94 Works

Data from: Evolutionary dynamics of specialisation in herbivorous stick insects

Chloé Larose, Sergio Rasmann & Tanja Schwander
Understanding the evolutionary dynamics underlying herbivorous insect mega-diversity requires investigating the ability of insects to shift and adapt to different host plants. Feeding experiments with nine related stick insect species revealed that insects retain the ability to use ancestral host plants after shifting to novel hosts, with host plant shifts generating fundamental feeding niche expansions. These expansions were however not accompanied by expansions of the realized feeding niches, as species on novel hosts are generally...

Data from: Effects of food variability on growth and reproduction of Aedes aegypti

Michael Zeller & Jacob C. Koella
Despite a large body of knowledge about the evolution of life histories, we know little about how variable food availability during an individual's development affects its life history. We measured the effects of manipulating food levels during early and late larval development of the mosquito Aedes aegypti on its growth rate, life history and reproductive success. Switching from low to high food led to compensatory growth: individuals grew more rapidly during late larval development and...

Data from: The simultaneous inducibility of phytochemicals related to plant direct and indirect defences against herbivores is stronger at low elevation

Loïc Pellissier, Xoaquín Moreira, Holger Danner, Martha Serrano, Nicolas Salamin, Nicole M. Van Dam & Sergio Rasmann
Ecological theory indicates that warmer and more stable climates should result in stronger biotic interactions. Therefore, plant species growing at lower elevations and experiencing greater herbivore pressure, should invest in higher levels of defences than those at higher elevations. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies that have found no effect of elevational gradients on plant defensive traits. Several factors might explain the lack of consistency for the altitude-defence relationships; including 1) the reduction of...

Data from: Very high resolution digital elevation models: are multi-scale derived variables ecologically relevant?

Kevin Leempoel, Christian Parisod, Céline Geiser, Lucas Daprà, Pascal Vittoz & Stéphane Joost
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are often used in landscape ecology to retrieve elevation or first derivative terrain attributes such as slope or aspect in the context of species distribution modelling. However, DEM-derived variables are scale-dependent and, given the increasing availability of very high resolution (VHR) DEMs, their ecological relevance must be assessed for different spatial resolutions. In a study area located in the Swiss Western Alps, we computed VHR DEMs-derived variables related to morphometry, hydrology...

Data from: Male monkeys use punishment and coercion to de-escalate costly intergroup fights

T. Jean M. Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L. Taucher, Carel P. Van Schaik, Redouan Bshary & Erik P. Willems
In numerous social species, males direct aggression towards female group members during intergroup fights, and this behaviour is commonly thought to function as mate guarding, even though males often target non-receptive females. In studying intergroup fights in a wild population of vervet monkeys, we found that male intragroup aggression was primarily directed towards individuals who had either just finished exhibiting, or were currently attempting to instigate intergroup aggression. Targeted females were less likely to instigate...

Data from: Microbiome affects egg carotenoid investment, nestling development and adult oxidative costs of reproduction in Great tits

Staffan Jacob, Nathalie Parthuisot, Armelle Vallat, Felipe Ramon-Portugal, Fabrice Helfenstein & Philipp Heeb
1. Parasites influence allocation trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance and consequently shape host life-history traits. The host microbiome includes pathogenic and commensal micro-organisms that are remarkable in their diversity and ubiquity. However, experimental studies investigating whether the microbiome shapes host reproduction are still lacking. 2. In this study, we tested whether the microbiome affects three important components of bird reproduction, namely (i) the maternal transfer of anti-microbial compounds to the eggs, (ii) the development of...

Data from: Uncovering cryptic parasitoid diversity in Horismenus (Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae)

Sarah G. Kenyon, Sven Buerki, Christer Hansson, Nadir Alvarez & Betty Benrey
Horismenus parasitoids are an abundant and understudied group of eulophid wasps found mainly in the New World. Recent surveys based on morphological analyses in Costa Rica have quadrupled the number of named taxa, with more than 400 species described so far. This recent revision suggests that there is still a vast number of unknown species to be identified. As Horismenus wasps have been widely described as parasitoids of insect pests associated with crop plants, it...

Data from: Power and temptation cause shifts between exploitation and cooperation in a cleaner wrasse mutualism

Simon Gingins, Redouan Bshary, Johanna Werminghausen, Rufus A. Johnstone & Alexandra S. Grutter
In many instances of cooperation, only one individual has both the potential and the incentive to ‘cheat’ and exploit its partner. Under these asymmetric conditions, a simple model predicts that variation in the temptation to cheat and in the potential victim's capacity for partner control leads to shifts between exploitation and cooperation. Here, we show that the threat of early termination of an interaction was sufficient to induce cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus to feed selectively...

Data from: Corticosterone: effects on feather quality and deposition into feathers

Susanne Jenni-Eiermann, Fabrice Helfenstein, Armelle Vallat, Gaétan Glauser & Lukas Jenni
1. The concentration of the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (CORT) is increasingly used in ecology and conservation biology as an integrated measure of the historical record of an individual's hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity during feather growth. However, where and how CORT is incorporated in feathers is incompletely known. 2. We therefore examined whether CORT is reliably measured with an enzyme immunoassay, where CORT is incorporated in the feather and where it affects feather quality, and whether CORT...

Data from: Gene flow between wheat and wild relatives: empirical evidence from Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis

Nils Arrigo, Roberto Guadagnuolo, Sylvain Lappe, Sophie Pasche, Christian Parisod & François Felber
Gene flow between domesticated species and their wild relatives is receiving growing attention. The present study addressed introgression between wheat and natural populations of its wild relatives (Aegilops species). The sampling included 472 individuals, collected from 32 Mediterranean populations of three widespread Aegilops species (Ae. geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis), and compared wheat field borders to areas isolated from agriculture. Individuals were characterized with AFLP fingerprinting, analysed through two computational approaches (i.e. Bayesian estimations...

Data from: Female monkeys use both the carrot and the stick to promote male participation in intergroup fights

T. Jean Marie Arseneau-Robar, Anouk Lisa Taucher, Eliane Müller, Carel Van Schaik, Redouan Bshary & Erik P. Willems
Group-level cooperation often poses a social dilemma in which joint action may be difficult to achieve. Theoretical models and experimental work on humans show that social incentives, such as punishment of defectors and rewarding of cooperators, can promote cooperation in groups of unrelated individuals. Here, we demonstrate that these processes can operate in a non-human animal species, and be used to effectively promote the production of a public good. We took advantage of the fact...

Prosocial and antisocial choices in a monogamous cichlid with biparental care

Shun Satoh, Redouan Bshary, Momoko Shibasaki, Shumpei Sogawa, Takashi Hotta, Masanori Kohda, Seishiro Inaba & Satoshi Awata
Human society is cooperative and characterized by spontaneous prosociality. Comparative studies on endotherm vertebrates suggest that social interdependence causes the evolution of proactive prosociality. To test the generality of this hypothesis, we modified a prosocial choice task for application to the convict cichlid, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, a monogamous fish with biparental care and a strong pair bond. We show that subject males learned to favor prosocial choices when their mates were the recipients in neighboring tank....

No evidence for conspecific recruitment for cooperative hunting in lionfish Pterois miles

Hanaa Sarhan & Redouan Bshary
Lionfish are common piscivores in the Indo-Pacific and invasive in the Caribbean. A fin flaring pattern, involving a rapid undulation of the caudal fin and sequential turning of both pectoral fins, was described in zebra lionfish as a signal to initiate cooperative hunting, and it was hypothesized that such hunting tactics may also exist in other lionfish species and contribute to their successful invasion in the Caribbean. Here, we investigated one of those invasive species,...

Plant defense resistance in natural enemies of a specialist insect herbivore

Xi Zhang, Cong Van Doan, Carla C.M. Arce, Lingfei Hu, Sandra Gruenig, Christian Parisod, Bruce E. Hibbard, , Chad Nielson, Christelle A.M. Robert, Ricardo A.R. Machado & Matthias Erb
Plants defend themselves against herbivores through the production of toxic and deterrent metabolites. Adapted herbivores can tolerate and sometimes sequester these metabolites, allowing them to feed on defended plants and become toxic to their own enemies. Can herbivore natural enemies overcome sequestered plant defense metabolites to prey on adapted herbivores? To address this question, we studied how entomopathogenic nematodes cope with benzoxazinoid defense metabolites that are produced by grasses and sequestered by a specialist maize...

Maintenance of variation in virulence and reproduction in populations of an agricultural plant pathogen

Anik Dutta, Daniel Croll, Bruce A. McDonald & Luke G. Barrett
Genetic diversity within pathogen populations is critically important for predicting pathogen evolution, disease outcomes, and prevalence. However, we lack a good understanding of the processes maintaining genetic variation and constraints on pathogen life‐history evolution. Here, we analyzed interactions between 12 wheat host genotypes and 145 strains of Zymoseptoria tritici from five global populations to investigate the evolution and maintenance of variation in pathogen virulence and reproduction. We found a strong positive correlation between virulence (amount...

Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in pollinator communities maintains within-species floral odour variation

Mark A. Szenteczki, Adrienne Godschalx, Andrea Galmán, Anahí Espíndola, Marc Gibernau, Nadir Alvarez & Sergio Rasmann
Flowering plants emit complex bouquets of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to mediate interactions with their pollinators. These bouquets are undoubtedly influenced by pollinator-mediated selection, particularly in deceptively-pollinated species that rely on chemical mimicry. However, many uncertainties remain regarding how spatially and temporally heterogeneous pollinators affect the diversity and distribution of floral odour variation. Here, we characterized and compared the floral odours of ten populations of deceptively-pollinated Arum maculatum (Araceae), and inter-annual and decadal variation in...

Data from: The effect of community-wide phytochemical diversity on herbivory reverses from low to high elevation

Pilar Fernandez-Conradi, Defossez Emmanuel, Delavallade Adrien, Patrice Descombes, Camille Pitteloud, Gaëtan Glauser, Loïc Pellissier & Sergio Rasmann
1. Theory predicts that a large fraction of phytochemical diversity – the richness of individual chemical compounds produced by plants – governs the complexity of interactions between plants and their herbivores. While the effect of specific classes of chemical compounds on plant resistance against herbivores has been largely documented, the effect of community-level variation in phytochemical diversity on plant-herbivore interactions has so far received minimal consideration. 2. We hypothesized that plant communities bearing on average...

Data from: Social familiarity affects Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana diana) alarm call responses in habitat-specific ways

Claudia Stephan & Klaus Zuberbühler
Male Diana monkeys produce loud and acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards and eagles that propagate over long distances, much beyond the immediate group. Calling is often contagious, with neighbouring males responding to each other’s calls, indicating that harem males communicate both to local group members and distant competitors. Here, we tested whether male Diana monkeys responding to each other’s alarm calls discriminated familiar from unfamiliar callers in two populations in Taï Forest (Ivory Coast)...

Data from: Skin temperature changes in wild chimpanzees upon hearing vocalizations of conspecifics

Guillaume Dezecache, Klaus Zuberbuhler, Marina Davila-Ross & Christoph D. Dahl
A growing trend of research using infrared thermography (IRT) has shown that changes in skin temperature, associated with activity of the autonomic nervous system, can be reliably detected in human and non-human animals. A contact-free method, IRT provides the opportunity to uncover emotional states in free-ranging animals during social interactions. Here, we measured nose and ear temperatures of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, when exposed to naturally occurring vocalizations of conspecifics. We found a...

Data from: Wood ants produce a potent antimicrobial agent by applying formic acid on tree-collected resin

Timothée Brütsch, Geoffrey Jaffuel, Armelle Vallat, Ted C. J. Turlings & Michel Chapuisat
Wood ants fight pathogens by incorporating tree resin with antimicrobial properties into their nests. They also produce large quantities of formic acid in their venom gland, which they readily spray to defend or disinfect their nest. Mixing chemicals to produce powerful antibiotics is common practice in human medicine, yet evidence for the use of such “defensive cocktails” by animals remains scant. Here, we test the hypothesis that wood ants enhance the antifungal activity of tree...

Data from: Pleiotropic effect of the Flowering Locus C on plant resistance and defence against insect herbivores

Sergio Rasmann, Julia Sanchez Vilas, Gaëtan Glauser, Maria Cartolano, Janne Lempe, Miltos Tsiantis & John R. Pannell
1. Plants vary widely in the extent to which they defend themselves against herbivores. Because the resources available to plants are often site-specific, variation among sites dictates investment into defence, and may reveal a growth-defence trade-off. Moreover, plants that have evolved different life-history strategies in different environments may situate themselves on this trade-off curve differently. For instance, plants that flower later have a longer vegetative lifespan, and may accordingly defend themselves differently than those that...

Data from: Earthworms affect plant growth and resistance against herbivores: a meta-analysis

Zhenggao Xiao, Xie Wang, Julia Koricheva, Alan Kergunteuil, Renee-Claire Le Bayon, Manqiang Liu, Feng Hu & Sergio Rasmann
1. Subterranean detritivores such as earthworms can increase soil nutrient availability through their burrowing and casting activities. A number of recent studies have explored whether these changes caused by earthworms may in turn affect plant performance and resistance to herbivores, but no formal synthesis of this literature has been conducted to date. 2. We here formally tested for the effects of earthworms on plant growth, resistance and chemical defence against insect herbivores by performing a...

Data from: Coevolution between positive reciprocity, punishment, and partner switching in repeated interactions

Matthias Wubs, Redouan Bshary & Laurent Lehmann
Cooperation based on mutual investments can occur between unrelated individuals when they are engaged in repeated interactions. Individuals then need to use a conditional strategy to deter their interaction partners from defecting. Responding to defection such that the future payoff of a defector is reduced relative to cooperating with it is called a partner control mechanism. Three main partner control mechanisms are (i) to switch from cooperation to defection when being defected (‘positive reciprocity’), (ii)...

Data from: Diplostigmaty in plants: a novel mechanism that provides reproductive assurance

Jonathan Kissling & Spencer C. H. Barrett
Differentiation of female sexual organs in flowering plants is rare, and contrasts with the wide range of male reproductive strategies. An unusual example involves diplostigmaty, the possession of spatially and temporally distinct stigmas in Sebaea (Gentianaceae). Here, the single pistil within a flower has an apical stigma, as occurs in most flowering plants, but also a secondary stigma that occurs mid-way down the style, which is physically discrete and receptive several days after the apical...

Data from: Evaluating NGS methods for routine monitoring of wild bees: metabarcoding, mitogenomics or NGS barcoding

Morgan Gueuning, Dominik Ganser, Simon Blaser, Matthias Albrecht, Eva Knop, Christophe Praz & Juerg E. Frey
Implementing cost-effective monitoring programs for wild bees remains challenging due to the high costs of sampling and specimen identification. To reduce costs, next generation sequencing (NGS)-based methods have lately been suggested as alternatives to morphology-based identifications. To provide a comprehensive presentation of the advantages and weaknesses of different NGS-based identification methods, we assessed three of the most promising ones, namely metabarcoding, mitogenomics and NGS barcoding. Using a regular monitoring dataset (723 specimens identified using morphology),...

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