120 Works

Data from: Fifty thousand years of arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet

Eske Willerslev, John Davison, Mari Moora, Martin Zobel, Eric Coissac, Mary E. Edwards, Eline D. Lorenzen, Mette Vestergård, Galina Gussarova, James Haile, Joseph Craine, Gaddy Bergmann, Ludovic Gielly, Sanne Boessenkool, Laura S. Epp, Peter B. Pearman, Rachid Cheddadi, David Murray, Karri Anne Bråthen, Nigel Yoccoz, Heather Binney, Corinne Cruaud, Patrick Wincker, Tomasz Goslar, Inger Greve Alsos … & Pierre Taberlet
Although it is generally agreed that the arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we additionally explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many...

Data from: On the origin of the Norwegian lemming

Vendela K. Lagerholm, Edson Sandoval-Castellanos, Dorothee Ehrich, Natalia I. Abramson, Adam Nadachowski, Daniela C. Kalthoff, Mietje Germonpré, Anders Angerbjörn, John R. Stewart & Love Dalén
The Pleistocene glacial cycles resulted in significant changes in species distributions, and it has been discussed whether this caused increased rates of population divergence and speciation. One species that is likely to have evolved during the Pleistocene is the Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus). However, the origin of this species, both in terms of when and from what ancestral taxon it evolved, has been difficult to ascertain. Here, we use ancient DNA recovered from lemming remains...

Data from: Diversifying selection drives parallel evolution of gill raker number and body size along the speciation continuum of European whitefish

Katja Häkli, Kjartan Østbye, Kimmo K. Kahilainen, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kim Præbel & Kim Praebel
Adaptive radiation is the evolution of ecological and phenotypical diversity. It arises via ecological opportunity that promotes the exploration of underutilized or novel niches mediating specialization and reproductive isolation. The assumed precondition for rapid local adaptation is diversifying natural selection, but random genetic drift could also be a major driver of this process. We used 27 populations of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) from nine lakes distributed in three neighbouring subarctic watercourses in northern Fennoscandia as...

Data from: Ecological impact assessments of alien species in Norway

Hanno Sandvik, Olga Hilmo, Snorre Henriksen, Reidar Elven, Per Arvid Åsen, Hanne Hegre, Oddvar Pedersen, Per Anker Pedersen, Heidi Solstad, Vigdis Vandvik, Kristine B. Westergaard, Frode Ødegaard, Sandra Åström, Hallvard Elven, Anders Endrestøl, Øivind Gammelmo, Bjørn Arild Hatteland, Halvor Solheim, Björn Nordén, Leif Sundheim, Venche Talgø, Tone Falkenhaug, Bjørn Gulliksen, Anders Jelmert, Eivind Oug … & Lisbeth Gederaas
Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate...

Influence of preservation methods, sample medium and sampling time on eDNA recovery in a neotropical river

Naiara Sales, Owen S. Wangensteen, Daniel Carvalho & Stefano Mariani
Environmental DNA (eDNA) has rapidly emerged as a promising biodiversity monitoring technique, proving to be a sensitive and cost‐effective method for species detection. Despite the increasing popularity of eDNA, several questions regarding its limitations remain to be addressed. We investigated the effect of sampling me‐ dium and time, and preservation methods, on fish detection performance based on eDNA metabarcoding of neotropical freshwater samples. Water and sediment sam‐ ples were collected from 11 sites along the...

Data from: Ecological correlates of the spatial co-occurrence of sympatric mammalian carnivores worldwide

Courtney L. Davis, Lindsey N. Rich, Zach J. Farris, Marcella J. Kelly, Mario S. Di Bitetti, Yamil Di Blanco, Sebastian Albanesi, Mohammad S. Farhadinia, Navid Gholikhani, Sandra Hamel, Bart J. Harmsen, Claudia Wultsch, Mamadou D. Kane, Quinton Martins, Asia J. Murphy, Robin Steenweg, S. Sunarto, Atieh Taktehrani, Kanchan Thapa, Jody M. Tucker, Jesse Whittington, Febri A. Widodo, Nigel G. Yoccoz & David A.W. Miller
The composition of local mammalian carnivore communities has far-reaching effects on terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. To better understand how carnivore communities are structured, we analyzed camera trap data for 108,087 trap days across 12 countries spanning 5 continents. We estimate local probabilities of co-occurrence among 768 species pairs from the order Carnivora and evaluate how shared ecological traits correlated with probabilities of co-occurrence. Within individual study areas, species pairs co-occurred more frequently than expected at random....

Data from: Trophic interactions and abiotic factors drive functional and phylogenetic structure of vertebrate herbivore communities across the Arctic tundra biome

James D.M. Speed, Ina A. Skjelbred, Isabel C. Barrio, Michael D. Martin, Dominique Berteaux, C. Guillermo Bueno, Katie S. Christie, Bruce C. Forbes, Jennifer Forbey, Daniel Fortin, Jon-Arvid Grytnes, Katrine S. Hoset, Nicolas Lecomte, Bryndis Marteinsdottir, Jesper B. Mosbacher, Åshild O. Pedersen, Virve Ravolainen, Eileen C. Rees, Anna Skarin, Natalya Sokolova, Andrew H. Thornhill, Ingunn Tombre & Eeva M. Soininen
Communities are assembled from species that evolve or colonise a given geographic region, and persist in the face of abiotic conditions and interactions with other species. The evolutionary and colonisation histories of communities are characterised by phylogenetic diversity, while functional diversity is indicative of abiotic and biotic conditions. The relationship between functional and phylogenetic diversity infers whether species functional traits are divergent (differing between related species) or convergent (similar among distantly related species). Biotic interactions...

Data from: Clitellate worms (Annelida) in lateglacial and Holocene sedimentary DNA records from the Polar Urals and northern Norway

Youri Lammers, Charlotte L. Clarke, Christer Erséus, Antony G. Brown, Mary E. Edwards, Ludovic Gielly, Haflidi Haflidason, Jan Mangerud, Emilia Rota, John Inge Svendsen & Inger Greve Alsos
While there are extensive macro- and microfossil records of a range of plants and animals from Quaternary records, earthworms and their close relatives among annelids are not preserved as fossils, and therefore we have limited knowledge of their Quaternary distributions. This lack of fossils means that clitellate worms (Annelida) are currently underused in palaeoecological research, even though they can provide valuable information about terrestrial and aquatic environmental conditions. Their DNA might be preserved in sediments,...

Data from: Assessing the effect of predator control on an endangered goose population subjected to predator-mediated food web dynamics

Filippo Marolla, Tomas Aarvak, Ingar Jostein Øien, Jarad Pope Mellard, John-André Henden, Sandra Hamel, Audun Stien, Torkild Tveraa, Nigel G. Yoccoz & Rolf A. Ims
1. Assessing the effectiveness of conservation actions to halt population declines is challenging when confounded by other factors. We assessed whether culling of red fox, a predator currently increasing in the sub-Arctic, contributed to recent recovery of the critically endangered Fennoscandian population of Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus, while controlling for potentially confounding food web dynamics. 2. Using 19 years of data, 10 before and 9 after the implementation of annual red fox culling, we...

Data from: Spatial synchrony in sub-arctic geometrid moth outbreaks reflects dispersal in larval and adult lifecycle stages

Ole Petter L. Vindstad, Jane U. Jepsen, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Michel D.S. Mesquita & Rolf A. Ims
1. Spatial synchrony in population dynamics can be caused by dispersal or spatially correlated variation in environmental factors like weather (Moran effect). Distinguishing between these mechanisms is challenging for natural populations, and the study of dispersal-induced synchrony in particular has been dominated by theoretical modelling and laboratory experiments. 2. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the evidence for dispersal as a cause of meso-scale (distances of tens of kilometers) spatial synchrony in...

Data from: Last Glacial Maximum environmental conditions at Andøya, northern Norway; evidence for a northern ice-edge ecological “hotspot”

Inger Alsos, Per Sjögren, Antony Brown, Ludovic Gielly, Marie Merkel, Aage Paus, Youri Lammers, Mary Edwards, Torbjørn Alm, Melanie Leng, Tomasz Goslar, Catherine Langdon, Jostein Bakke & Willem Van Der Bilt
Andøya on the NW coast of Norway is a key site for understanding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in northern Europe. Controversy has arisen concerning the local conditions, especially about the timing and extent of local glacial cover, maximum July temperatures and whether pine and/or spruce could have grown there. We reviewed all existing data and add newly analysed ancient sedimentary DNA, pollen, macrofossils, geochemistry and stable isotopes from three lake sediment cores from Øvre...

Data from: Incorporating capture heterogeneity in the estimation of autoregressive coefficients of animal population dynamics using capture-recapture data

Pedro G. Nicolau, Sigrunn H. Sørbye & Nigel G. Yoccoz
Population dynamics models combine density-dependence and environmental effects. Ignoring sampling uncertainty might lead to biased estimation of the strength of density-dependence. This is typically addressed using state-space model approaches, which integrate sampling error and population process estimates. Such models seldom include an explicit link between the sampling procedures and the true abundance, which is common in capture-recapture settings. However, many of the models proposed to estimate abundance in the presence of capture heterogeneity lead to...

A brain and a head for a different habitat: size variation in four morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) in a deep oligotrophic lake

Ana Peris, Olivier Devineau, Kim Præbel, Kimmo K. Kahilainen & Kjartan Østbye
Adaptive radiation is the diversification of species to different ecological niches and has repeatedly occurred in different salmonid fish of postglacial lakes. In Lake Tinnsjøen, one of the largest and deepest lakes in Norway, the salmonid fish, Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)), has likely radiated within 9700 years after deglaciation into ecologically and genetically segregated Piscivore, Planktivore, Dwarf and Abyssal morphs in the pelagial, littoral, shallow-moderate profundal and deep-profundal habitats. We compared trait variation in...

Data from: Latitudinal variation of arrival and breeding phenology of the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca using large-scale citizen science data.

Pedro G Nicolau, Malcolm D Burgess, Tiago A Marques, Stephen R Baillie, Dave I Leech, Nick J Moran & Alison Johnston
Many species have advanced the timing of annual reproductive cycles in response to climatic warming, sometimes leading to asynchrony between trophic levels, with negative population consequences. Long-distance migratory birds, reliant on short seasonal food pulses for breeding, are considered particularly susceptible to such disjunction because late arrival may preclude optimal timing of egg-laying. It is unknown whether the relative timing of arrival and egg-laying is sufficiently plastic, in time and space, to enable an adaptive...

Estimating abundance in unmarked populations of Golden Eagle

Jennifer Stien, Stien Audun, Torkild Tveraa, Lars Rød-Eriksen & Nina Eide
1. Estimates of species abundance are of key importance in population and ecosystem level research but can be hard to obtain. Study designs using camera-traps are increasingly being used for large-scale monitoring of species that are elusive and/or occur naturally at low densities. 2. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one such species, and we investigate whether existing large-scale monitoring programs using baited camera-traps can be used to estimate the abundance of golden eagles, as an...

Circum-Arctic distribution of chemical anti-herbivore compounds arctic shrubs

Elin Lindén, Mariska Te Beest, Ilka Abreu, Thomas Moritz, Maja Sundqvist, Isabel C Barrio, Julia Boike, John Bryant, Kari Anne Bråthen, Agata Buchwal, Guillermo Bueno, Alain Cuerrier, Dagmar Egelkraut, Bruce Forbes, Martin Hallinger, Monique Heijmans, Luise Hermanutz, David S Hik, Annika Hofgaard, Milena Holmgren, Diane C Huebner, Toke Hoye, Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Emilie Kissler … & Johan Olofsson
Spatial variation in plant chemical defence towards herbivores can help us understand variation in herbivore top-down control of shrubs in the Arctic and possibly also shrub responses to global warming. Less defended, non-resinous shrubs could be more influenced by herbivores than more defended, resinous shrubs. However, sparse field measurements limit our current understanding of how much of the circum-Arctic variation in defence compounds is explained by taxa or defence functional groups (resinous/non-resinous). We measured circum-Arctic...

Home care service employees’ contribution to patient safety in clients with dementia who use dietary supplements: a Norwegian survey

Hilde Risvoll, Frauke Musial, Marit Waaseth, Trude Giverhaug & Kjell Halvorsen
To explore home care services (HCS) employees' professional experiences with the use of dietary supplements (DSs) in their clients with dementia. We also investigated their attributed professional responsibility concerning this use and their attitudes toward DSs in general. Differences between nurses and nurse assistants were investigated. A cross-sectional survey with self-administered questionnaires. Home care services in six Norwegian municipalities in the period August-December 2016. A total of 231 (64% response rate) HCS employees; 78 nurses...

Home care service employees’ contribution to patient safety in clients with dementia who use dietary supplements: a Norwegian survey

Hilde Risvoll, Frauke Musial, Marit Waaseth, Trude Giverhaug & Kjell Halvorsen
To explore home care services (HCS) employees' professional experiences with the use of dietary supplements (DSs) in their clients with dementia. We also investigated their attributed professional responsibility concerning this use and their attitudes toward DSs in general. Differences between nurses and nurse assistants were investigated. A cross-sectional survey with self-administered questionnaires. Home care services in six Norwegian municipalities in the period August-December 2016. A total of 231 (64% response rate) HCS employees; 78 nurses...

Data for: Ectoparasite population dynamics affected by host body size but not host density or water temperature in a 32-year long time series

Eirik Henriksen, Andre Frainer, Robert Poulin, Rune Knudsen & Amundsen Per-Arne
Host density, host body size, and ambient temperature have all been positively associated with increases in parasite infection. However, the relative importance of these factors in shaping long-term parasite population dynamics in wild host populations is unknown due to the absence of long-term studies. Here, we examine long-term drivers of gill lice (Copepoda) infections in Arctic charr (Salmonidae) over 32 years. We predicted that host density and body size and water temperature would all positively...

Data from: Biological introduction threats from shipping in a warming Arctic

Chris Ware, Jørgen Berge, Anders Jelmert, Steffen M. Olsen, Loïc Pellissier, Mary Wisz, Darren Kriticos, Georgy Semenov, Slawomir Kwasniewski & Inger G. Alsos
Several decades of research on invasive marine species have yielded a broad understanding of the nature of species invasion mechanisms and associated threats globally. However, this is not true of the Arctic, a region where ongoing climatic changes may promote species invasion. Here, we evaluated risks associated with non-indigenous propagule loads discharged with ships' ballast water to the high-Arctic archipelago, Svalbard, as a case study for the wider Arctic. We sampled and identified transferred propagules...

Data from: Under the snow: a new camera trap opens the white box of subnivean ecology

Eeva M. Soininen, Ingrid Jensvoll, Siw T. Killengreen & Rolf A. Ims
Snow covers the ground over large parts of the world for a substantial portion of the year. Yet very few methods are available to quantify biotic variables below the snow, with most studies of subnivean ecological processes relying on comparisons of data before and after the snow cover season. We developed a camera trap prototype to quantify subnivean small mammal activity. The trap consists of a camera that is attached facing downward from the ceiling...

Data from: Predator-rodent-plant interactions along a coast-inland gradient in Fennoscandian tundra

Lise Ruffino, Tarja Oksanen, Katrine S. Hoset, Maria Tuomi, Lauri Oksanen, Erkki Korpimäki, Amandine Bugli, Keith A. Hobson, Bernt Johansen & Aurelia Mäkynen
Spatial variation in the strength of trophic cascades in arctic tundra has been related to flows of subsidies across ecosystem boundaries. Here, we ask whether the input of marine subsidies in tundra systems would cause spatial variation in the strength of rodent-plant interactions between coastal areas, where predators have access to marine-derived resources, and non-subsidized inland areas of northern Fennoscandia. We present a detailed evaluation of predator-rodent-vegetation interactions along a coast-inland gradient, during the 2011...

Data from: An R package for analyzing survival using continuous-time open capture-recapture models

David Fouchet, Hugues Santin-Janin, Frank Sauvage, Nigel Gilles Yoccoz & Dominique Pontier
Capture–recapture software packages have proven to be very powerful tools for analysing factors affecting survival in wild populations. However, all such packages are limited to discrete-time protocols. Appropriate survival analysis tools are still lacking for data acquired from continuous-time protocols. We have developed a statistical method and propose an r package for analysing such data based on an extension of classical survival analysis models incorporating an inhomogeneous Poisson process for modelling capture histories. First, data...

Data from: Does the niche-breadth or trade-off hypothesis explain the abundance-occupancy relationship in avian haemosporidia?

Sergei V. Drovetski, Sargis A. Aghayan, Vanessa A. Mata, Ricardo J. Lopes, Nicolle A. Mode, Johanna A. Harvey & Gary Voelker
Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the abundance-occupancy relationship (AOR) in parasites. The niche-breadth hypothesis suggests that host generalists are more abundant and efficient at colonizing different host communities than specialists. The trade-off hypothesis argues that host specialists achieve high density across their hosts’ ranges, whereas generalists incur the high cost of adaptation to diverse immuno-defense systems. We tested these hypotheses using 386 haemosporidian cytochrome-b lineages (1894 sequences) recovered from 2318 birds of 103...

Data from: Ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi respond differently to long-term experimentally increased snow depth in the High Arctic

Sunil Mundra, Rune Halvorsen, Håvard Kauserud, Mohammad Bahram, Leho Tedersoo, Bo Elberling, Elisabeth J. Cooper & Pernille Bronken Eidesen
Changing climate is expected to alter precipitation patterns in the Arctic, with consequences for subsurface temperature and moisture conditions, community structure, and nutrient mobilization through microbial belowground processes. Here, we address the effect of increased snow depth on the variation in species richness and community structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and saprotrophic fungi. Soil samples were collected weekly from mid-July to mid-September in both control and deep snow plots. Richness of ECM fungi was lower, while...

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