22 Works

Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge

Alisa Vershinina, Peter Heintzman, Duane Froese, Grant Zazula, Molly Cassatt-Johnstone, Love Dalén, Clio Der Sarkissian, Shelby Dunn, Luca Ermini, Cristina Gamba, Pamela Groves, Joshua Kapp, Daniel Mann, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, John Southon, Mathias Stiller, Matthew Wooller, Gennady Baryshnikov, Dmitry Gimranov, Eric Scott, Elizabeth Hall, Susan Hewitson, Irina Kirillova, Pavel Kosintsev, Fedor Shidlovsky … & Beth Shapiro
The Bering Land Bridge (BLB) last connected Eurasia and North America during the Pleistocene. Although the BLB would have enabled transfers of terrestrial biota in both directions, it also acted as an ecological filter whose permeability varied considerably over time. Here we explore the possible impacts of this ecological corridor on genetic diversity within, and connectivity among, populations of a once wide-ranging group, the caballine horses (Equus spp.). Using a panel of 187 mitochondrial and...

Metagenomics: A viable tool for reconstructing herbivore diet

Physilia Chua, Alex Crampton-Platt, Youri Lammers, Inger Alsos, Sanne Boessenkool & Kristine Bohmann
Metagenomics can generate data on the diet of herbivores, without the need for primer selection and PCR enrichment steps as is necessary in metabarcoding. Metagenomic approaches to diet analysis have remained relatively unexplored, requiring validation of bioinformatic steps. Currently, no metagenomic herbivore diet studies have utilised both chloroplast and nuclear markers as reference sequences for plant identification, which would increase the number of reads that could be taxonomically informative. Here, we explore how in silico...

Fat storage influences fasting endurance more than body size in an ungulate

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Elżbieta Król, Steve Albon, Alina L. Evans, Walter Arnold, Catherine Hambly, R. Justin Irvine, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
1. The fasting endurance hypothesis (FEH) predicts strong selection for large body size in mammals living in environments where food supply is interrupted over prolonged periods of time. The Arctic is a highly seasonal and food restricted environment, but contrary to predictions from the FEH, empirical evidence shows that Arctic mammals are often smaller than their temperate conspecifics. Intraspecific studies integrating physiology and behaviour of different-sized individuals, may shed light on this paradox. 2. We...

Determinants of heart rate in Svalbard reindeer reveal mechanisms of seasonal energy management

L. Monica Trondrud, Gabriel Pigeon, Steve Albon, Walter Arnold, Alina L. Evans, R. Justin Irvine, Elżbieta Król, Erik Ropstad, Audun Stien, Vebjørn Veiberg, John R. Speakman & Leif Egil Loe
Seasonal energetic challenges may constrain an animal’s ability to respond to changing individual and environmental conditions. Here we investigated variation in heart rate, a well-established proxy for metabolic rate, in Svalbard reindeer, a species with strong seasonal changes in foraging and metabolic activity. In 19 adult females we recorded heart rate, subcutaneous temperature and activity using biologgers. Mean heart rate more than doubled from winter to summer. Typical drivers of energy expenditure, such as reproduction...

State-space model for Svalbard ptarmigan

Filippo Marolla, John-Andre Henden, Eva Fuglei, Ashild Ønvik Pedersen, Mikhail Itkin & Rolf Anker Ims
To improve understanding and management of the consequences of current rapid environmental change, ecologists advocate using long-term monitoring data series to generate iterative near-term predictions of ecosystem responses. This approach allows scientific evidence to increase rapidly and management strategies to be tailored simultaneously. Iterative near-term forecasting may therefore be particularly useful for adaptive monitoring of ecosystems subjected to rapid climate change. Here, we show how to implement near-term forecasting in the case of a harvested...

Capture-recapture dataset of Svalbard voles (1990-2007) with trap locations and rain-on-snow measurements

Dominique Fauteux, Audun Stien, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Eva Fuglei & Rolf A. Ims
Ecologists are still puzzled by the diverse population dynamics of herbivorous small mammals that range from high-amplitude, multi-annual cycles to stable dynamics. Theory predicts that this diversity results from combinations of climatic seasonality, weather stochasticity and density-dependent food web interactions. The almost ubiquitous 3-5-yr cycles in boreal and arctic climates may theoretically result from bottom-up (plant-herbivore) and top-down (predator-prey) interactions. Assessing empirically the roles of such interactions, and how they are influenced by environmental stochasticity,...

Fine-scale spatial segregation in a pelagic seabird driven by differential use of tidewater glacier fronts

Philip Bertrand, Joël Bêty, Nigel Gilles Yoccoz, Marie-Josée Fortin, Hallvard Strøm, Harald Steen, Jack Kohler, Stephanie M. Harris, Samantha C. Patrick, Olivier Chastel, Pierre Blévin, Haakon Hop, Geir Moholdt, Joséphine Maton & Sébastien Descamps
In colonially breeding marine predators, individual movements and colonial segregation are influenced by seascape characteristics. Tidewater glacier fronts are important features of the Arctic seascape and are often described as foraging hotspots. Albeit their documented importance for wildlife, little is known about their structuring effect on arctic predator movements and space use. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tidewater glacier fronts can influence marine bird foraging patterns and drive spatial segregation among adjacent...

Data from: A pioneering pest: the winter moth (Operophtera brumata) is expanding its outbreak range into low-arctic shrub tundra

Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad, Jane Uhd Jepsen, Helge Molvig & Rolf Anker Ims
Climate warming allows generalist boreal consumers to expand into arctic ecosystems. We present experimental and observational field data showing that a generalist boreal insect pest – the winter moth (Operophtera brumata Linnaeus, 1758) – is expanding its outbreak range out of the northern-boreal mountain birch forest in northeast Fennoscandia and into the adjacent low-artic shrub tundra. This is the first documented example of an outbreaking boreal insect pest expanding into a tundra ecosystem. The expansion...

Molecular dietary analyses of western capercaillies (Tetrao urogallus) reveal a diverse diet

Physilia Chua, Youri Lammers, Emmanuel Menoni, Torbjørn Ekrem, Kristine Bohmann, Sanne Boessenkool & Inger Alsos
Conservation strategies centred around species habitat protection rely on species’ dietary information. One species at the focal point of conservation efforts is the herbivorous grouse, the western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), which is an indicator species for forest biodiversity conservation. Non-molecular means used to study their diet are time-consuming and at low taxonomic resolution. This delays the implementation of conservation strategies including resource protection due to uncertainty about its diet. Thus, limited knowledge on diet is...

Range-wide occurrence records of the subarctic copepod Calanus finmarchicus and associated environmental predictor variables

Jennifer J Freer, Malin Daase & Geraint A Tarling
This dataset contains occurrence records and associated metadata for the zooplankton species Calanus finmarchicus that were compiled from multiple open access databases. A file containing the corresponding background points is provided, along with gridded environmental variables for each season (Jan-Feb-Mar, Apr-May-Jun, Jul-Aug-Sep, Oct-Nov-Dec) and era (1955-1984, 1985-2017) that were assessed in this study. Together these data were used as input files for the MaxEnt ecological niche model within the peer reviewed article: Freer JJ, Daase,...

GMBA Mountain Inventory v2

Mark A. Snethlage, Jonas Geschke, Eva M. Spehn, Ajay Ranipeta, Nigel G. Yocco, Christian Körner, Walter Jetz, Markus Fischer & Davnah Urbach
A standardized delineation of the worlds’ mountains has many applications in research, education, and the science-policy interface. Here we provide a new inventory of 8616 mountain ranges developed under the auspices of the Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment (GMBA). Building on an earlier compilation, the presented geospatial database uses a further advanced and generalized mountain definition and a semi-automated method to enable globally standardized, transparent delineations of mountain ranges worldwide. The inventory is presented on EarthEnv...

Epiphytic diatom community structure and richness is determined by macroalgal host and location in the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica)

Andrea Burfeid-Castellanos, Rafael P. Martín-Martín, Michael Kloster, Carlos Angulo-Preckler, Conxita Avila & Bánk Beszteri
The marine waters around the South Shetland Islands are paramount in the primary production of this Antarctic ecosystem. With the increasing effects of climate change and the annual retreat of the ice shelf, the importance of macroalgae and their diatom epiphytes in primary production also increases. The relationships and interactions between these organisms have scarcely been studied in Antarctica, and even less in the volcanic ecosystem of Deception Island, which can be seen as a...

Data from: Meroplankton diversity, seasonality and life-history traits across the Barents Sea Polar Front revealed by high-throughput DNA barcoding

Raphaelle Descoteaux, Elizaveta Ershova, Owen Wangensteen, Kim Præbel, Paul Renaud, Finlo Cottier & Bodil Bluhm
In many species of marine benthic invertebrates, a planktonic larval phase plays a critical role in dispersal. Very little is known about the larval biology of most species, however, in part because species identification has historically been hindered by the microscopic size and morphological similarity among related taxa. This study aimed to determine the taxonomic composition and seasonal distribution of meroplankton in the Barents Sea, across the Polar Front. We collected meroplankton during five time...

STR data from: Temporal analysis shows relaxed genetic erosion following improved stocking practices in a subarctic transnational brown trout population

Cornelya Klutsch, Simo Maduna, Natalia Poliparkova, Kristin Forfang, Benedicte Beddari, Karl Øystein Gjelland, Paul Eric Aspholm, Per-Arne Amundsen & Snorre Hagen
Maintaining standing genetic variation is a challenge in human-dominated landscapes. We used genetic (i.e., 16 short tandem repeats) and morphological (i.e., length and weight) measurements of 593 contemporary and historical brown trout (Salmo trutta) samples to study fine-scale and short-term impacts of different management practices. These had changed from traditional breeding practices, using the same broodstock for several years, to modern breeding practices, including annual broodstock replacement, in the transnational subarctic Pasvik River. Using population...

The effect of inter-and intraspecific competition on individual and population niche widths – a four-decade study on two interacting salmonids

Sebastian Prati, Eirik Henriksen, Aslak Smalås, Rune Knudsen, Anders Klemetsen, Javier Sánchez-Hernández & Amundsen Per-Arne
Competition is assumed to shape niche widths, affecting species survival and coexistence. Expectedly, high interspecific competition will reduce population niche widths, whereas high intraspecific competition will do the opposite. Here we test in situ how intra- and interspecific competition affects trophic resource use and the individual and population niche widths of two lacustrine fish species, Arctic charr and brown trout, covering a 40 year study period with highly contrasting competitive impacts prior to and following...

Cercarial behaviour alters the consumer functional response of three-spined sticklebacks

Ana Born-Torrijos, Rachel Paterson, Gabrielle Van Beest, Tereza Vyhlídalová, Eirik Haugstvedt Henriksen, Rune Knudsen, Roar Kristoffersen, Per-Arne Amundsen & Miroslava Soldánová
1. Free-living parasite life stages may contribute substantially to ecosystem biomass and thus represent a significant source of energy flow when consumed by non-host organisms. However, ambient temperature and the predator’s own infection status may modulate consumption rates towards parasite prey. 2. We investigated the combined effects of temperature and predator infection status on the consumer functional response of three-spined sticklebacks towards the free-living cercariae stages of two common freshwater trematode parasites (Plagiorchis, Trichobilharzia). 3....

A deep dive into fat: Investigating blubber lipidomics fingerprint of killer whales and humpback whales in northern Norway

Pierre Bories, Audun Rikardsen, Pim Leonards, Aaron Fisk, Sabrina Tartu, Emma Vogel, Jenny Bytingsvik & Pierre Blevin
In cetaceans, blubber is the primary and largest lipid body reservoir. Our current understanding about lipid stores and uses in cetaceans is still limited and most studies only focused on a single narrow snapshot of the lipidome. We documented an extended lipidomics fingerprint in two cetacean species present in northern Norway during wintertime. We were able to detect 817 molecular lipid species in blubber of killer whales (Orcinus orca) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). The...

Disentangling temporal food web dynamics facilitates understanding of ecosystem functioning

Susanne Kortsch, Romain Frelat, Laurene Pecuchet, Pierre Olivier, Ivars Putnis, Erik Bonsdorff, Henn Ojaveer, Iveta Jurgensone, Solvita Strāķe, Gunta Rubene, Ēriks Krūze & Marie C. Nordström
Studying how food web structure and function varies through time represents an opportunity to better comprehend and anticipate ecosystem changes. Yet, temporal studies of highly resolved food web structure are scarce. With few exceptions, most temporal food web studies are either too simplified, preventing a detailed assessment of structural properties, or binary, missing the temporal dynamics of energy fluxes among species. Using long-term, multi-trophic biomass data coupled with highly resolved information on species feeding relationships,...

Data for: Parasitoids indicate major climate-induced shifts in Arctic communities

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Eero Vesterinen, Bess Hardwick, Niels Martin Martin Schmidt, Tommi Andersson, Paul Eric Aspholm, Isabel Barrio, Niklas Beckers, Joël Bêty, Tone Birkemoe, Melissa DeSiervo, Katherine Drotos, Dorothee Ehrich, Olivier Gilg, Vladimir Gilg, Nils Hein, Toke Høye, Kristian Jakobsen, Camille Jodouin, Jesse Jorna, Mikhail Kozlov, Jean-Claude Kresse, Don-Jean Leandri-Breton, Nicolas Lecomte, Maia Olsen … & Tomas Roslin
Climatic impacts are especially pronounced in the Arctic, which as a region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe. Here, we investigate how mean climatic conditions and rates of climatic change impact parasitoid insect communities in 16 localities across the Arctic. We focus on parasitoids in a wide-spread habitat, Dryas heathlands, and describe parasitoid community composition in terms of larval host use (i.e. parasitoid use of herbivorous Lepidoptera versus pollinating Diptera)...

The impact of estimator choice: Disagreement in clustering solutions across K estimators for Bayesian analysis of population genetic structure across a wide range of empirical datasets

Kathryn Stankiewicz, Kate Vasquez Kuntz, Jean-Baptiste Ledoux, Didier Aurelle, Joaquim Garrabou, Yuichi Nakajima, Mikael Dahl, Yuna Zayasu, Sabri Jaziri, Federica Costantini & Iliana Baums
The software program STRUCTURE is one of the most cited tools for determining population structure. To infer the optimal number of clusters from STRUCTURE output, the ΔK method is often applied. However, a recent study relying on simulated microsatellite data suggested that this method has a downward bias in its estimation of K and is sensitive to uneven sampling. If this finding holds for empirical datasets, conclusions about the scale of gene flow may have...

Sea ice reduction drives genetic differentiation among Barents Sea polar bears

Simo Njabulo Maduna, Jon Aars, Ida Fløystad, Cornelya Klutsch, Eve Zeyl Fiskebeck, Øystein Wiig, Dorothee Ehrich, Magnus Andersen, Lutz Bachmann, Andrew Derocher, Tommi Nyman, Hans Geir Eiken & Snorre Hagen
Loss of Arctic sea ice due to climate change is predicted to reduce both genetic diversity and gene flow in ice-dependent species, with potential negative consequences for their long-term viability. Here, we tested for the population-genetic impacts of reduced sea ice cover on the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sampled across two decades (1995–2016) from the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, an area that is affected by rapid sea ice loss in the Arctic Barents Sea. We analysed...

Data from: The impact of long-term azithromycin on antibiotic resistance in HIV-associated chronic lung disease

Regina Esinam Abotsi, Mark P. Nicol, Grace McHugh, Victoria Simms, Andrea M. Rehman, Charmaine Barthus, Lucky G. Ngwira, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Robert S Heyderman, Jon Ø Odland, Rashida A Ferrand & Felix S. Dube
Background: Selection for resistance to azithromycin (AZM) and other antibiotics such as tetracyclines and lincosamides remains a concern with long-term AZM use for treatment of chronic lung diseases (CLD). We investigated the impact of 48 weeks of AZM on the carriage and antibiotic resistance of common respiratory bacteria among children with HIV-associated CLD. Methods: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and sputa were collected at baseline, 48 and 72 weeks from participants with HIV-associated CLD randomised to receive...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    22

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    22

Affiliations

  • The Arctic University of Norway
    18
  • Norwegian Institute for Nature Research
    5
  • Norwegian Polar Institute
    4
  • UiT The Arctic University of Norway
    3
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
    3
  • University of Copenhagen
    3
  • Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research
    3
  • Frankfurt Zoological Society
    2
  • Université de Sherbrooke
    2
  • Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé
    2