67 Works

Data from: Functional implications of omnivory for dietary nutrient balance

Luigi Remonti, Alessandro Balestrieri, David Raubenheimer & Nicola Saino
Captive experiments have shown that many species regulate their macronutrient (i.e. protein, lipid and carbohydrate) intake by selecting complementary food types, but the relationships between foraging strategies in the wild and nutrient regulation remain poorly understood. Using the pine marten as a model species, we collated available data from the literature to investigate effects of seasonal and geographic variation in diet on dietary macronutrient balance. Our analysis showed that despite a high variety of foods...

Data from: Factors associated with first- versus second-generation long-acting antipsychotics prescribed under ordinary clinical practice in Italy

Giovanni Ostuzzi, Maria Angela Mazzi, Samira Terlizzi, Federico Bertolini, Andrea Aguglia, Francesco Bartoli, Paola Bortolaso, Camilla Callegari, Mariarita Caroleo, Giuseppe Carrà, Mariangela Corbo, Armando D'agostino, Chiara Gastaldon, Claudio Lucii, Fabio Magliocco, Giovanni Martinotti, Michela Nosé, Edoardo Giuseppe Ostinelli, Davide Papola, Marco Piccinelli, Alberto Piccoli, Marianna Purgato, Tommaso Tabacchi, Giulia Turrini, Mirella Ruggeri … & Armando D’Agostino
Background. For many years, long-acting intramuscular (LAI) antipsychotics have been prescribed predominantly to chronic and severe patients, as a last resort when other treatments failed. Recently, a broader and earlier use of LAIs, particularly second-generation LAIs, has been emphasized. To date, few studies attempted to frame how this change in prescribing took place in real-world practice. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the clinical features of patients prescribed with LAIs, and to explore possible prescribing...

Data from: Effect of light-level geolocators on apparent survival of two highly aerial swift species

Michelangelo Morganti, Diego Rubolini, Susanne Akesson, Ana Bermejo, Javier De La Puente, Roberto Lardelli, Felix Liechti, Giovanni Boano, Erika Tomassetto, Mauro Ferri, Mario Caffi, Nicola Saino & Roberto Ambrosini
Light-level geolocators are currently widely used to track the migration of small-sized birds, but their potentially detrimental effects on survival of highly aerial species have been poorly investigated so far. We recorded capture-recapture histories of 283 common swifts Apus apus and 107 pallid swifts Apus pallidus breeding in 14 colonies in Italy, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland that were deployed with 10 different types of geolocators (‘geolocator birds’), and compared their survival with that of, respectively,...

Effects of soil preservation for biodiversity monitoring using environmental DNA

Alessia Guerrieri, Aurélie Bonin, Tamara Münkemüller, Ludovic Gielly, Wilfried Thuiller & Gentile Francesco Ficetola
Environmental DNA metabarcoding is becoming a key tool for biodiversity monitoring over large geographical or taxonomic scales and for elusive taxa like soil organisms. Increasing sample sizes and interest in remote or extreme areas often require the preservation of soil samples and thus deviations from optimal standardized protocols. However, we still ignore the impact of different methods of soil sample preservation on the results of metabarcoding studies and there is no guidelines for best practices...

Proactive conservation to prevent habitat losses to agricultural expansion

David Williams, Michael Clark, Graeme M. Buchanan, G. Francesco Ficetola, Carlo Rondinini & David Tilman
The projected loss of millions of square kilometres of natural ecosystems to meet future demand for food, animal feed, fibre, and bioenergy crops is likely to massively escalate threats to biodiversity. Reducing these threats requires a detailed knowledge of how and where they are likely to be most severe. We developed a geographically explicit model of future agricultural land clearance based on observed historic changes and combine the outputs with species-specific habitat preferences for 19,859...

Data from: Clinical spectrum of STX1B-related epileptic disorders

Stefan Wolking, Patrick May, Davide Mei, Rikke S. Møller, Simona Balestrini, Katherine L. Helbig, Cecilia Desmettre Altuzarra, Nicolas Chatron, Charu Kaiwar, Katharina Stoehr, Peter Widdess-Walsh, Bryce A. Mendelsohn, Adam Numis, Maria R. Cilio, Wim Van Paesschen, Lene L. Svendsen, Stephanie Oates, Elaine Hughes, Sushma Goyal, Kathleen Brown, Margarita Sifuentes Saenz, Thomas Dorn, Hiltrud Muhle, Alistair T. Pagnamenta, Dimitris V. Vavoulis … & Julian Schubert
Objective: The aim of this study was to expand the spectrum of epilepsy syndromes related to STX1B, encoding the presynaptic protein syntaxin-1B, and establish genotype-phenotype correlations by identifying further disease-related variants. Methods: We used next generation sequencing in the framework of research projects and diagnostic testing. Clinical data and EEGs were reviewed, including already published cases. To estimate the pathogenicity of the variants, we used established and newly developed in silico prediction tools. Results: We...

Data from: Positive selection underlies the species-specific binding of P. falciparum RH5 to human basigin

Diego Forni, Chiara Pontremoli, Rachele Cagliani, Uberto Pozzoli, Mario Clerici & Manuela Sironi
Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, is a member of the Laverania subgenus, which includes ape-infecting parasites. P. falciparum is thought to have originated in gorillas, although infection is now restricted to humans. Laverania parasites display remarkable host-specificity, which is partially mediated by the interaction between parasite ligands and host receptors. We analyse the evolution of BSG (basigin) and GYPA (glycophorin A) in primates/hominins, as well as of their Plasmodium-encoded...

Data from: Brood size, telomere length, and parent-offspring color signaling in barn swallows

Alessandra Costanzo, Marco Parolini, Gaia Bazzi, Lela Khoriauli, Marco Santagostino, Cristina D. Possenti, Andrea Romano, Solomon G. Nergadze, Diego Rubolini, Elena Giulotto & Nicola Saino
Trade-offs select for optimal allocation of resources among competing functions. Parents are selected to maximize production of viable offspring by balancing between progeny number and “quality.” Telomeres are nucleoproteins, at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, that shorten when cells divide. Because shortening below a certain threshold depresses organismal functioning and rate of shortening depends on environmental conditions, telomeres are good candidates as mediators of trade-offs. We altered brood size of barn swallow Hirundo rustica and...

Data from: Phylogenomics and analysis of shared genes suggest a single transition to mutualism in Wolbachia of nematodes

Francesco Commandatore, Davide Sassera, Matteo Montagna, Sujai Kumar, Georgios Koutsovoulos, Graham Thomas, Charlotte Repton, Simon A. Babayan, Nick Gray, Richard Cordaux, Alistair Darby, Benjamin Makepeace & Mark Blaxter
Wolbachia, endosymbiotic bacteria of the order Rickettsiales, are widespread in arthropods but also present in nematodes. In arthropods, A and B supergroup Wolbachia are generally associated with distortion of host reproduction. In filarial nematodes, including some human parasites, multiple lines of experimental evidence indicate that C and D supergroup Wolbachia are essential for the survival of the host, and here the symbiotic relationship is considered mutualistic. The origin of this mutualistic endosymbiosis is of interest...

Data from: Revised Airlie House consensus guidelines for design and implementation of ALS clinical trials

Leonard H Van Den Berg, Eric Sorenson, Gary Gronseth, Eric A. Macklin, Jinsy Andrews, Robert H. Baloh, Michael Benatar, James D. Berry, Adriano Chio, Philippe Corcia, Angela Genge, Amelie K. Gubitz, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Christopher J. McDermott, Erik P. Pioro, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Vincenzo Silani, Martin R. Turner, Markus Weber, Benjamin Rix Brooks, Robert G. Miller & Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Objective: To revise the 1999 Airlie House consensus guidelines for the design and implementation of preclinical therapeutic studies and clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: A consensus committee comprising 140 key members of the international ALS community (ALS researchers, clinicians, patient representatives, research funding representatives, industry and regulatory agencies) addressed nine areas of need within ALS research: 1. Pre-clinical studies; 2. Biological and phenotypic heterogeneity; 3. Outcome measures; 4. Disease-modifying and symptomatic interventions;...

Data from: MHC genotype predicts mate choice in the ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus

Mariella Baratti, Francesco Dessì-Fulgheri, Roberto Ambrosini, Andrea Bonisoli-Alquati, Manuela Caprioli, Emanuele Goti, Angelo Matteo, Roberto Monnanni, Lapo Ragionieri, Emma Ristori, Maria Romano, Diego Rubolini, Angela Scialpi & Nicola Saino
Females of several vertebrate species selectively mate with males on the basis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. As androgen-mediated maternal effects have long-lasting consequences for the adult phenotype, both mating and reproductive success may depend on the combined effect of MHC genotype and exposure to androgens during early ontogeny. We studied how MHC-based mate choice in ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) was influenced by an experimental in ovo testosterone (T) increase. There was no...

Data from: Re-visiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations

Alain C. Frantz, Allan D. McDevitt, Lisa C. Pope, Joanna Kochan, John Davison, Chris F. Clements, Morten Elmeros, Guillem Molina-Vacas, Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez, Alessandro Balestrieri, Koen Van Den Berge, Peter Breyne, Emmanuel Do Linh San, Erik O. Ågren, Franz Suchentrunk, Laurent Schley, Rafał Kowalczyk, Berit I. Kostka, Dusko Ćirović, Nikica Šprem, Marc Colyn, Marco Ghirardi, Venislava Racheva, Christophe Braun, Rita Oliveira … & Terry Burke
Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples...

Data from: Better-surviving barn swallow mothers produce more and better-surviving sons

Andrea Romano, Alessandra Costanzo, Manuela Caprioli, Marco Parolini, Roberto Ambrosini, Diego Rubolini & Nicola Saino
Sex allocation theory predicts that parents are selected to bias their progeny sex ratio (SR) towards the sex that will benefit the most from parental quality. Because parental quality may differentially affect survival of sons and daughters, a pivotal test of the adaptive value of SR adjustment is whether parents overproduce offspring of the sex that accrue larger fitness advantages from high parental quality. However, this crucial test of the long-term fitness consequences of sex...

Data from: Antipsychotic dose mediates the association between polypharmacy and corrected QT interval

Corrado Barbui, Irene Bighelli, Giuseppe Carrà, Mariasole Castellazzi, Claudio Lucii, Giovanni Martinotti, Michela Nosè, Giovanni Ostuzzi & Giovanni Targher
Antipsychotic (AP) drugs have the potential to cause prolongation of the QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc). As this risk is dose-dependent, it may be associated with the number of AP drugs concurrently prescribed, which is known to be associated with increased cumulative equivalent AP dosage. This study analysed whether AP dose mediates the relationship between polypharmacy and QTc interval. We used data from a cross-sectional survey that investigated the prevalence of QTc lengthening...

Data from: Signatures of selection and environmental adaptation across the goat genome post-domestication

Licia Colli, Marco Milanesi, Andrea Talenti, Francesca Bertolini, Minhui Chen, Alessandra Crisà, Kevin Daly, Marcello Del Corvo, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Johannes A. Lenstra, Ben D. Rosen, Elia Vajana, Gennaro Catillo, Stéphane Joost, Ezequiel Luis Nicolazzi, Estelle Rochat, Max F. Rothschild, Bertrand Servin, Tad S. Sonstegard, Roberto Steri, Curtis P. Van Tassel, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Paola Crepaldi, Alessandra Stella & AdaptMap Consortium
Background: Since goat was domesticated 10,000 years ago, many factors have contributed to the differentiation of goat breeds and these are classified mainly into two types: (i) adaptation to different breeding systems and/or purposes and (ii) adaptation to different environments. As a result, approximately 600 goat breeds have developed worldwide; they differ considerably from one another in terms of phenotypic characteristics and are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. In this work, we...

Data from: Integrative taxonomy at work: DNA barcoding of taeniids harbored by wild and domestic cats

Andrea Galimberti, Daniele F. Romano, Marco Genchi, Daniele Paoloni, Francesca Vercillo, Lolita Bizzarri, Davide Sassera, Claudio Bandi, Claudio Genchi, Bernardino Ragni & Maurizio Casiraghi
In modern taxonomy, DNA barcoding is particularly useful where biometric parameters are difficult to determine or useless due to the poor quality of samples. These situations are frequent in parasitology. Here we present an integrated study, based on both DNA barcoding and morphological analysis, on cestodes belonging to the genus Taenia, for which biodiversity is still largely underestimated. In particular, we characterized cestodes from Italian wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), free-ranging domestic cats (F. s. catus)...

Data from: Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure: the case study of the Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) in Northern Italy

Giulia Pisa, Valerio Orioli, Giulia Spilotros, Elena Fabbri, Ettore Randi & Luciano Bani
The multi-step method here applied in studying the genetic structure of a low dispersal and philopatric species, like the Fire Salamander Salamandra salamandra, was proved to be effective in identifying the hierarchical structure of population living in broadleaved forest ecosystems in Northern Italy. In this study 477 salamander larvae, collected in 28 sampling populations (SPs) in the Prealpine and in the foothill areas of Northern Italy, were genotyped at 16 specie-specific microsatellites. SPs showed a...

Data from: Evolutionary analysis of Old World arenaviruses reveals a major adaptive contribution of the viral polymerase

Chiara Pontremoli, Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Uberto Pozzoli, Stefania Riva, Ignacio G. Bravo, Mario Clerici & Manuela Sironi
The Old World (OW) arenavirus complex includes several species of rodent-borne viruses, some of which (i.e., Lassa virus, LASV and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, LCMV) cause human diseases. Most LCMV and LASV infections are caused by rodent-to-human transmissions. Thus, viral evolution is largely determined by events that occur in the wildlife reservoirs. We used a set of human- and rodent-derived viral sequences to investigate the evolutionary history underlying OW arenavirus speciation, as well as the more...

Data from: Evolution of wing length and melanin-based coloration in insular populations of a cosmopolitan raptor

ANDREA ROMANO
Aim. Insular populations face different conditions than those living on continents, thus resulting in the evolution of typical insular phenotypes, like smaller body sizes or reduced colourations. However, the generality of the so-called “island rule” has been questioned, and intraspecific analyses on the effects of insularity on cosmopolitan species are lacking. Here, we tested the predictions of the island rule in the cosmopolitan common barn owl group. Location. World. Taxon. Barn owl species complex. Methods....

Low toxicity crop fungicide (Fenbuconazole) impacts reproductive male quality signals leading to a reduction of mating success in a wild solitary bee

Samuel Boff, Taina Conrad, Josué Raizer, Marten Wehrhahn, Melis Bayer, Anna Friedel, Panagiotis Theodorou, Thomas Schmitt & Daniela Lupi
Recent reports on bee health suggest that sub-lethal doses of pesticides have negative effects on wild bee reproduction and ultimately on their population growth. Females of the solitary horned mason bee, Osmia cornuta, evaluate thoracic vibrations and odours of males to assess male quality. When certain criteria are met, the female accepts the male and copulates. However, these signals were found to be modified by sub-lethal doses of pesticides in other hymenopterans. Here, we tested...

MAConDA. Le Mostre d´Arte Moderna nelle Gallerie private in Italia: i due decenni cruciali 1960 - 1980. Mostre

Flavio Fergonzi, Giorgio Zanchetti & Barbara Cinelli
Nell'ambito degli obiettivi primari del progetto MAConDA, la ricerca è partita dalla constatazione della difficile, e in qualche caso proibitiva, accessibilità nelle biblioteche pubbliche (e anche in quelle specialistiche di storia dell'arte) di cataloghi, pieghevoli, inviti e altri materiali di galleria che documentano le mostre in oggetto: mostre che, nel periodo preso in esame, sono state spesso decisive per la storia delle esposizioni perchè hanno iniziato una vera e propria rivoluzione nel rapporto tra l'opera...

Data from: Genomic analysis suggests KITLG is responsible for a roan pattern in two Pakistani goat breeds

Andrea Talenti, Francesca Bertolini, Jamie Williams, Muhammad Moaeen-Ud-Din, Stefano Frattini, Beatrice Coizet, Giulio Pagnacco, Jim Reecy, Max Rothschild, Paola Crepaldi, James Reecy & Max F Rothschild
The roan coat color pattern is described as the presence of white hairs intermixed with pigmented hairs. This kind of pigmentation pattern has been observed in many domestic species, including the goat. The molecular mechanisms and inheritance that underlie this pattern are known for some species and the KITLG gene has been shown associated with this phenotype. To date, no research effort has been done to find the gene(s) that controls roan coat color pattern...

Data from: Cardiovascular variability analysis and baroreflex estimation in patients with type 2 diabetes in absence of any manifest neuropathy

Sílvia Cristina Garcia De Moura-Tonello, Alberto Porta, Andrea Marchi, Alessandra De Almeida Fagundes, Cristina De Oliveira Francisco, Patricia Rehder-Santos, Juliana Cristina Milan-Mattos, Rodrigo Polaquini Simões, Mariana De Oliveira Gois & Aparecida Maria Catai
Introduction: Indexes derived from spontaneous heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) fluctuations can detect autonomic dysfunction in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) associated to cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) or other neuropathies. It is unknown whether HP and SAP variability indexes are sensitive enough to detect the autonomic dysfunction in DM patients without CAN and other neuropathies. Methods: We evaluated 68 males aged between 40 and 65 years. The group was composed...

Data from: Migratory connectivity and effects of winter temperatures on migratory behaviour of the European robin Erithacus rubecula: a continent-wide analysis

Roberto Ambrosini, José Cuervo, Chris Du Feu, Wolfgang Fiedler, Musitelli Federica, Diego Rubolini, Beatrice Sicurella, Fernando Spina, Nicola Saino, Anders Møller & Federica Musitelli
1. Many partially migratory species show phenotypically divergent populations in terms of migratory behaviour, with climate hypothesized to be a major driver of such variability through its differential effects on sedentary and migratory individuals. 2. Based on long-term (1947–2011) bird ringing data, we analysed phenotypic differentiation of migratory behaviour among populations of the European robin Erithacus rubecula across Europe. 3. We showed that clusters of populations sharing breeding and wintering ranges varied from partial (British...

Data from: MHC structuring and divergent allele advantage in a urodele amphibian: a hierarchical multi-scale approach

Lorenzo Talarico, Wieslaw Babik, Silvio Marta, Venusta Pietrocini & Marco Mattoccia
The proteins encoded by extraordinarily polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are involved in the adaptive immune response. Balancing selection is believed to maintain MHC polymorphism in the long-term, although neutral processes also play a role in shaping MHC diversity. However, the relative contribution of these processes is poorly understood. Here we characterized MHC class II variation of a low-dispersal, pond-breeding newt (Triturus carnifex) over a restricted, geographically structured area. We aimed to: (1) evaluate...

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