53 Works

Temporal and scalar variations affect resource use of northern bobwhite broods

Bradley Kubecka, James Martin & Theron Terhune
Disparate resource use originating from phenology of biotic resources, abiotic conditions, and life cycles of exploiting organisms underscores the importance of research across time and space to guide locally relevant management practices. Our goal was to evaluate resource use of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; bobwhite) at two spatial scales and across three age classes, from hatching through a period of the post-juvenile molt. Our study was conducted at Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL, USA–...

Horizontal gene transfer is the main driver of antimicrobial resistance in broiler chicks infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg

Adelumola Oladeinde, Zaid Abdo, Maximilian Press, Kimberly Cook, Nelson Cox, Benjamin Zwirzitz, Reed Woyda, Steven Lakin, , Torey Looft, Douglas Cosby, , Jean Guard, Eric Line, Michael Rothrock, Mark Berrang, Kyler Herrington, Gregory Zock, Jodie Plumblee Lawrence, Denice Cudnik, Sandra House, Kimberly Ingram, Leah Lariscy, Robert Wagner, Samuel Aggrey … & Casey Ritz
Overuse and misuse of antibiotics in clinical settings and in food production have been linked to the increased prevalence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AR). Consequently, public health and consumer concerns have resulted in a remarkable reduction in antibiotics used for food animal production. However, there are no data on the effectiveness of antibiotic removal in reducing AR shared through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In this study, we used neonatal broiler chicks and Salmonella enterica...

Data from: Natural resistance to worms exacerbates bovine tuberculosis severity independently of worm coinfection

Vanessa Ezenwa, Sarah Budischak, Peter Buss, Mauricio Seguel, Gordon Luikart, Anna Jolles & Kaori Sakamoto
Pathogen interactions arising during coinfection can exacerbate disease severity, for example, when the immune response mounted against one pathogen negatively affects defense of another. It is also possible that host immune responses to a pathogen, shaped by historical evolutionary interactions between host and pathogen, may modify host immune defenses in ways that have repercussions for other pathogens. In this case, negative interactions between two pathogens could emerge even in the absence of concurrent infection. Parasitic...

Ecological consequences of large herbivore exclusion in an African savanna: 12 years of data from the UHURU experiment

Jesse Alston, Courtney Reed, Leo Khasoha, Bianca Brown, Gilbert Busienei, Nathaniel Carlson, Tyler Coverdale, Megan Dudenhoeffer, Marissa Dyck, John Ekeno, Abdikadir Hassan, Rhianna Hohbein, Rhiannon Jakopak, Buas Kimiti, Samson Kurukura, Peter Lokeny, Allison Louthan, Simon Musila, Paul Musili, Tosca Tindall, Sarah Weiner, Tyler Kartzinel, Todd Palmer, Robert Pringle & Jacob Goheen
Diverse communities of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), once widespread, are now rare. LMH exert strong direct and indirect effects on community structure and ecosystem functions, and measuring these effects is important for testing ecological theory and for understanding past, current, and future environmental change. This in turn requires long-term experimental manipulations, owing to the slow and often nonlinear responses of populations and assemblages to LMH removal. Moreover, the effects of particular species or body-size classes...

Data and code from: Mixed infection, risk projection and misdirection: Interactions among pathogens alter links between host resources and disease

Alexander Strauss, Lucas Bowerman, Anita Porath-Krause, Eric Seabloom & Elizabeth Borer
A growing body of literature links resources of hosts to their risk of infectious disease. Yet most hosts encounter multiple pathogens, and projections of disease risk based on resource availability could be fundamentally wrong if they do not account for interactions among pathogens within hosts. Here, we measured infection risk of grass hosts (Avena sativa) exposed to three naturally-co-occurring viruses either singly or jointly (barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses [B/CYDVs]: CYDV-RPV, BYDV-PAV, and BYDV-SGV)...

Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from tadpoles

Rick Relyea, John Hammond & Patrick Stephens
Environmental heterogeneity has led to widespread evolution of phenotypic plasticity in all taxonomic groups. Although phenotypic plasticity has been examined from multiple perspectives, few studies have examined evolutionary patterns of plasticity within a phylogeny. We conducted common-garden experiments on 20 species of tadpoles, spanning three families, exposed for 4 weeks to a control, predator cues, or reduced food (i.e., increased intraspecific competition). We quantified tadpole activity, growth, and relative morphology and found widespread differences in...

Both consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators impact mosquito populations and have implications for disease transmission

Marie C Russell, Catherine M Herzog, Zachary Gajewski, Chloe Ramsay, Fadoua El Moustaid, Michelle V Evans, Trishna Desai, Nicole L Gottdenker, Sara L Hermann, Alison G Power & Andrew C McCall
Predator-prey interactions influence prey traits through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects, and variation in these traits can shape vector-borne disease dynamics. Meta-analysis methods were employed to generate predation effect sizes by different categories of predators and mosquito prey. This analysis showed that multiple families of aquatic predators are effective in consumptively reducing mosquito survival, and that the survival of Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes is negatively impacted by consumptive effects of predators. Mosquito larval size...

Spermatocysts stained positively with anti-pHH3 antibody

Patricia Moore & Christine Miller
Males have the ability to compete for fertilizations through both pre-copulatory and post-copulatory intrasexual competition. Pre-copulatory competition has selected for large weapons and other adaptations to maximize access to females and mating opportunities while post-copulatory competition has resulted in ejaculate adaptations to maximize fertilization success. Negative associations between these strategies support the hypothesis that there is a trade-off between success at pre- and post-copulatory mating success. Recently, this trade-off has been demonstrated with experimental manipulation....

Implications of overfishing of frugivorous fishes for cryptic function loss in a Neotropical floodplain

Joisiane Araujo, Sandra Bibiana Correa, Jerry Penha, Jill Anderson & Anna Traveset
Many frugivorous animals act simultaneously as seed predators and dispersers, and shifts in the abundance and mean phenotype of the frugivore population can alter the prevalence of antagonistic vs mutualistic interactions with seeds. Here, we evaluated how a reduction in the abundance and species richness of large-bodied frugivorous fishes affects their interactions with plants in a Neotropical floodplain. Fisheries selectively harvest large frugivorous fishes, which are the most effective seed dispersers. Thus, functional extinctions of...

Data from: Interspecific variation in post-disturbance growth responses of a savanna tree community and its implications for escaping the fire trap

Julienne E. NeSmith, Wayne Twine & Ricardo M. Holdo
Vegetation states in savannas are highly sensitive to tree growth rates, which determine whether individual trees can ‘escape’ periodic disturbances. Resprouting trees have lopsided shoot:root ratios and are often multi-stemmed, and these variables can modify post-disturbance growth rates and therefore the probability of escape. To date, few studies have systematically examined the implications of interspecific variation in these factors for escape. We conducted a two-year field experiment in lowveld savanna in South Africa and quantified...

Data from: Biomass production and stability of five energycane cultivars at two latitudes in Georgia, USA

Joseph Knoll, William Anderson, Ali Missaoui, Anna Hale & Wayne Hanna
Energycane (Saccharum hyb.) could be a viable bioenergy crop for the Southeast USA. Five energycane cultivars were planted in 2008 at a northern (Watkinsville, GA) and a southern (Tifton, GA) site, and were grown for seven years to compare biomass yields. Plots were arranged in a four replicate randomized complete block design at each site. Energycane was grown under rainfed conditions with 90–112 kg ha-1 N applied annually. Plant height was recorded at least monthly,...

Improved contiguity of the threespine stickleback genome using long-read sequencing

Shivangi Nath, Daniel Shaw & Michael White
While the cost and time for assembling a genome has drastically decreased, it still remains a challenge to assemble a highly contiguous genome. These challenges are rapidly being overcome by the integration of long-read sequencing technologies. Here, we use long-read sequencing to improve the contiguity of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) genome, a prominent genetic model species. Using Pacific Biosciences sequencing, we assembled a highly contiguous genome of a freshwater fish from Paxton Lake....

Variable effects of mycorrhizal fungi on predator-prey dynamics under field conditions

Amanda Meier & Mark Hunter
1. Interactions between herbivores and their predators are shaped, in part, by plant phenotype. Consequently, ubiquitous symbionts of plants belowground, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), may influence interactions aboveground between predators and their prey by altering plant phenotype. However, the ecological relevance of belowground organisms on predator-prey interactions under field conditions remains unclear. 2. We assessed how AMF influence herbivore-predator interactions through a field experiment. 3. We planted two milkweed species (Asclepias curassavica, A....

Carpophiline-ID: An interactive matrix-based key to the carpophiline sap beetles (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) of Eastern North America

Courtney DiLorenzo, Gareth Powell, Andrew Cline & Joseph McHugh
We present Carpophiline-ID, a matrix-based LucidTM key, for the adult stage of the known species of Carpophilinae (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) of North America, east of the Mississippi River. We provide an overview of the features and technical specifications used to build the key. The list of terminal taxa used in the key represents the most current regional account for Carpophilinae, a beetle subfamily of agricultural and ecological importance. We discuss the value of matrix-based, free access...

Feedbacks between forest structure and an opportunistic fungal pathogen

Christopher Lee, Ricardo Holdo & Rose-Marie Muzika
Abiotic stresses, physiological dysfunction, forest stand dynamics, and primary tree attackers (native and non-native) are all recognized as important contributors to both anomalous tree mortality and background tree mortality, and thus as important influences on biogeochemical cycling and habitat for associated terrestrial organisms. Opportunistic and latent tree pathogens and insect pests have largely been left out of this discussion, probably because they are difficult to monitor and their effects sometimes more diffuse, yet they play...

Complex landscapes stabilize farm bird communities and their expected ecosystem services

Olivia Smith, Christina M. Kennedy, Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Christopher Latimer, Joseph Taylor, Erin Wilson-Rankin, Jeb Owen & William Snyder
1. Birds play many roles within agroecosystems including as consumers of crops and pests, carriers of pathogens, and beloved icons. Birds are also rapidly declining across North America, in part due to agricultural intensification. Thus, it is imperative to identify how to manage agroecosystems to best support birds for multi-functional outcomes (e.g., crop production and conservation). Both the average amounts of services/disservices provided and their temporal stability are important for effective farm planning. 2. Here,...

Evolution of conserved noncoding sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana

Alan Yocca, Zefu Lu, Robert Schmitz, Michael Freeling & Patrick Edger
Recent pangenome studies have revealed that a large fraction (>20%) of the gene content within a species exhibits presence-absence variation (PAV). However, coding regions alone provide an incomplete assessment of functional genomic sequence variation at the species level. Little to no attention has been paid to noncoding regulatory regions in pangenome studies, though these sequences directly modulate gene expression and phenotype. To uncover regulatory genetic variation, we generated chromosome-scale genome assemblies for thirty Arabidopsis thaliana...

Extirpated prairie species demonstrate more variable phenological responses to warming than extant congeners

Meredith Zettlemoyer, Katarina Renaldi, Michael Muzyka & Jennifer Lau
Premise of the study. Shifting phenology in response to climate is one mechanism that can promote population persistence and geographic spread; therefore, species with limited ability to phenologically track changing environmental conditions may be more susceptible to population declines. Alternatively, apparently, nonresponding species may demonstrate divergent responses to multiple environmental conditions experienced across seasons. Methods. Capitalizing on herbarium records from across the Midwestern United States and detailed botanical surveys documenting local extinctions over the past...

Neutrophil extracellular traps are present in the airways of ENaC-overexpressing mice with cystic fibrosis-like lung disease

Balazs Rada
Background: Neutrophils are key components of the exacerbated inflammation and tissue damage in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) trap and kill extracellular pathogens. While NETs are abundant in the airways of CF patients and have been hypothesized to contribute to lung damage in CF, the in vivo role of NETs remains controversial, partially due to lack of appropriate animal models. The goal of this study was to detect NETs and to further...

GARD 1.5 range shapefiles used in: Global diversity patterns are explained by diversification rates at ancient, not shallow, timescales

Uri Roll, Shai Meiri, Maxwell Farrell, Jonathan Davies, John Gittleman, John Wiens & Patrick Stephens
Explaining global species richness patterns is a “Holy Grail” of ecology and evolution. These richness patterns are often attributed to spatial variation in diversification rates (speciation minus extinction). Surprisingly, prominent studies of birds, fish, and angiosperms reported higher diversification rates at higher latitudes (mismatched with richness). Yet these studies only examined diversification rates at relatively recent timescales. Here, we quantify global richness patterns among lizard and snake species (10,213; 94%) and explore their underlying causes....

Genotype and individual data for genetic structure in Louisiana Iris species reveals patterns of recent and historical admixture

Alexander Zalmat, Alex Sotola, Chris Nice & Noland Martin
Premise: When divergent lineages come into secondary contact reproductive isolation may be incomplete, thus providing an opportunity to investigate how speciation is manifested in the genome. The Louisiana Irises (Iris, series Hexagonae) comprise a group of three or more ecologically and reproductively divergent lineages that can produce hybrids where they come into contact. In this study we sought to estimate standing genetic variation to understand the current distribution of population structure in the Louisiana Irises....

A trait-based framework for predicting foodborne pathogen risk from wild birds

Olivia Smith, Elissa Olimpi, Nora Navarro-González, Kevin Cornell, Luke Frishkoff, Tobin Northfield, Timothy Bowles, Max Edworthy, Johnna Eilers, Zhen Fu, Karina Garcia, David Gonthier, Matthew Jones, Christina Kennedy, Christopher Latimer, Jeb Owen, Chika Sato, Joseph Taylor, Erin Wilson Rankin, William Snyder & Daniel Karp
Recent foodborne illness outbreaks have heightened pressures on growers to deter wildlife from farms, jeopardizing conservation efforts. However, it remains unclear which species, particularly birds, pose the greatest risk to food safety. Using >11,000 pathogen tests and 1,565 bird surveys covering 139 bird species from across the western U.S.A., we examined the importance of 11 traits in mediating wild bird risk to food safety. We tested whether traits associated with pathogen exposure (e.g., habitat associations,...

Warming during maternal generations delays offspring germination in native and nonnative species

Meredith Zettlemoyer & Jennifer Lau
As environmental conditions shift due to global warming and other human-caused environmental changes, plastic responses in phenological traits like germination or flowering time may become increasingly important. While phenological plasticity is a common response to global warming, with many populations exhibiting earlier germination or flowering in warmer years, warming may also result in transgenerational plasticity, especially on early life stages. In other words, seeds produced by mothers inhabiting warmer environments may germinate faster (or slower)...

Investigation of Long COVID Prevalence and Its Relationship to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation

Jeffrey Gold, Ramazan Okyay, Warren Licht & David Hurley
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients sometimes experience long-term symptoms following resolution of acute disease, including fatigue, brain fog, and rashes. Collectively these have become known as long COVID. Our aim was to first determine long COVID prevalence in 185 randomly surveyed COVID-19 patients and, subsequently, to determine if there was an association between occurrence of long COVID symptoms and reactivation of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in 68 COVID-19 patients recruited from those surveyed. We found the...

Drakaea glyptodon nuclear microsatellite and chloroplast haplotype data

Dorset Trapnell, Patrick Smallwood, Kingsley Dixon & Ryan Phillips
Many orchids are characterized by small, patchily distributed populations. Resolving how they persist is important for understanding the ecology of this hyper-diverse family, many members of which are of conservation concern. Ten populations of the common terrestrial orchid Drakaea glyptodon from Southwest Australia were genotyped with ten nuclear and five chloroplast SSR markers. Levels and partitioning of genetic variation, and effective population sizes (Ne), were estimated. Spatial genetic structure of nuclear diversity, together with chloroplast...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Georgia
  • Cornell University
  • University of California, Riverside
  • Michigan State University
  • Stanford University
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • University of Minnesota
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
  • Texas State University