53 Works

Wheeler et al_Associative learning of alarm signals

Brandon Wheeler
Many vertebrate taxa respond to heterospecific alarm calls with appropriate anti¬predator behaviours, although it is unclear how apparent recognition is achieved. Such responses are widely thought to be based on learned associations between the occurrence of the call and the presence of a predator. Conclusive evidence that this behaviour is indeed underpinned by learning, however, is scarce. This study tested whether wild black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) learn to associate novel sounds with the presence...

Research data supporting \"The Missing N1 or Jittered P2: Electrophysiological Correlates of Pattern-Glare in the Time and Frequency Domai\"n

Austyn Tempesta, Claire E. Miller, Vladimir Litvak, Howard Bowman & Andrew Schofield

Mammal detection data for the SAFE project site, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, 2015 [HMTF]

N.J. Deere, G. Guillera-Arroita, E.L. Baking, H. Bernard, M. Pfeifer, G. Reynolds, O.R. Wearn, Z.G. Davies & M.J. Struebig
This data set contains stacked detection matrices for 28 recorded mammal species across 115 sampling locations at the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) project site located in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Information for each camera trap sampling location, including spatial information and sampling effort is included. Data were collected in order to determine the contribution of carbon-based policies to biodiversity conservation in agricultural land-use mosaics. These data are essential to the development of the occupancy...

Data from: Evaluating conservation and fisheries management strategies by linking spatial prioritisation software and ecosystem and fisheries modelling tools

Kristian Metcalfe, Sandrine Vaz, Georg H. Engelhard, Maria Ching Villanueva, Robert J. Smith & Steven Mackinson
1. Well-designed marine protected area (MPA) networks can deliver a range of ecological, economic and social benefits, and so a great deal of research has focused on developing spatial conservation prioritization tools to help identify important areas. 2. However, whilst these software tools are designed to identify MPA networks that both represent biodiversity and minimize impacts on stakeholders, they do not consider complex ecological processes. Thus, it is difficult to determine the impacts that proposed...

Data from: Chromosome-level assembly reveals extensive rearrangement in saker falcon and budgerigar, but not ostrich, genomes

Rebecca E. O'Connor, Marta Farre, Sunitha Jospeh, Joana Damas, Lucas Kiazim, Rebecca Jennings, Sophie Bennett, Eden A. Slack, Emily Allanson, Denis M. Larkin & Darren K. Griffin
The number of de novo genome sequence assemblies is increasing exponentially; however, relatively few contain one scaffold/contig per chromosome. Such assemblies are essential for studies of genotype-to-phenotype association, gross genomic evolution, and speciation. Inter-species differences can arise from chromosomal changes fixed during evolution, and we previously hypothesized that a higher fraction of elements under negative selection contributed to avian-specific phenotypes and avian genome organization stability. The objective of this study is to generate chromosome-level assemblies...

Edge effects and vertical stratification of aerial insectivorous bats across the interface of primary-secondary Amazonian rainforest

Natalie Yoh, James Clarke, Adrià López-Baucells, Maria Mas, Paulo E.D. Bobrowiec, Ricardo Rocha & Christoph F.J. Meyer
Edge effects - abiotic and biotic changes associated with habitat boundaries - are key drivers of community change in fragmented landscapes. Their influence is heavily modulated by matrix composition. With over half of the world’s tropical forests predicted to become forest edge by the end of the century, it is paramount that conservationists gain a better understanding of how tropical biota is impacted by edge gradients. Bats comprise a large fraction of tropical mammalian fauna...

Data from: Photos provide information on age, but not kinship, of Andean bear

Russell C. Van Horn, Becky Zug, Robyn D. Appleton, Ximena Velez-Liendo, Susanna L. Paisley, Corrin LaCombe & Susanna Paisley
Using photos of captive Andean bears of known age and pedigree, and photos of wild Andean bear cubs <6 months old, we evaluated the degree to which visual information may be used to estimate bears’ ages and assess their kinship. We demonstrate that the ages of Andean bear cubs ≤6 months old may be estimated from their size relative to their mothers with an average error of <0.01 ± 13.2 days (SD; n = 14),...

Data from: Riparian reserves help protect forest bird communities in oil palm dominated landscapes

Simon L. Mitchell, David P. Edwards, Henry Bernard, David Coomes, Tommaso Jucker, Zoe G. Davies & Matthew J. Struebig
1. Conversion of forest to oil palm agriculture is a significant and continuing threat to tropical biodiversity. Despite this, little is known about the value of riparian reserves in oil palm and how these conservation set-asides might best be managed to maintain biodiversity. 2. We characterised bird communities of 28 sites in an oil palm-forest mosaic in Sabah, Malaysia using 6104 encounters from 840 point counts. Sites included oil palm riparian reserves of various vegetation...

Data from: Bioclimatic envelope models predict a decrease in tropical forest carbon stocks with climate change in Madagascar

Ghislain Vieilledent, Oliver Gardi, Clovis Grinand, Christian Burren, Mamitiana Andriamanjato, Christian Camara, Charlie J. Gardner, Leah Glass, Andriambolantsoa Rasolohery, Harifidy Ratsimba, Valéry Gond & Jean-Roger Rakotoarijaona
1. Recent studies have underlined the importance of climatic variables in determining tree height and biomass in tropical forests. Nonetheless, the effects of climate on tropical forest carbon stocks remain uncertain. In particular, the application of process-based dynamic global vegetation models have led to contrasting conclusions regarding the potential impact of climate change on tropical forest carbon storage. 2. Using a correlative approach based on a bioclimatic envelope model and data from 1771 forest plots...

Data from: Postnatal depression and reproductive success in modern, low-fertility contexts

Sarah Myers, Oskar Burger & Sarah E. Johns
Background and objectives: Postnatal depression (PND) presents a puzzling phenomenon to evolutionary anthropologists as it is highly prevalent and yet detrimental to child development and maternal health. Adaptive explanations have been proposed, but have not been tested with data that directly link PND to female fertility. Methodology: A survey was designed to gather complete reproductive histories and retrospective measures of PND to measure the effects of PND on fitness. Respondents were born between 1930 and...

Data from: The role of inhibitory dynamics in the loss and re-emergence of macropodoid tooth traits

Aidan M. C. Couzens, Alistair Robert Evans, Matthew M. Skinner & Gavin J. Prideaux
The reversibility of phenotypic evolution is likely to be strongly influenced by the ability of underlying developmental systems to generate ancestral traits. However, few studies have quantitatively linked these developmental dynamics to traits which re-evolve. In this study we assess how changes in the inhibitory cascade, a developmental system that regulates relative tooth size in mammals, influenced the loss and reversals of the posthypocristid, a molar tooth crest, in the kangaroo superfamily Macropodoidea. We find...

Data from: Widespread gene flow between oceans in a pelagic seabird species complex

Claire Raisin, Deborah A. Dawson, Helen Hipperson, Gavin J. Horsburgh, Jim J. Groombridge, Stefanie M.H. Ismar, Paul Sweet, Carl G. Jones, Vikash Tatayah, Kevin Ruhomaun, Norris Ken, Katherine A. Booth Jones, Malcolm A.C. Nicoll, Malcolm A. C. Nicoll, Ken Norris & Stefanie M. H. Ismar
Global-scale gene flow is an important concern in conservation biology as it has the potential to either increase or decrease genetic diversity in species and populations. Although many studies focus on the gene flow between different populations of a single species, the potential for gene flow and introgression between species is understudied, particularly in seabirds. The only well-studied example of a mixed-species, hybridizing population of petrels exists on Round Island, in the Indian Ocean. Previous...

High temperatures and human pressures interact to influence mortality in an African carnivore

Daniella Rabaiotti, Rosemary Groom, J. W. McNutt, Jessica Watermeyer, Helen O'Neill & Rosie Woodroffe
1. The impacts of high ambient temperatures on mortality in humans and domestic animals are well understood. However much less is known about how hot weather affects mortality in wild animals. High ambient temperatures have been associated with African wild dog Lycaon pictus pup mortality, suggesting that high temperatures might also be linked to high adult mortality. 2. We analysed mortality patterns in African wild dogs radio-collared in Kenya (0°N), Botswana (20°S) and Zimbabwe (20°S),...

Data from: Do ‘passive’ medical titanium surfaces deteriorate in service in the absence of wear?

Owen Addison, Alison J. Davenport, Robert J. Newport, Sonam Kalra, Mehdi Monir, Frederick J. F. W. Mosselmans, David Proops & Richard A. Martin
Globally, more than 1000 tonnes of titanium (Ti) is implanted into patients in the form of biomedical devices on an annual basis. Ti is perceived to be ‘biocompatible’ owing to the presence of a robust passive oxide film (approx. 4 nm thick) at the metal surface. However, surface deterioration can lead to the release of Ti ions, and particles can arise as the result of wear and/or corrosion processes. This surface deterioration can result in...

Data from: Individual consumption of supplemental food as a predictor of reproductive performance and viral infection intensity

Simon Tollington, John G. Ewen, Jason Newton, Rona A.R. McGill, Donal Smith, Aurélie Henshaw, Deborah J. Fogell, Vikash Tatayah, Andrew Greenwood, Carl G. Jones & Jim J. Groombridge
1.Supplemental food is often provided to threatened species in order to maintain or enhance reproductive fitness and thus population growth. However, its impact on individual reproductive fitness is rarely evaluated, despite being associated with both positive and negative consequences. 2. We used stable isotope analyses to characterise the relative proportional consumption of supplemental food and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to assess beak and feather disease viral infection intensity among parakeets. Life-history and nest-site data...

Data from: Detailed monitoring of a small but recovering population reveals sublethal effects of disease and unexpected interactions with supplemental feeding

Simon Tollington, Andrew Greenwood, Carl G. Jones, Paquita Hoeck, Aurelie Chowrimootoo, Donal Smith, Heather Richards, Vikash Tatayah & Jim J. Groombridge
1. Infectious diseases are widely recognized to have substantial impact on wildlife populations. These impacts are sometimes exacerbated in small endangered populations, and therefore, the success of conservation reintroductions to aid the recovery of such species can be seriously threatened by outbreaks of infectious disease. Intensive management strategies associated with conservation reintroductions can further compound these negative effects in such populations. 2. Exploring the sublethal effects of disease outbreaks among natural populations is challenging and...

Data from: Comparison of historical bottleneck effects and genetic consequences of reintroduction in a critically-endangered island passerine

Rachel M. Bristol, Rachel Tucker, Deborah A. Dawson, Gavin Horsburgh, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Alain C. Frantz, Andy Krupa, Nirmal J. Shah, Terry Burke & Jim J. Groombridge
Re-introduction is an important tool for recovering endangered species; however, the magnitude of genetic consequences for re-introduced populations remains largely unknown, in particular the relative impacts of historical population bottlenecks compared to those induced by conservation management. We characterize 14 microsatellite loci developed for the Seychelles paradise flycatcher and use them to quantify temporal and spatial measures of genetic variation across a 134-year time frame encompassing a historical bottleneck that reduced the species to ~28...

Data from: Effects of time pressure and time passage on face-matching accuracy

Matthew C. Fysh & Markus Bindemann
This study investigated the impact of time pressure on matching accuracy with face pairs that combined photographs from student ID cards with high-quality person portraits, and under conditions that provided infrequent identity mismatches. Time pressure was administered via two onscreen displays that observers could use to adjust the amount of time that was allocated to a given trial while completing a block of trials within a required timeframe. Under these conditions, observers matched faces under...

Platinum incorporation into titanate perovskites to deliver emergent active and stable platinum nanoparticles (dataset)

Maadhav Kothari, Yukwon Jeon & John Thomas Sirr Irvine

Habitat loss alters effects of intransitive higher-order competition on biodiversity: a new metapopulation framework

Jinbao Liao, Yinglin Li, Daniel Bearup & Jinbao Liao
Recent studies have suggested that intransitive competition, as opposed to hierarchical competition, allow more species to coexist. Furthermore, it is recognized that the prevalent paradigm, which assumes that species interactions are exclusively pairwise, may be insufficient. More importantly, whether and how habitat loss, a key driver of biodiversity loss, can alter these complex competition structures and therefore species coexistence remain unclear. We thus present a new simple yet comprehensive metapopulation framework which can account for...

Data from: A toolkit for optimizing fish passage barrier mitigation actions

Steven King, Jesse R. O'Hanley, Lynda R. Newbold, Paul S. Kemp & Matthew W. Diebel
The presence of dams, stream–road crossings and other infrastructure often compromises the connectivity of rivers, leading to reduced fish abundance and diversity. The assessment and mitigation of river barriers is critical to the success of restoration efforts aimed at restoring river integrity. In this study, we present a combined modelling approach involving statistical regression methods and mixed integer linear programming to maximize resident fish species richness within a catchment through targeted barrier mitigation. Compared to...

Data from: Intrachromosomal rearrangements in avian genome evolution: evidence for regions prone to breakpoints

Darren K. Griffin & Benjamin M. Skinner
It is generally believed that the organization of avian genomes remains highly conserved in evolution as chromosome number is constant and comparative chromosome painting demonstrated there to be very few interchromosomal rearrangements. The recent sequencing of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome allowed an assessment of the number of intra-chromosomal rearrangements between it and the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, revealing a surprisingly high number of intra-chromosomal rearrangements. With the publication of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)...

Explaining illness with evil: Pathogen prevalence fosters moral vitalism

Brock Bastian, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Steve Loughnan, Paul Bain, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Maja Becker, Michal Bilewicz, Emma Collier-Baker, Carla Crespo, Paul W. Eastwick, Ronald Fischer, Malte Friese, Ángel Gómez, Valeschka M. Guerra, Jose Luis Castellanos Guevara, Katja Hanke, Nic Hooper, Li-Li Huang, Shi Junqi, Minoru Karasawa, Peter Kuppens, Siri Leknes, Müjde Peker, Cesar Pelay, Afoditi Pina … & William B. Swann
Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in Studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on...

Drivers of amphibian population dynamics and asynchrony at local and regional scales

Hugo Cayuela, Richard A. Griffiths, Nurul Zakaria, Jan W. Arntzen, Pauline Priol, Jean-Paul Léna, Aurélien Besnard & Pierre Joly
Identifying the drivers of population fluctuations in spatially distinct populations remains a significant challenge for ecologists. Whereas regional climatic factors may generate population synchrony (i.e., the Moran effect), local factors including the level of density-dependence may reduce the level of synchrony. Although divergences in the scaling of population synchrony and spatial environmental variation have been observed, the regulatory factors that underlie such mismatches are poorly understood. Few previous studies have investigated how density-dependent processes and...

Microsatellite Dataset for: Weaving et al. Conservation genetics of regionally extinct peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and unassisted recovery without genetic bottleneck in southern England

Rodrigo Vega, Angela Weaving, Hazel Jackson, Michael Nicholls & Jon Franklin
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) has been affected by persecution, pollution, trade, and habitat degradation, but it is considered a flagship conservation success story because of successful reintroductions and population recoveries across broad ranges. However, in the UK there were never formal reintroduction programmes for peregrine falcons, and it appears that UK populations—and specifically the Sussex peregrines of the English south coast—recently recovered from a population crash unassisted. To study this, we obtained samples from...

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Affiliations

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