28 Works

Macrobenthic Mollusca from Prince Gustav Channel and Duse Bay, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula collected by epibenthic sledge in March 2018

Katrin Linse & Madeline Anderson
In 2018 RRS James Clark Ross investigated the marine benthic biodiversity of the Prince Gustav Channel area and the macrobenthic molluscan fauna collected by epibenthic sledge (EBS) has been assessed for species richness, abundance and assemblage composition as well as for functional traits. In total 20,307 mollusc specimens assigned to 50 morphospecies and 4 classes (Solenogastres, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Scaphopoda) were identified. Assemblage analyses across the Prince Gustav Channel area did not show apparent pattern...

Macrobenthic Cumacea collected by epibenthic sledge from the Amundsen Sea in March 2008 and from the Prince Gustav Channel and Duse Bay, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula in March 2018

Katrin Linse, Laura Steib, Angelika Brandt & Davide Di Franco
In 2008 RRS James Clark Ross investigated the marine benthic biodiversity in Amundsen Sea and in 2018 the marine benthic biodiversity of the Prince Gustav Channel (PGC) area and the macrobenthic cumacean fauna (Peracarida, Crustacea) collected by epibenthic sledge (EBS) has been assessed for species richness, abundance and assemblage composition. In total 4431 cumacean specimens assigned to 58 morphospecies and 5 families were identified. To set the cumacean dataset into a wider context, published cumacean...

Ancient mitogenomics clarifies radiation of extinct Mascarene giant tortoises (Cylindraspis spp.)

Christian Kehlmaier, Eva Graciá, Patrick D. Campbell, Margaretha D. Hofmeyr, Silke Schweiger, Albert Martínez-Silvestre, Walter Joyce & Uwe Fritz
The five extinct giant tortoises of the genus Cylindraspis belong to the most iconic species of the enigmatic fauna of the Mascarene Islands that went largely extinct after the discovery of the islands. To resolve the phylogeny and biogeography of Cylindraspis, we analysed a data set of 45 mitogenomes that includes all lineages of extant tortoises and eight near-complete sequences of all Mascarene species extracted from historic and subfossil material. Cylindraspis is an ancient lineage...

Data from: Seed perishability determines the caching behaviour of a food-hoarding bird

Eike Lena Neuschulz, Thomas Mueller, Kurt Bollmann, Felix Gugerli & Katrin Böhning-Gaese
1. Many animals hoard seeds for later consumption and establish seed caches that are often located at sites with specific environmental characteristics. One explanation for the selection of non-random caching locations is the avoidance of pilferage by other animals. Another possible hypothesis is that animals choose locations that hamper the perishability of stored food, allowing the consumption of unspoiled food items over long time periods. 2. We examined seed perishability and pilferage-avoidance as potential drivers...

Data from: High throughput sequencing combined with null model tests reveals specific plant-fungi associations linked to seedling establishment and survival

Dominik Merges, Miklós Bálint, Imke Schmitt, Peter Manning & Eike Lena Neuschulz
1. Plant-fungal interactions are important for plant community assembly, but quantifying these relationships remains challenging. High throughput sequencing of fungal communities allows us to identify plant-fungal associations at a high level of resolution, but often fails to provide information on taxonomic and functional assignment of fungi. 2. We transplanted seeds of Pinus cembra across an elevational gradient (1850-2250 m a.s.l.) and identified environmental factors and known fungal associates important for seedling establishment and survival. We...

Genomic processes underlying rapid adaptation of a natural Chironomus riparius population to unintendedly applied experimental selection pressures

Markus Pfenninger & Quentin Foucault
Evolve and Resquence (E&R) studies are a useful tool to study genomic processes during rapid adaptation, e.g. in the framework of adaptive responses to global climate change. We applied different thermal regimes to a natural Chironomus riparius (Diptera) population in an E&R framework to infer its evolutionary potential for rapid thermal adaptation. We exposed two replicates to three temperatures each (14°C, 20°C and 26°C) for more than two years, the experiment thus lasting 22, 44...

Data from: Evaluation of candidate DNA barcoding loci for economically important timber species of the mahogany family (Meliaceae)

Alexandra N Muellner, Hendrike Schaefer & Renaud Lahaye
There has been considerable debate regarding locus choice for DNA barcoding land plants. This is partly attributable to a shortage of comparable data from proposed candidate loci on a common set of samples. In this study, we evaluated main candidate plastid regions (rpoC1, rpoB, accD) and additional plastid markers (psbB, psbN, psbT exons and the trnS-trnG spacer) as well as the nuclear ribosomal spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) in a group of land plants belonging to the...

Genetic admixture despite ecological segregation in a North African sparrow hybrid zone (Aves, Passeriformes, Passer domesticus x Passer hispaniolensis)

Martin Päckert, Abdelkrim Belkacem, Hannes Wolfgramm, Oliver Gast, David Canal, Gabriele Giacalone, Mario Lo Valvo, Melita Vamberger, Michael Wink, Jochen Martens & Heiko Stuckas
Under different environmental conditions hybridization between the same species might result in different patterns of genetic admixture. Particularly, species pairs with large distribution ranges and long evolutionary history may have experienced several independent hybridization events over time in different zones of overlap. In birds, the diverse hybrid populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the Spanish sparrow (P. hispaniolensis) provide a striking example. Throughout their range of sympatry, these two species do not regularly...

Data from: Population structure of mycobionts and photobionts of the widespread lichen Cetraria aculeata

Fernando Fernández-Mendoza, Stephanie Domaschke, Miguel Ángel García, Patrick Jordan, María P Martín & Christian Printzen
Lichens are symbioses between fungi (mycobionts) and photoautotrophic green algae or cyanobacteria (photobionts). Many lichens occupy large distributional ranges covering several climatic zones. So far, little is known about the large scale phylogeography of lichen photobionts and their role in shaping the distributional ranges of lichens. We studied south polar, temperate and north polar populations of the widely distributed fruticose lichen Cetraria aculeata. Based on DNA sequences from three loci for each symbiont we compared...

Data from: Disentangling the effects of key innovations on the diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae)

Daniele Silvestro, Georg Zizka & Katharina Schulte
The evolution of key innovations, novel traits that promote diversification, is often seen as major driver for the unequal distribution of species richness within the tree of life. In this study, we aim to determine the factors underlying the extraordinary radiation of the subfamily Bromelioideae, one of the most diverse clades among the neotropical plant family Bromeliaceae. Based on an extended molecular phylogenetic data set, we examine the effect of two putative key innovations, that...

Data from: ‘In and out of’ the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Himalayas: centers of origin and diversification compared across five clades of Eurasian montane and alpine passerine birds

Martin Päckert, Adrien Favre, Jan Schnitzler, Jochen Martens, Yue-Hua Sun, Dieter Thomas Tietze, Frank Hailer, Ingo Michalak & Patrick Strutzenberger
Encompassing some of the major hotspots of biodiversity on Earth, large mountain systems have long held the attention of evolutionary biologists. The region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is considered a biogeographic source for multiple colonization events into adjacent areas including the northern Palearctic. The faunal exchange between the QTP and adjacent regions could thus represent a one-way street (‘out of’ the QTP). However, immigration into the QTP region has so far received only little...


Oskar Schröder

Macrobenthic Isopoda collected by epibenthic sledge from the southern Weddell Sea in 2012, South Orkney Islands in 2016, Prince Gustav Channel in 2018 and Eastern Antarctic Peninsula in 2019

Davide Di Franco, Angelika Brandt & Katrin Linse
In 2012 RRS James Clark Ross investigated the marine benthic biodiversity of the southern Weddell Sea (JR275), in 2016 the marine benthic biodiversity of the South Orkney Islands (JR15005) and in 2018 the marine benthic biodiversity of the Prince Gustav Channel area. In 2019 RV Polarstern investigated the marine benthic biodiversity of the eastern Antarctic Peninsula (PS119). During all expeditions macrobenthic isopod fauna (Peracarida, Crustacea) was collected by a total of 37 epibenthic sledge (EBS)...

Data from: Computer simulations show that Neanderthal facial morphology represents adaptation to cold and high energy demands, but not heavy biting

Stephen Wroe, William C.H. Parr, Justin A. Ledogar, Jason Bourke, Samuel P. Evans, Luca Fiorenza, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Chris Stringer, Ottmar Kullmer, Michael Curry, Todd C. Rae, Todd R. Yokley & William C. H. Parr
Three adaptive hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the distinctive Neanderthal face: 1) an improved ability to accommodate high anterior bite forces, 2) more effective conditioning of cold and/or dry air, and, 3) adaptation to facilitate greater ventilatory demands. We test these hypotheses using three-dimensional models of Neanderthals, modern humans, and a close outgroup (H. heidelbergensis), applying finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is the most comprehensive application of either approach...

Data from: A comprehensive analysis of autocorrelation and bias in home range estimation

Michael J. Noonan, Marlee A. Tucker, Christen H. Fleming, Tom S. Akre, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Jeanne Altmann, Pamela C. Antunes, Jerrold L. Belant, Dean Beyer, Niels Blaum, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, , Rogerio De Paula Cunha, Jasja Dekker, Jonathan Drescher-Lehman, Nina Farwig, Claudia Fichtel, Christina Fischer, Adam T. Ford, Jacob R. Goheen, René Janssen, Florian Jeltsch, Matthew Kauffman, Peter M. Kappeler … & Justin M. Calabrese
Home range estimation is routine practice in ecological research. While advances in animal tracking technology have increased our capacity to collect data to support home range analysis, these same advances have also resulted in increasingly autocorrelated data. Consequently, the question of which home range estimator to use on modern, highly autocorrelated tracking data remains open. This question is particularly relevant given that most estimators assume independently sampled data. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of...

ModEst - Precise estimation of genome size from NGS data

Tilman Schell, Markus Pfenninger & Philipp Schönnenbeck
Accurate estimates of genome sizes are important parameters for both theoretical and practical biodiversity genomics. We present here a fast, easy-to-implement and precise method to estimate genome size from the number of bases sequenced and the mean sequencing depth. To estimate the latter, we take advantage of the fact that a precise estimation of the Poisson distribution parameter lambda is possible from truncated data, restricted to the part of the sequencing depth distribution representing the...

Data for: Sodium addition increases leaf herbivory and fungal damage across four grasslands

Ellen Welti
1. Sodium (Na) is an essential element for all animals, but not plants. Soil Na supplies vary geographically. Animals that primarily consume plants thus have the potential to be Na limited and plants that uptake Na may be subject to higher rates of herbivory, but their high Na content also may attract beneficial partners such as pollinators and seed dispersers. 2. To test for the effects of Na biogeochemistry on herbivory, we conducted distributed Na...

A model of digestive tooth corrosion in lizards: experimental tests and taphonomic implications

Krister T. Smith, Orr Comay, Lutz Maul, Fabio Wegmüller, Jean-Marie Le Tensorer & Tamar Dayan
Abstract Corrosion patterns induced by gastric fluids on the skeleton of prey animals may depend on the nature of the corrosive agents (acid, enzymes) as well as on the composition of the hard parts and the soft tissues that surround them. We propose a framework for predicting and interpreting corrosion patterns on lizard teeth, our model system, drawing on the different digestive pathways of avian and non-avian vertebrate predators. We propose that high-acid, low-enzyme systems...

Do all roads lead to resistance? State road density is the main impediment to gene flow in a flagship species inhabiting a severely fragmented anthropogenic landscape

Katharina Westekemper, Annika Tiesmeyer, Katharina Steyer & Carsten Nowak
The wildcat population in Germany is currently estimated between 6,000 and 15,000 individuals, and the European wildcat serves as an umbrella species due to its diverse habitat demands. Our study took place in the core range of the European wildcat in Germany, covering an area of ca. 186.000 km², and we used genotypes of 975 pure-bred wildcat individuals. Data were largely based on non-invasively sampled hair, but also included tissue, saliva, faeces and blood samples...

Data from: Three-dimensional reconstruction on cell level: case study elucidates the ultrastructure of the spinning apparatus of Embia sp. (Insecta: Embioptera)

Sebastian Büsse, Thomas Hörnschemeyer & Christian Fischer
Spinning is a phenomenon not only present in spiders, but also in many other arthropods. The functional morphology and complexity of spinning organs is often poorly understood. Their elements are minute and studying them poses substantial methodological difficulties. This study presents a three-dimensional reconstruction of a silk gland of Embia sp. on cellular level, based on serial sections acquired with serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) to showcase the power of this method. Previous studies...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Utility of island populations in reintroduction programs—relationships between Arabian gazelles (Gazella arabica) from the Farasan Archipelago and endangered mainland populations

Hannes Lerp, Martin Plath, Torsten Wronski, Eva Verena Bärmann, Anna Malczyk, Revina-Rosa Resch, Bruno Streit & Markus Pfenninger
Understanding local adaptation and population differentiation is vital to the success of reintroduction initiatives. Like other mammals living on islands, Arabian gazelles (G. arabica) show reduced body size on the Farasan archipelago, which we corroborated in this study through morphometric analyses of skulls. In light of the steep population decline on the Arabian Peninsula—but stable population development on the archipelago—we tested the potential suitability of Farasan gazelles as a source for reintroductions on the mainland....

Data from: Vitellogenin-like A–associated shifts in social cue responsiveness regulate behavioral task specialization in an ant

Philip Kohlmeier, Barbara Feldmeyer & Susanne Foitzik
Division of labor and task specialization explain the success of human and insect societies. Social insect colonies are characterized by division of labor with workers specializing on brood care early and foraging later in life. Theory posits that this task switching requires shifts in responsiveness to task-related cues, yet experimental evidence is weak. Here we show that a Vitellogenin (Vg) ortholog identified in a RNAseq study on the ant Temnothorax longispinosus is involved in this...

Data from: Re-assessing the diversity of negative strand RNA viruses in insects

Simon Käfer, Sofia Paraskevopoulou, Florian Zirkel, Nicolas Wieseke, Alexander Donath, Malte Petersen, Terry C. Jones, Shanlin Liu, Xin Zhou, Martin Middendorf, Sandra Junglen, Bernhard Misof & Christian Drosten
The spectrum of viruses in insects is important for subjects as diverse as public health, veterinary medicine, food production, and biodiversity conservation. The traditional interest in vector-borne diseases of humans and livestock has drawn the attention of virus studies to hematophagous insect species. However, these represent only a tiny fraction of the broad diversity of Hexapoda, the most speciose group of animals. Here, we systematically probed the diversity of negative strand RNA viruses in the...

An unbiased molecular approach using 3’UTRs resolves the avian family-level tree of life

Heiner Kuhl, Carolina Frankl-Vilches, Antje Bakker, Gerald Mayr, Gerhard Nikolaus, Stefan Boerno, Sven Klages, Bernd Timmermann & Manfred Gahr
Presumably, due to a rapid early diversification, major parts of the higher-level phylogeny of birds are still resolved controversially in different analyses or are considered unresolvable. To address this problem, we produced an avian tree of life, which includes molecular sequences of one or several species of ∼ 90% of the currently recognized family-level taxa (429 species, 379 genera) including all 106 for the non-passerines and 115 for the passerines (Passeriformes). The unconstrained analyses of...

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  • Senckenberg Nature Research Society
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
  • British Antarctic Survey
  • Princeton University
  • Field Museum of Natural History
  • Duke University
  • Michigan Department of Natural Resources
  • University of Wyoming
  • Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
  • Real Jardín Botánico