53 Works

Ecological consequences of large herbivore exclusion in an African savanna: 12 years of data from the UHURU experiment

Jesse Alston, Courtney Reed, Leo Khasoha, Bianca Brown, Gilbert Busienei, Nathaniel Carlson, Tyler Coverdale, Megan Dudenhoeffer, Marissa Dyck, John Ekeno, Abdikadir Hassan, Rhianna Hohbein, Rhiannon Jakopak, Buas Kimiti, Samson Kurukura, Peter Lokeny, Allison Louthan, Simon Musila, Paul Musili, Tosca Tindall, Sarah Weiner, Tyler Kartzinel, Todd Palmer, Robert Pringle & Jacob Goheen
Diverse communities of large mammalian herbivores (LMH), once widespread, are now rare. LMH exert strong direct and indirect effects on community structure and ecosystem functions, and measuring these effects is important for testing ecological theory and for understanding past, current, and future environmental change. This in turn requires long-term experimental manipulations, owing to the slow and often nonlinear responses of populations and assemblages to LMH removal. Moreover, the effects of particular species or body-size classes...

Data from: Natural resistance to worms exacerbates bovine tuberculosis severity independently of worm coinfection

Vanessa Ezenwa, Sarah Budischak, Peter Buss, Mauricio Seguel, Gordon Luikart, Anna Jolles & Kaori Sakamoto
Pathogen interactions arising during coinfection can exacerbate disease severity, for example, when the immune response mounted against one pathogen negatively affects defense of another. It is also possible that host immune responses to a pathogen, shaped by historical evolutionary interactions between host and pathogen, may modify host immune defenses in ways that have repercussions for other pathogens. In this case, negative interactions between two pathogens could emerge even in the absence of concurrent infection. Parasitic...

Temporal and scalar variations affect resource use of northern bobwhite broods

Bradley Kubecka, James Martin & Theron Terhune
Disparate resource use originating from phenology of biotic resources, abiotic conditions, and life cycles of exploiting organisms underscores the importance of research across time and space to guide locally relevant management practices. Our goal was to evaluate resource use of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; bobwhite) at two spatial scales and across three age classes, from hatching through a period of the post-juvenile molt. Our study was conducted at Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL, USA–...

Horizontal gene transfer is the main driver of antimicrobial resistance in broiler chicks infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg

Adelumola Oladeinde, Zaid Abdo, Maximilian Press, Kimberly Cook, Nelson Cox, Benjamin Zwirzitz, Reed Woyda, Steven Lakin, , Torey Looft, Douglas Cosby, , Jean Guard, Eric Line, Michael Rothrock, Mark Berrang, Kyler Herrington, Gregory Zock, Jodie Plumblee Lawrence, Denice Cudnik, Sandra House, Kimberly Ingram, Leah Lariscy, Robert Wagner, Samuel Aggrey … & Casey Ritz
Overuse and misuse of antibiotics in clinical settings and in food production have been linked to the increased prevalence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AR). Consequently, public health and consumer concerns have resulted in a remarkable reduction in antibiotics used for food animal production. However, there are no data on the effectiveness of antibiotic removal in reducing AR shared through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). In this study, we used neonatal broiler chicks and Salmonella enterica...

Carpophiline-ID: An interactive matrix-based key to the carpophiline sap beetles (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) of Eastern North America

Courtney DiLorenzo, Gareth Powell, Andrew Cline & Joseph McHugh
We present Carpophiline-ID, a matrix-based LucidTM key, for the adult stage of the known species of Carpophilinae (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) of North America, east of the Mississippi River. We provide an overview of the features and technical specifications used to build the key. The list of terminal taxa used in the key represents the most current regional account for Carpophilinae, a beetle subfamily of agricultural and ecological importance. We discuss the value of matrix-based, free access...

Data from: Biomass production and stability of five energycane cultivars at two latitudes in Georgia, USA

Joseph Knoll, William Anderson, Ali Missaoui, Anna Hale & Wayne Hanna
Energycane (Saccharum hyb.) could be a viable bioenergy crop for the Southeast USA. Five energycane cultivars were planted in 2008 at a northern (Watkinsville, GA) and a southern (Tifton, GA) site, and were grown for seven years to compare biomass yields. Plots were arranged in a four replicate randomized complete block design at each site. Energycane was grown under rainfed conditions with 90–112 kg ha-1 N applied annually. Plant height was recorded at least monthly,...

Improved contiguity of the threespine stickleback genome using long-read sequencing

Shivangi Nath, Daniel Shaw & Michael White
While the cost and time for assembling a genome has drastically decreased, it still remains a challenge to assemble a highly contiguous genome. These challenges are rapidly being overcome by the integration of long-read sequencing technologies. Here, we use long-read sequencing to improve the contiguity of the threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) genome, a prominent genetic model species. Using Pacific Biosciences sequencing, we assembled a highly contiguous genome of a freshwater fish from Paxton Lake....

Data from: Interspecific variation in post-disturbance growth responses of a savanna tree community and its implications for escaping the fire trap

Julienne E. NeSmith, Wayne Twine & Ricardo M. Holdo
Vegetation states in savannas are highly sensitive to tree growth rates, which determine whether individual trees can ‘escape’ periodic disturbances. Resprouting trees have lopsided shoot:root ratios and are often multi-stemmed, and these variables can modify post-disturbance growth rates and therefore the probability of escape. To date, few studies have systematically examined the implications of interspecific variation in these factors for escape. We conducted a two-year field experiment in lowveld savanna in South Africa and quantified...

Spermatocysts stained positively with anti-pHH3 antibody

Patricia Moore & Christine Miller
Males have the ability to compete for fertilizations through both pre-copulatory and post-copulatory intrasexual competition. Pre-copulatory competition has selected for large weapons and other adaptations to maximize access to females and mating opportunities while post-copulatory competition has resulted in ejaculate adaptations to maximize fertilization success. Negative associations between these strategies support the hypothesis that there is a trade-off between success at pre- and post-copulatory mating success. Recently, this trade-off has been demonstrated with experimental manipulation....

Variable effects of mycorrhizal fungi on predator-prey dynamics under field conditions

Amanda Meier & Mark Hunter
1. Interactions between herbivores and their predators are shaped, in part, by plant phenotype. Consequently, ubiquitous symbionts of plants belowground, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), may influence interactions aboveground between predators and their prey by altering plant phenotype. However, the ecological relevance of belowground organisms on predator-prey interactions under field conditions remains unclear. 2. We assessed how AMF influence herbivore-predator interactions through a field experiment. 3. We planted two milkweed species (Asclepias curassavica, A....

Feedbacks between forest structure and an opportunistic fungal pathogen

Christopher Lee, Ricardo Holdo & Rose-Marie Muzika
Abiotic stresses, physiological dysfunction, forest stand dynamics, and primary tree attackers (native and non-native) are all recognized as important contributors to both anomalous tree mortality and background tree mortality, and thus as important influences on biogeochemical cycling and habitat for associated terrestrial organisms. Opportunistic and latent tree pathogens and insect pests have largely been left out of this discussion, probably because they are difficult to monitor and their effects sometimes more diffuse, yet they play...

Implications of overfishing of frugivorous fishes for cryptic function loss in a Neotropical floodplain

Joisiane Araujo, Sandra Bibiana Correa, Jerry Penha, Jill Anderson & Anna Traveset
Many frugivorous animals act simultaneously as seed predators and dispersers, and shifts in the abundance and mean phenotype of the frugivore population can alter the prevalence of antagonistic vs mutualistic interactions with seeds. Here, we evaluated how a reduction in the abundance and species richness of large-bodied frugivorous fishes affects their interactions with plants in a Neotropical floodplain. Fisheries selectively harvest large frugivorous fishes, which are the most effective seed dispersers. Thus, functional extinctions of...

Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from tadpoles

Rick Relyea, John Hammond & Patrick Stephens
Environmental heterogeneity has led to widespread evolution of phenotypic plasticity in all taxonomic groups. Although phenotypic plasticity has been examined from multiple perspectives, few studies have examined evolutionary patterns of plasticity within a phylogeny. We conducted common-garden experiments on 20 species of tadpoles, spanning three families, exposed for 4 weeks to a control, predator cues, or reduced food (i.e., increased intraspecific competition). We quantified tadpole activity, growth, and relative morphology and found widespread differences in...

Data and code from: Mixed infection, risk projection and misdirection: Interactions among pathogens alter links between host resources and disease

Alexander Strauss, Lucas Bowerman, Anita Porath-Krause, Eric Seabloom & Elizabeth Borer
A growing body of literature links resources of hosts to their risk of infectious disease. Yet most hosts encounter multiple pathogens, and projections of disease risk based on resource availability could be fundamentally wrong if they do not account for interactions among pathogens within hosts. Here, we measured infection risk of grass hosts (Avena sativa) exposed to three naturally-co-occurring viruses either singly or jointly (barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses [B/CYDVs]: CYDV-RPV, BYDV-PAV, and BYDV-SGV)...

Both consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predators impact mosquito populations and have implications for disease transmission

Marie C Russell, Catherine M Herzog, Zachary Gajewski, Chloe Ramsay, Fadoua El Moustaid, Michelle V Evans, Trishna Desai, Nicole L Gottdenker, Sara L Hermann, Alison G Power & Andrew C McCall
Predator-prey interactions influence prey traits through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects, and variation in these traits can shape vector-borne disease dynamics. Meta-analysis methods were employed to generate predation effect sizes by different categories of predators and mosquito prey. This analysis showed that multiple families of aquatic predators are effective in consumptively reducing mosquito survival, and that the survival of Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes is negatively impacted by consumptive effects of predators. Mosquito larval size...

Complex landscapes stabilize farm bird communities and their expected ecosystem services

Olivia Smith, Christina M. Kennedy, Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Christopher Latimer, Joseph Taylor, Erin Wilson-Rankin, Jeb Owen & William Snyder
1. Birds play many roles within agroecosystems including as consumers of crops and pests, carriers of pathogens, and beloved icons. Birds are also rapidly declining across North America, in part due to agricultural intensification. Thus, it is imperative to identify how to manage agroecosystems to best support birds for multi-functional outcomes (e.g., crop production and conservation). Both the average amounts of services/disservices provided and their temporal stability are important for effective farm planning. 2. Here,...

Low genetic variability in Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 populations within farmscapes of Georgia, USA

Saurabh Gautam & Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan
Sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, is a serious pest of many agricultural crops worldwide. Numerous studies have examined the genetic structure of whitefly populations separated by geographical barriers; however, very few have assessed the population structure of B. tabaci at a farmscape level. A farmscape in this study is defined as heterogenous habitat with crop and non-crop areas spanning about 8 square kilometers. To assess the roles of farmscapes as drivers of B. tabaci genetic...

Data for: Costs of reproduction under experimental climate change across elevations in the perennial forb Boechera stricta

Jill Anderson
Investment in current reproduction can reduce future fitness by depleting resources needed for maintenance, particularly under environmental stress, and such trade-offs influence life history evolution. We tested whether climate change alters the future-fitness costs of current reproduction in a large-scale field experiment of Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae). Over six years, we simulated climate change along an elevational gradient in the Rocky Mountains through snow removal, which accelerates snowmelt and reduces soil water availability. Costs of reproduction...

Constrained flexibility of parental cooperation limits evolutionary responses to harsh conditions

Jeanette Moss & Allen Moore
Parental care is predicted to evolve to mitigate harsh environments, thus adaptive plasticity of care may be an important response to our climate crisis. In biparental species, fitness costs may be reduced with plasticity of behavior among partners. We investigated this prediction with the burying beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis, by exposing them to contrasting benign and harsh thermal environments. We found strong fitness costs under the harsh environment, but rather than select for more care, visualized...

Changes in selection pressure can facilitate hybridization during biological invasion in a Cuban lizard

Dan Bock, Simon Baeckens, Jessica Pita-Aquino, Zachary Chejanovski, Sozos Michaelides, Pavitra Muralidhar, Oriol Lapiedra, Sungdae Park, Douglas Menke, Anthony Geneva, Jonathan Losos & Jason Kolbe
Hybridization is among the evolutionary mechanisms most frequently hypothesized to drive the success of invasive species, in part because hybrids are common in invasive populations. One explanation for this pattern is that biological invasions coincide with a change in selection pressures that limit hybridization in the native range. To investigate this possibility, we studied the introduction of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei) in the southeastern United States. We find that native populations are highly genetically...

Asimina triloba genetic data

Dorset Trapnell, Graham Wyatt & Jim Hamrick
Dispersal and colonization are among the most important ecological processes for species persistence as they allow species to track changing environmental conditions. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), many cold-intolerant Northern Hemisphere plants retreated to southern glacial refugia. During subsequent warming periods, these species expanded their ranges northward. Interestingly, some tree species with limited seed dispersal migrated considerable distances after the LGM ~19,000 year before present (YBP). It has been hypothesized that indigenous peoples may...

Climate warming threatens the persistence of a community of disturbance-adapted native annual plants

Paul Reed, Scott Bridgham, Laurel Pfeifer-Meister, Megan Peterson, Bart Johnson, Bitty Roy, Graham Bailes, Aaron Nelson, William Morris & Daniel Doak
With ongoing climate change, populations are expected to exhibit shifts in demographic performance that will alter where a species can persist. This presents unique challenges for managing plant populations and may require ongoing interventions, including in-situ management or introduction into new locations. However, few studies have examined how climate change may affect plant demographic performance for a suite of species, or how effective management actions could be in mitigating climate change effects. Over the course...

Gene expression of neurotransmitter receptors over reproductive cycle of Nicrophorus vespilloides

Christopher Cunningham, Daven Khana, Annika Carter, Elizabeth McKinney & Allen Moore
Understanding genetic influences of traits in non-model organisms is crucial to understanding how novel traits arise. Do new traits require new genes, or are old genes repurposed? How predictable is this process? Here we examine this question for gene expression influencing parenting behavior in a beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. Parental care, produced from many individual behaviors, should be influenced by changes of expression of multiple genes and one suggestion is that the genes can be predicted...

Sex, age, and acoustic mating interactions affect the immunity of Aedes aegypti offspring

Courtney Murdock, Christine Reitmayer, Ashutosh Pathak, Laura Harrington, Melinda Brindley & Lauren Cator
Aedes aegypti is an important vector of several pathogenic arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Innovative approaches to control Aedes populations, involving synthetic transgenic modifications as well as Wolbachia bacteria, appear promising. For the various techniques requiring offspring inheritance of a trait, released males must successfully compete for mating partners against wildtype males. However, very little is known about mechanisms of mate selection in mosquitoes in general and in particular about potential correlations between mating...

Incubation temperature as a constraint on clutch size evolution

Sydney Hope, Sarah DuRant, John Hallagan, Michelle Beck, Robert Kennamer & William Hopkins
1. Elucidating factors that limit the number of offspring produced is fundamental to understanding life-history evolution. Here, we examine the hypothesis that parental ability to maintain an optimal physical developmental environment for all offspring constrains clutch size via effects on offspring quality. 2. Experimental laboratory studies of birds have shown that a <1°C difference in average incubation temperature has diverse effects on fitness-related post-hatching offspring phenotypes. Thus, the inability of parents to maintain optimal incubation...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    53

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    53

Affiliations

  • University of Georgia
    53
  • Cornell University
    4
  • University of California, Riverside
    3
  • Michigan State University
    3
  • Stanford University
    2
  • The Nature Conservancy
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • University of California, Berkeley
    2
  • University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
    2
  • Texas State University
    2