silvicultural practices (herbicide, fertilization, and planting density) on growth, stand homogeneity, and above- and belowground biomass accumulation and partitioning of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)...

The sunflower (Helianthus annuusL.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements

S. Evan Staton, Bradley H. Bakken, Benjamin K. Blackman, Mark A. Chapman, Nolan C. Kane, Shunxue Tang, Mark C. Ungerer, Steven J. Knapp, Loren H. Rieseberg & John M. Burke
Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well‐documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence...

Latitudinal gradients in population growth do not reflect demographic responses to climate

Megan Peterson, Graham Bailes, Lauren Hendricks, Laurel Pfeifer-Meister, Paul Reed, Scott Bridgham, Bart Johnson, Robert Shriver, Ellen Waddle, Hannah Wroton, Daniel Doak, Bitty Roy & William Morris
Spatial gradients in population growth, such as across latitudinal or elevational gradients, are often assumed to primarily be driven by variation in climate, and are frequently used to infer species’ responses to climate change. Here, we use a novel demographic, mixed model approach to dissect the contributions of climate variables vs. other latitudinal or local site effects on spatiotemporal variation in population performance in three perennial bunchgrasses. For all three species, we find that performance...

Autopolyploidy-driven range expansion of a temperate-originated plant to pan-tropic under global change

Jiliang Cheng, Jun Li, Zheng Zhang, Huan Lu, Guoqi Chen, Beibei Yao, Yingxue Dong, Ling Ma, Xiaoxiao Yuan, Jingxuan Xu, Ying Zhang, Weimin Dai, Xianghong Yang, Lifang Xue, Yu Zhang, Chaobin Zhang, Rodney Mauricio, Gary Peng, Shuijin Hu, Bernal Valverde, Xiaoling Song, Yi Li, Marc Stift & Sheng Qiang
Angiosperms are believed to have emerged initially in the tropics and expanded their distribution range polewards through diverse mechanisms, for example polyploidization-driven cold-tolerance evolution. Reversed expansion from temperate to pantropic climate through a polyploidization-driven shift in heat-tolerance remains largely unknown. Here, we found autopolyploidy in relation to the global expansion of Solidago canadensis from its temperate-climate native range in North American to hot-summer climate in an introduced range. Our cytogeographical study of 2062 accessions from...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    64

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    64

Affiliations

  • University of Georgia
    64
  • Duke University
    4
  • University of California, Berkeley
    4
  • University of California, Davis
    4
  • United States Geological Survey
    3
  • University of British Columbia
    3
  • University of Montana
    2
  • Stanford University
    2
  • The Nature Conservancy
    2
  • Columbia University
    2