51 Works

Bird community data from Wallacea biogeographic region collected 2018-2020

S.L. Mitchell, D.P. Edwards, R.W. Martin, A. Kastanya, A. Karja, P.G. Akbar, K. Jordan, T. Martin, J. Supriatna, N. Winarni, Z.G. Davies & M.J. Struebig
Bird community data from fixed point count stations generated by experienced ornithologists in Borneo and the Wallacean islands of Sulawesi (Buton), Seram, Buru, Talaud and Sangihe. Bird surveys were undertaken between 2016 and 2020, with work on any given island lasting ~3 months, except for Borneo where surveys were undertaken across 3 years (2014 – 2016). Surveys were repeated four times at each site on Sulawesi (Buton), Seram, Buru and once each on Talaud and...

Bird communities across varying landcover types in a Neotropical city

Will Hayes, Jessica Fisher, Meshach Pierre, Jake Bicknell & Zoe Davies
Urbanization poses a serious threat to local biodiversity, yet towns and cities with abundant natural features may harbor important species populations and communities.While the contribution of urban greenspaces to conservation has been demonstrated by numerous studies within temperate regions, few consider the bird communities associated with different landcovers in Neotropical cities. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, we examined how the avifauna of a wetland city in northern Amazonia (Georgetown, Guyana) varied across six...

The impact of a heat and moisture exchange mask on respiratory symptoms and airway response to exercise in asthma

John Dickinson, Anna Jackson, James Hull, James Hopker, Hannah Fletcher, William Gowers & John Molphy
Respiratory symptoms, including cough are prevalent in asthmatic individuals when exercising. This study investigates whether a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) face mask is effective in modulating exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and post exercise cough in a cold, dry environment in asthmatic individuals. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with asthma (20 males, 6 females) completed three cycling exercise challenges (EX) at 8 oC and 24% relative humidity (RH) in a randomised order. Participants wore either an HME...

Data from: Ancestral origins and invasion pathways in a globally invasive bird correlate with climate and influences from bird trade

Hazel Jackson, Diederik Strubbe, Simon Tollington, Robert Prys-Jones, Erik Matthysen & Jim J. Groombridge
Invasive species present a major threat to global biodiversity. Understanding genetic patterns and evolutionary processes that reinforce successful establishment is paramount for elucidating mechanisms underlying biological invasions. Among birds, the ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) is one of the most successful invasive species, established in over 35 countries. However, little is known about the evolutionary genetic origins of this species and what population genetic signatures tell us about patterns of invasion. We reveal the ancestral origins...

Data from: The fourth dimension of tool use: temporally enduring artefacts aid primates learning to use tools

Dorothy M. Fragaszy, Dora Biro, Yonat Eshchar, Tatyana Humle, Patrícia Izar, Briseida Resende & Elisabetta Visalberghi
All investigated cases of habitual tool use in wild chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys include youngsters encountering durable artefacts, most often in a supportive social context. We propose that enduring artefacts associated with tool use, such as previously used tools, partly processed food items and residual material from previous activity, aid non-human primates to learn to use tools, and to develop expertise in their use, thus contributing to traditional technologies in non-humans. Therefore, social contributions to...

High Carbon Stock stratification of the SAFE project site, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, 2015 [HMTF]

N.J. Deere, G. Guillera-Arroita, E.L. Baking, H. Bernard, M. Pfeifer, G. Reynolds, O.R. Wearn, Z.G. Davies & M.J. Struebig
This data set provides a spatial stratification of forest cover into discrete vegetation classes according to the High Carbon Stock (HCS) Approach. The data set covers the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project site located in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Data were collected in 2015 during a project which was included in the NERC Human-modified tropical forest (HMTF) programme.

Data from: Reconciling timber extraction with biodiversity conservation in tropical forests using reduced-impact logging

Jake E. Bicknell, Matthew J. Struebig & Zoe G. Davies
1. Over 20% of the world's tropical forests have been selectively logged, and large expanses are allocated for future timber extraction. Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is being promoted as best practice forestry that increases sustainability and lowers CO2 emissions from logging, by reducing collateral damage associated with timber extraction. RIL is also expected to minimize the impacts of selective logging on biodiversity, although this is yet to be thoroughly tested. 2. We undertake the most comprehensive...

Data from: Do rivers influence fine-scale population genetic structure of tigers in the Sundarbans?

M. Abdul Aziz, Olutolani Smith, Adam Barlow, Simon Tollington, & Jim J. Groombridge
Global tiger Panthera tigris populations mostly survive within the geographically fragmented forest patches, thereby limited genetic exchange between isolated populations. Assessing the genetic status of these populations can reveal the effects of dispersal barriers and provide critical insights to guide future conservation actions. Using non-invasively collected biological samples, we investigated fine-scale genetic structure of tigers in the Sundarbans mangrove forests intersected by the complex river systems, and which holds one of the largest global tiger...

Data from: Inferential biases linked to unobservable states in complex occupancy models

Brittany A. Mosher, Larissa L. Bailey, Ben A. Hubbard & Kathryn P. Huyvaert
Modeling of species distributions has undergone a shift from relying on equilibrium assumptions to recognizing transient system dynamics explicitly. This shift has necessitated more complex modeling techniques, but the performance of these dynamic models has not yet been assessed for systems where unobservable states exist. Our work is motivated by the impacts of the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, a disease of amphibians that associated with declines of many species worldwide. Using this host-pathogen system as...

Data from: A unified model for optimizing riverscape conservation

Tibor Erõs, Jesse R. O'Hanley & István Czeglédi
1.Spatial prioritization tools provide a means of finding efficient trade-offs between biodiversity protection and the delivery of ecosystem services. Although a large number of prioritization approaches have been proposed in the literature, most are specifically designed for terrestrial systems. When applied to river ecosystems, they often fail to adequately account for the essential role that landscape connectivity plays in maintaining both biodiversity and ecosystem services. This is particularly true of longitudinal connectivity, which in many...

Data from: A spatially integrated framework for assessing socioecological drivers of carnivore decline

Nicolás Gálvez, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Freya A. V. St. John, Elke Schüttler, David W. Macdonald & Zoe G. Davies
Habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation are key threats to the long-term persistence of carnivores, which are also susceptible to direct persecution by people. Integrating natural and social science methods to examine how habitat configuration/quality and human–predator relations may interact in space and time to effect carnivore populations within human-dominated landscapes will help prioritise conservation investment and action effectively. We propose a socioecological modelling framework to evaluate drivers of carnivore decline in landscapes where predators and...

Data from: Graph drawing using tabu search coupled with path relinking

Fadi K. Dib & Peter Rodgers
Graph drawing, or the automatic layout of graphs, is a challenging problem. There are several search based methods for graph drawing which are based on optimizing an objective function which is formed from a weighted sum of multiple criteria. In this paper, we propose a new neighbourhood search method which uses a tabu search coupled with path relinking to optimize such objective functions for general graph layouts with undirected straight lines. To our knowledge, before...

Optimising bat bioacoustic surveys in human-modified neotropical landscapes

Adrià López-Baucells, Natalie Yoh, Ricardo Rocha, Paulo Bobrowiec, Jorge Palmeirim & Christoph Meyer
During the last decades, the use of bioacoustics as a non-invasive and cost-effective sampling method has greatly increased worldwide. For bats, acoustic surveys have long been known to complement traditional mist-netting, however, appropriate protocol guidelines are still lacking for tropical regions. Establishing the minimum sampling effort needed to detect ecological changes in bat assemblages (e.g., activity, composition and richness) is crucial in view of workload and project cost constraints, and because detecting such changes must...

SI dataset S1 - knuckle-walking biomechanical strategies

Julia Arias-Martorell, Angel Zeininger & Tracy Kivell
African apes engage in a distinct form of locomotion called knuckle-walking, but there is much ambiguity as to when and how this locomotor behaviour evolved. This study aims to elucidate potential differences in knuckle-walking elbow posture and loading in African apes through the study of trabecular bone. Using a whole-epiphysis approach, we quantified variation in trabecular structure of the distal humerus of chimpanzees, western lowland gorillas, and mountain gorillas in comparison to orang-utans, siamangs and...

Data from: Do ‘passive’ medical titanium surfaces deteriorate in service in the absence of wear?

Owen Addison, Alison J. Davenport, Robert J. Newport, Sonam Kalra, Mehdi Monir, Frederick J. F. W. Mosselmans, David Proops & Richard A. Martin
Globally, more than 1000 tonnes of titanium (Ti) is implanted into patients in the form of biomedical devices on an annual basis. Ti is perceived to be ‘biocompatible’ owing to the presence of a robust passive oxide film (approx. 4 nm thick) at the metal surface. However, surface deterioration can lead to the release of Ti ions, and particles can arise as the result of wear and/or corrosion processes. This surface deterioration can result in...

Data from: Individual consumption of supplemental food as a predictor of reproductive performance and viral infection intensity

Simon Tollington, John G. Ewen, Jason Newton, Rona A.R. McGill, Donal Smith, Aurélie Henshaw, Deborah J. Fogell, Vikash Tatayah, Andrew Greenwood, Carl G. Jones & Jim J. Groombridge
1.Supplemental food is often provided to threatened species in order to maintain or enhance reproductive fitness and thus population growth. However, its impact on individual reproductive fitness is rarely evaluated, despite being associated with both positive and negative consequences. 2. We used stable isotope analyses to characterise the relative proportional consumption of supplemental food and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to assess beak and feather disease viral infection intensity among parakeets. Life-history and nest-site data...

Data from: Detailed monitoring of a small but recovering population reveals sublethal effects of disease and unexpected interactions with supplemental feeding

Simon Tollington, Andrew Greenwood, Carl G. Jones, Paquita Hoeck, Aurelie Chowrimootoo, Donal Smith, Heather Richards, Vikash Tatayah & Jim J. Groombridge
1. Infectious diseases are widely recognized to have substantial impact on wildlife populations. These impacts are sometimes exacerbated in small endangered populations, and therefore, the success of conservation reintroductions to aid the recovery of such species can be seriously threatened by outbreaks of infectious disease. Intensive management strategies associated with conservation reintroductions can further compound these negative effects in such populations. 2. Exploring the sublethal effects of disease outbreaks among natural populations is challenging and...

Data from: Comparison of historical bottleneck effects and genetic consequences of reintroduction in a critically-endangered island passerine

Rachel M. Bristol, Rachel Tucker, Deborah A. Dawson, Gavin Horsburgh, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Alain C. Frantz, Andy Krupa, Nirmal J. Shah, Terry Burke & Jim J. Groombridge
Re-introduction is an important tool for recovering endangered species; however, the magnitude of genetic consequences for re-introduced populations remains largely unknown, in particular the relative impacts of historical population bottlenecks compared to those induced by conservation management. We characterize 14 microsatellite loci developed for the Seychelles paradise flycatcher and use them to quantify temporal and spatial measures of genetic variation across a 134-year time frame encompassing a historical bottleneck that reduced the species to ~28...

Data from: Effects of time pressure and time passage on face-matching accuracy

Matthew C. Fysh & Markus Bindemann
This study investigated the impact of time pressure on matching accuracy with face pairs that combined photographs from student ID cards with high-quality person portraits, and under conditions that provided infrequent identity mismatches. Time pressure was administered via two onscreen displays that observers could use to adjust the amount of time that was allocated to a given trial while completing a block of trials within a required timeframe. Under these conditions, observers matched faces under...

Platinum incorporation into titanate perovskites to deliver emergent active and stable platinum nanoparticles (dataset)

Maadhav Kothari, Yukwon Jeon & John Thomas Sirr Irvine

Habitat loss alters effects of intransitive higher-order competition on biodiversity: a new metapopulation framework

Jinbao Liao, Yinglin Li, Daniel Bearup & Jinbao Liao
Recent studies have suggested that intransitive competition, as opposed to hierarchical competition, allow more species to coexist. Furthermore, it is recognized that the prevalent paradigm, which assumes that species interactions are exclusively pairwise, may be insufficient. More importantly, whether and how habitat loss, a key driver of biodiversity loss, can alter these complex competition structures and therefore species coexistence remain unclear. We thus present a new simple yet comprehensive metapopulation framework which can account for...

Data from: A toolkit for optimizing fish passage barrier mitigation actions

Steven King, Jesse R. O'Hanley, Lynda R. Newbold, Paul S. Kemp & Matthew W. Diebel
The presence of dams, stream–road crossings and other infrastructure often compromises the connectivity of rivers, leading to reduced fish abundance and diversity. The assessment and mitigation of river barriers is critical to the success of restoration efforts aimed at restoring river integrity. In this study, we present a combined modelling approach involving statistical regression methods and mixed integer linear programming to maximize resident fish species richness within a catchment through targeted barrier mitigation. Compared to...

Data from: Intrachromosomal rearrangements in avian genome evolution: evidence for regions prone to breakpoints

Darren K. Griffin & Benjamin M. Skinner
It is generally believed that the organization of avian genomes remains highly conserved in evolution as chromosome number is constant and comparative chromosome painting demonstrated there to be very few interchromosomal rearrangements. The recent sequencing of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome allowed an assessment of the number of intra-chromosomal rearrangements between it and the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, revealing a surprisingly high number of intra-chromosomal rearrangements. With the publication of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)...

Explaining illness with evil: Pathogen prevalence fosters moral vitalism

Brock Bastian, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Steve Loughnan, Paul Bain, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Maja Becker, Michal Bilewicz, Emma Collier-Baker, Carla Crespo, Paul W. Eastwick, Ronald Fischer, Malte Friese, Ángel Gómez, Valeschka M. Guerra, Jose Luis Castellanos Guevara, Katja Hanke, Nic Hooper, Li-Li Huang, Shi Junqi, Minoru Karasawa, Peter Kuppens, Siri Leknes, Müjde Peker, Cesar Pelay, Afoditi Pina … & William B. Swann
Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in Studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on...

Drivers of amphibian population dynamics and asynchrony at local and regional scales

Hugo Cayuela, Richard A. Griffiths, Nurul Zakaria, Jan W. Arntzen, Pauline Priol, Jean-Paul Léna, Aurélien Besnard & Pierre Joly
Identifying the drivers of population fluctuations in spatially distinct populations remains a significant challenge for ecologists. Whereas regional climatic factors may generate population synchrony (i.e., the Moran effect), local factors including the level of density-dependence may reduce the level of synchrony. Although divergences in the scaling of population synchrony and spatial environmental variation have been observed, the regulatory factors that underlie such mismatches are poorly understood. Few previous studies have investigated how density-dependent processes and...

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  • University of Kent
  • University of Melbourne
  • University College London
  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Salford
  • Mauritian Wildlife Foundation
  • University of Lisbon
  • Newcastle University
  • University of Southampton