Genetic evidence further elucidates the history and extent of badger introductions from Great Britain into IrelandAdrian Allen, Jimena Guerrero, Andrew Byrne, John Lavery, Eleanor Presho, Emily Courcier, James O'Keeffe, Ursula Fogarty, Richard Delahay, Gavin Wilson, Chris Newman, Christina Buesching, Matthew Silk, Denise O'Meara, Robin Skuce, Roman Biek & Robbie A. McDonald
The colonization of Ireland by mammals, has been the subject of extensive study using genetic methods, and forms a central problem in understanding the phylo-geography of European mammals after the Last Glacial Maximum. Ireland exhibits a de-pauperate mammal fauna relative to Great Britain and continental Europe, and a range of natural and anthropogenic processes have given rise to its modern fauna. Previous Europe-wide surveys of the European badger (Meles meles) have found conflicting microsatellite and...
Offspring traits are influenced by complex interactions between parent phenotypes. However, ecological studies of these effects in animals living in their natural environment have tended to be more focussed on maternal than paternal influences. In this study, we investigated the effects of both parental phenotypes on offspring natal dispersal patterns, growth and early sexual maturity in masu salmon living in natural streams. We used wild-caught parental fish in a half-sib mating design that allowed comparison...
The bacterial symbiont Wolbachia can protect insects against viral pathogens, and the varying levels of antiviral protection are correlated with the endosymbiont load within the insects. To understand why Wolbachia strains differ in their antiviral effects, we investigated the factors controlling Wolbachia density in five closely related strains in their natural Drosophila hosts. We found that Wolbachia density varied greatly across different tissues and between flies of different ages, and these effects depended on the...
Ecological and evolutionary drivers of hemoplasma infection and genotype sharing in a Neotropical bat communityDaniel Becker, Kelly Speer, Alexis Brown, Alex Washburne, Brock Fenton, Sonia Altizer, Daniel Streicker, Raina Plowright, Vladimir Chizhikov, Nancy Simmons & Dmitriy Volokhov
Most emerging pathogens can infect multiple species, underscoring the importance of understanding the ecological and evolutionary factors that allow some hosts to harbor greater infection prevalence and share pathogens with other species. However, our understanding of pathogen jumps is primarily based around viruses, despite bacteria accounting for the greatest proportion of zoonoses. Because bacterial pathogens in bats (Order: Chiroptera) can have conservation and human health consequences, studies that examine the ecological and evolutionary drivers of...
Objective: We examined fatal and non-fatal Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) at 14 days within AVERT. Method: A prospective, parallel group, assessor blinded, randomized international clinical trial comparing very early intensive mobilization training (VEM) with usual care (UC); with follow up to 3 months. Included: Patients with ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke within 24 hours of onset and physiological parameters within set limits. Treatment with thrombolytics allowed. Excluded: Patients with severe premorbid disability and/or comorbidities. Interventions continued...
Dataset to accompany 'Sputter-engineering a fi rst-order magnetic phase transition in sub-15-nm-thick single-crystal FeRh films'Luis Benito, Laura Clark, Trevor Almeida, Thomas Moore, Damien McGrouther, Stephen McVitie & Christopher Marrows
Open data deposit to accompany the publication 'Sputter-engineering a fi rst-order magnetic phase transition in sub-15-nm-thick single-crystal FeRh films' in Physical Review Materials
The data set contains the Philippines bridge inventory, river migration geodatabase and source code to assess active river channel change (i.e. planform adjustments) using Landsat 5, 7 and 8 products in Google Earth Engine. The data set contains hydro-morphological and bridge characteristics for 74 bridges (> 200 m deck length) in the Philippines from 1988 to 2019 and is available in .csv and .shp format. For a given region of interest (ROI), the code will...
Data for Whiting et al. (2020, Cognition): "The perception of caricatured emotion in voice". Raw behavioural data and sound stimuli.
Usage of high-level intermediate representations promises the generation of fast code from a high-level description, improving the productivity of developers while achieving the performance traditionally only reached with low-level programming approaches. High-level IRs come in two flavors: 1) domain-specific IRs designed to express only for a specific application area; or 2) generic high-level IRs that can be used to generate high-performance code across many domains. Developing generic IRs is more challenging but offers the advantage...
Collateral benefits of targeted supplementary feeding on demography and growth rate of a threatened populationSarah R. Fenn, Eric M. Bignal, Amanda E. Trask, Davy I. McCracken, Pat Monaghan & Jane M. Reid
1. Effective evidence-based conservation requires full quantification of the impacts of targeted management interventions on focal populations. Such impacts may extend beyond target individuals to also affect demographic rates of non-target conspecifics (e.g. different age classes). However, such collateral (i.e. unplanned) impacts are rarely evaluated, despite their potential to substantially alter conservation outcomes. Subsequent management decisions may then be poorly informed or erroneous. 2. We used 15 years of individual-based demographic data in a “before-after...
Data from: Skull morphology diverges between urban and rural populations of red foxes mirroring patterns of domestication and macroevolutionKevin Parsons
Human activity is drastically altering the habitat use of natural populations. This has been documented as a driver of phenotypic divergence in a number of wild animal populations. Here we show that urban and rural populations of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from London and surrounding boroughs are divergent in skull traits. These changes are primarily found to be involved with snout length, with urban individuals tending to have shorter and wider muzzles relative to rural...
Data from: Increased glucocorticoid concentrations in early life cause mitochondrial inefficiency and short telomeresStefania Casagrande, Antoine Stier, Pat Monaghan, Winniefred Boner, Jasmine Loveland, Sara Lupi, Rachele Trevisi & Michaela Hau
Telomeres are DNA structures that protect chromosome ends. However, telomeres shorten during cell replication and at critically low lengths can reduce cell replicative potential, induce cell senescence and decrease fitness. Stress exposure, which elevates glucocorticoid hormone concentrations, can exacerbate telomere attrition. This phenomenon has been attributed to increased oxidative stress generated by glucocorticoids ("oxidative stress hypothesis"). We recently instead suggested that glucocorticoids increase telomere attrition during stressful periods by reducing the resources available for telomere...
Supplemented nutrition decreases helminth burden and increases drug efficacy in a natural host-helminth systemAmy Sweeny, Melanie Clerc, Paulina Pontifes, Saudamini Venkatesan, Simon Babayan & Amy Pedersen
Gastrointestinal helminths are common parasites of humans, wildlife, and livestock, causing chronic infections. In humans and wildlife, poor nutrition or limited resources can compromise individuals’ immune response, predisposing them to higher helminth burdens. This relationship has been tested in laboratory models by investigating infection outcomes following reductions of specific nutrients. However, much less is known about how diet supplementation can impact susceptibility to infection, acquisition of immunity, and drug efficacy in natural host-helminth systems. We...
Data associated with “Asymmetric magnetic relaxation behavior of domains and domain walls observed through the FeRh first-order metamagnetic phase transition”Jamie Massey, Rowan Temple, Trevor Almeida, Ray Lamb, Nicolas Peters, Richard Campion, Fan Raymond, Damien McGrouther, Stephen McVitie, Paul Steadman & Christopher Marrows
Open access data deposit to accompany the publication “Asymmetric magnetic relaxation behavior of domains and domain walls observed through the FeRh first-order metamagnetic phase transition”
Data from: Glucocorticoid levels predict subsequent social tactic in females of a facultatively social mammalDavina Hill, Neville Pillay & Carsten Schradin
Facultatively social species, in which individuals can switch between group- and solitary-living tactics, offer an opportunity to shed light on proximate mechanisms underlying alternative life histories. Promising hormonal mediators of social tactic include glucocorticoids, which control energy allocation and are negatively related to body condition, and testosterone which regulates numerous social behaviours. Here, we investigated hormonal profiles associated with social tactic in eight generations of free-living female striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio). Females are group living...
Intracellular Na elevation in the heart is a hallmark of pathologies where both acute and chronic metabolic remodeling occurs. We assessed whether acute (75μM ouabain 100nM blebbistatin) and chronic myocardial Naiload (PLM3SA mouse) are causally linked to metabolic remodeling and whether the hypertrophied failing heart shares a common Na-mediated metabolic ‘fingerprint’. Control (PLMWT), transgenic (PLM3SA), ouabain treated and hypertrophied Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts were studied by 23Na, 31P, 13C NMR followed by 1H NMR metabolomic profiling....
Whether, and to what extent animals experience emotions is crucial for understanding their decisions and behaviour, and underpins a range of scientific fields, including animal behaviour, neuroscience, evolutionary biology and animal welfare science. However, research has predominantly focussed on alleviating negative emotions in animals, with the expression of positive emotions left largely unexplored. Therefore, little is known about positive emotions in animals and how their expression is mediated. We used tail handling to induce negative...
Multigenerational exposure to elevated temperatures leads to a reduction in standard metabolic rate in the wildNatalie Pilakouta, Shaun Killen, Bjarni Kristjansson, Skuli Skulason, Jan Lindstom, Neil Metcalfe & Kevin Parsons
In light of global climate change, there is a pressing need to understand and predict the capacity of populations to respond to rising temperatures. Metabolic rate is a key trait that is likely to influence the ability to cope with climate change. Yet, empirical and theoretical work on metabolic rate responses to temperature changes has so far produced mixed results and conflicting predictions. Our study addresses this issue using a novel approach of comparing fish...
University of Glasgow19
University of Aberdeen2
University of Nottingham2
University of Edinburgh2
University of Leeds2
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology1
China Food and Drug Administration1
Hólar University College1
Department of Agriculture Food and the Marine1
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive1