The nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer ITS region is widely used as a DNA metabarcoding marker to characterize the diversity and composition of fungal communities. In amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity, one of the spacers ITS1 or ITS2 of the ITS region is normally used. In this methodological study we evaluate the usability of ITS1 vs. ITS2 as a DNA metabarcoding marker for fungi. We analyse three data sets: two comprising ITS1 and ITS2...
Data from: Testing the link between population genetic differentiation and clade diversification in Costa Rican orchidsYael Kisel, Alejandra C. Moreno-Letelier, Diego Bogarín, Martyn P. Powell, Mark W. Chase & Timothy G. Barraclough
Species population genetics could be an important factor explaining variation in clade species richness. Here we use newly generated AFLP data to test whether five pairs of sister clades of Costa Rican orchids that differ greatly in species richness also differ in average neutral genetic differentiation within species, expecting that if the strength of processes promoting differentiation within species is phylogenetically heritable, then clades with greater genetic differentiation should diversify more. Contrary to expectation, neutral...
New sequencing technologies allow development of genome-wide markers for any genus of ecological interest, including plant genera such as Betula (birch) that have previously proved difficult to study due to widespread polyploidy and hybridisation. We present a de novo reference genome sequence assembly, from 67X short read coverage, of Betula nana (dwarf birch) – a diploid that is the keystone woody species of sub-arctic scrub communities but of conservation concern in Britain. We also present...
Data from: Floral convergence in Oncidiinae (Cymbidieae; Orchidaceae): an expanded concept of Gomesa and a new genus NohawilliamsiaMark W. Chase, Norris H. Williams, Aparacida Donisete De Faria, Kurt M. Neubig, Maria Do Carmo E. Amaral & W. Mark Whitten
BACKGROUND: Floral morphology, particularly the angle of lip attachment to the column, has historically been the fundamental character used in establishing generic limits in subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae), but it has also been long recognized that reliance on this character alone has produced a highly artificial set of genera. In essence, lip/column relationships reflect syndromes associated with pollinator preferences; most genera of Oncidiinae as previously defined have consisted of a single floral type. Here, the degree...
Data from: Global biogeography and diversification of palms sheds light on the evolution of tropical lineages. I. Historical biogeographyWilliam J. Baker, Thomas L. P. Couvreur & Thomas L.P. Couvreur
AIM: Palms (Arecaceae/Palmae) are a model group for evolutionary studies in the tropics. Family-wide data on taxonomy, phylogenetics and distribution are now available, but a general framework of palm evolution is still lacking. The overall aim of this study, published in two companion papers, is to seek evolutionary explanations for the geographical distribution of palm lineages and species diversity patterns at global and regional levels. In this first paper we undertake a detailed analysis of...
C4 photosynthesis is a series of anatomical and biochemical modifications to the typical C3 pathway that increases the productivity of plants in warm, sunny, and dry conditions. Despite its complexity, it evolved more than 62 times independently in flowering plants. However, C4 origins are absent from most plant lineages and clustered in others, suggesting that some characteristics increase C4 evolvability in certain phylogenetic groups. The C4 trait has evolved 22–24 times in grasses, and all...
Royal Botanic Gardens6
University of Cambridge1
Claremont Graduate University1
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement1
University of Edinburgh1
University of Gothenburg1
National Institute of Amazonian Research1
University of Oslo1
Queen Mary University of London1
Florida Museum of Natural History1