411 Works

Data from: Optimal nutrient exchange and immune responses operate in partner specificity in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis

Jennifer L. Matthews, Camerron M. Crowder, Clinton A. Oakley, Adrian Lutz, Ute Roessner, Eli Meyer, Arthur R. Grossman, Virginia M. Weis & Simon K. Davy
The relationship between reef-building corals and phototrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is fundamental to the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. It has been suggested that reef corals may adapt to climate change by changing their dominant symbiont type to a more thermally tolerant one, although the capacity for such a community shift is potentially hindered by the compatibility of different host-symbiont pairings. Here we combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to characterize the molecular, cellular,...

Data from: Genetic variation in adaptive traits and seed transfer zones for Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass) in the northwestern United States

John Bradley St. Clair, Francis F. Kilkenny, Richard C. Johnson, Nancy L. Shaw & George Weaver
A genecological approach was used to explore genetic variation in adaptive traits in Pseudoroegneria spicata, a key restoration grass, in the intermountain western United States. Common garden experiments were established at three contrasting sites with seedlings from two maternal parents from each of 114 populations along with five commercial releases commonly used in restoration. Traits associated with size, flowering phenology and leaf width varied considerably among populations and were moderately correlated to the climates of...

Data from: Spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal in a coral-reef fish metapopulation: evidence of variable reproductive success

Timothy J. Pusack, Mark R. Christie, Darren W. Johnson, Christopher D. Stallings & Mark A. Hixon
Many marine organisms can be transported hundreds of kilometers during their pelagic larval stage, yet little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal. Although traditional population-genetic tools can be applied to infer movement of larvae on an evolutionary time scale, large effective population sizes and high rates of gene-flow present serious challenges to documenting dispersal patterns over shorter, ecologically-relevant, time scales. Here, we address these challenges by combining direct parentage analysis and...

Data from: Are macroalgal blooms necessarily bad? Nutrient impacts on seagrass in upwelling-influenced estuaries

Margot L. Hessing-Lewis, Sally D. Hacker, Bruce A. Menge, Sea-Oh McConville & Jeremy Henderson
Knowledge of nutrient pathways and their resulting ecological interactions can alleviate numerous environmental problems associated with nutrient increases in both natural and managed systems. Although not unique, coastal systems are particularly prone to complex ecological interactions resulting from nutrient inputs from both the land and sea. Nutrient inputs to coastal systems often spur ulvoid macroalgal blooms, with negative consequences for seagrasses, primarily through shading, as well as through changes in local biogeochemistry. We conducted complementary...

Data from: Within-species patterns challenge our understanding of the Leaf Economics Spectrum

Leander D.L. Anderegg, Logan T. Berner, Grayson Badgley, Meera L. Sethi, Beverly E. Law, Janneke HilleRisLambers & Leander D. L. Anderegg
The utility of plant functional traits for predictive ecology relies on our ability to interpret trait variation across multiple taxonomic and ecological scales. Using extensive datasets of trait variation within species, across species, and across communities, we analyzed whether and at what scales ‘leaf economics spectrum’ (LES) traits show predicted trait-trait covariation. We found that most variation in LES traits is often, but not universally, at high taxonomic levels (between families, between genera in a...

Data from: Eyespots deflect predator attack increasing fitness and promoting the evolution of phenotypic plasticity

Kathleen L. Prudic, Andrew M. Stoehr, Bethany R. Wasik & Antónia Monteiro
Some eyespots are thought to deflect attack away from the vulnerable body, yet there is limited empirical evidence for this function and its adaptive advantage. Here, we demonstrate the conspicuous ventral hindwing eyespots found on Bicyclus anynana butterflies protect against invertebrate predators, specifically praying mantids. Wet season (WS) butterflies with larger, brighter eyespots were easier for mantids to detect, but more difficult to capture compared to dry season (DS) butterflies with small, dull eyespots. Mantids...

Data from: Primary rainforest amount at the landscape scale mitigates bird biodiversity loss and biotic homogenization

Urs G. Kormann, Adam S. Hadley, Teja Tscharntke, Matthew G. Betts, W. Douglas Robinson & Christoph Scherber
1.Tropical conservation strategies traditionally focus on large tracts of pristine forests, but given rapid primary forest decline, understanding the role of secondary forest remnants for biodiversity maintenance is critical. Until now, the interactive effects of changes in forest amount, configuration and disturbance history (secondary vs. primary forest) on the conservation value of tropical landscapes has remained unknown, hampering the incorporation of these global change drivers into local and global conservation planning. 2.We disentangled effects of...

Data from: Comparative analyses of effective population size within and among species: ranid frogs as a case study

Ivan C Phillipsen, W. Chris Funk, Eric A. Hoffman, Kirsten J. Monsen & Michael S. Blouin
It has recently become practicable to estimate the effective sizes (Ne) of multiple populations within species. Such efforts are valuable for estimating Ne in evolutionary modeling and conservation planning. We used microsatellite loci to estimate Ne of 90 populations of four ranid frogs (20 to 26 populations per species, mean n per population = 29). Our objectives were to determine typical values of Ne for populations of each species, compare Ne estimates among the species,...

Data from: Herbivory and eutrophication mediate grassland plant nutrient responses across a global climatic gradient

T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg & Elizabeth T. Borer
Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and...

Data from: Quantifying the digestive fingerprints of predators on the bones of their prey using scanning electron microscopy

Rebecca C. Terry, Jesse A. Laney & Samuel H. Hay-Roe
Paleoecological reconstruction relies on accurately determining the taphonomic origin of fossil deposits. Predation is a common mechanism by which skeletal remains become concentrated over time, leading to the formation of modern and fossil prey death assemblages. Skeletal element representation and breakage patterns within such death assemblages can be used to infer the identity of the responsible predator. However, assemblage-level metrics cannot be used to infer if a single fossil specimen is predator-derived. Microscopic digestive etching...

Data from: Mesopredator management: effects of red fox control on the abundance, diet and use of space by feral cats

Robyn Molsher, Alan E. Newsome, Thomas M. Newsome & Christopher R. Dickman
Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators - mesopredators - often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of...

Data from: Severe fire weather and intensive forest management increase fire severity in a multi-ownership landscape

Harold S.J. Zald, Christopher J. Dunn & Harold S. J. Zald
Many studies have examined how fuels, topography, climate, and fire weather influence fire severity. Less is known about how different forest management practices influence fire severity in multi-owner landscapes, despite costly and controversial suppression of wildfires that do not acknowledge ownership boundaries. In 2013, the Douglas Complex burned over 19,000 ha of Oregon & California Railroad (O&C) lands in Southwestern Oregon, USA. O&C lands are comprised of a checkerboard of private industrial and federal forestland...

Data from: Disentangling the pathways of land use impacts on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazon streams

Rafael P. Leitão, Jansen Zuanon, David Mouillot, Cecília G. Leal, Robert M. Hughes, Philip R. Kaufmann, Sébastien Villéger, Paulo S. Pompeu, Daniele Kasper, Felipe R. De Paula, Silvio F. B. Ferraz & Toby A. Gardner
Agricultural land use is a primary driver of environmental impacts on streams. However, the causal processes that shape these impacts operate through multiple pathways and at several spatial scales. This complexity undermines the development of more effective management approaches, and illustrates the need for more in-depth studies to assess the mechanisms that determine changes in stream biodiversity. Here we present results of the most comprehensive multi-scale assessment of the biological condition of streams in the...

Data from: Bioclimatic, ecological, and phenotypic intermediacy and high genetic admixture in a natural hybrid of octoploid strawberries

Isabella Salamone, Rajanikanth Govindarajulu, Stacey Falk, Matthew Parks, Aaron Liston & Tia-Lynn Ashman
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Hybrid zones provide ‘natural laboratories’ for understanding the processes of selection, reinforcement and speciation. We sought to gain insight into the degree of introgression and the extent of ecological/phenotypic intermediacy in the natural hybrid strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa subsp. cuneifolia. METHODS: We used whole plastome sequencing to identify parental species-specific (Fragaria chiloensis and F. virginiana) chloroplast SNPs, and combined the use of these with nuclear microsatellite markers to genetically characterize the...

Data from: Intraspecific variability and reaction norms of forest understory plant species traits

Julia I. Burton, Steven S. Perakis, Sean C. McKenzie, Caitlin E. Lawrence & Klaus J. Puettmann
1.Trait-based models of ecological communities typically assume intraspecific variation in functional traits is not important, though such variation can change species trait rankings along gradients in resources and environmental conditions, and thus influence community structure and function. 2. We examined the degree of intraspecific relative to interspecific variation, and reaction norms of 11 functional traits for 57 forest understory plant species, including: intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), Δ15N, 5 leaf traits, 2 stem traits and 2...

Data from: Limitations of species delimitation based on phylogenetic analyses: a case study in the (Hypogymnia hypotrypa) group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

Xinli Wei, Bruce McCune, H. Thorsten Lumbsch, Hui Li, Steven Leavitt, Yoshikazu Yamamoto, Svetlana Tchabanenko & Jiangchun Wei
Delimiting species boundaries among closely related lineages often requires a range of independent data sets and analytical approaches. Similar to other organismal groups, robust species circumscriptions in fungi are increasingly investigated within an empirical framework. Here we attempt to delimit species boundaries in a closely related clade of lichen-forming fungi endemic to Asia, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group (Parmeliaceae). In the current classification, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group includes two species: H. hypotrypa and H. flavida, which...

Data from: Hybridization and barriers to gene flow in an island bird radiation

Ben H. Warren, Eldredge Bermingham, Yann Bourgeois, Laura K. Estep, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Dominique Strasberg & Christophe Thébaud
While reinforcement may play a role in all major modes of speciation, relatively little is known about the timescale over which species hybridize without evolving complete reproductive isolation. Birds have high potential for hybridization, and islands provide simple settings for uncovering speciation and hybridization patterns. Here we develop a phylogenetic hypothesis for a phenotypically-diverse radiation of finch-like weaver-birds (Foudia) endemic to the western Indian Ocean islands. We find that unlike Darwin’s finches, each island-endemic Foudia...

Data from: Herbicides and herbivory interact to drive plant community and crop-tree establishment

Thomas D. Stokely, Jake Verschuyl, Joan C. Hagar & Matthew G. Betts
Land management practices often directly alter vegetation structure and composition, but the degree to which ecological processes such as herbivory interact with management to influence biodiversity is less well understood. We hypothesized that large herbivores compound the effects of intensive forest management on early-seral plant communities and plantation establishment (i.e., tree survival and growth), and the degree of such effects is dependent on the intensity of management practices. We established 225 m2 wild ungulate (deer...

Data from: Towards a predictive model of species interaction beta diversity

Catherine H. Graham, Benjamin G. Weinstein & Ben G. Weinstein
Species interactions are fundamental to community dynamics and ecosystem processes. Despite significant progress in describing species interactions, we lack the ability to predict changes in interactions across space and time. We outline a Bayesian approach to separate the probability of species co‐occurrence, interaction and detectability in influencing interaction betadiversity. We use a multi‐year hummingbird–plant time series, divided into training and testing data, to show that including models of detectability and occurrence improves forecasts of mutualistic...

Data from: Testing conceptual models of early plant succession across a disturbance gradient

Cynthia C. Chang, Charles B. Halpern, Joseph A. Antos, Meghan L. Avolio, Abir Biswas, James E. Cook, Roger Del Moral, Dylan G. Fischer, Andrés Holz, Robert J. Pabst, Mark E. Swanson & Donald B. Zobel
1.Studies of succession have a long history in ecology, but rigorous tests of general, unifying principles are rare. One barrier to these tests of theory is the paucity of longitudinal studies that span the broad gradients of disturbance severity that characterize large, infrequent disturbances. The cataclysmic eruption of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 produced a heterogeneous landscape of disturbance conditions, including primary to secondary successional habitats, affording a unique opportunity to explore how...

Data from: Top predators constrain mesopredator distributions

Thomas M. Newsome, Aaron C. Greenville, Duško Ćirović, Christopher R. Dickman, Chris N. Johnson, Miha Krofel, Mike Letnic, William J. Ripple, Euan G. Ritchie, Stoyan Stoyanov & Aaron J. Wirsing
Top predators can suppress mesopredators by killing them, competing for resources and instilling fear, but it is unclear how suppression of mesopredators varies with the distribution and abundance of top predators at large spatial scales and among different ecological contexts. We suggest that suppression of mesopredators will be strongest where top predators occur at high densities over large areas. These conditions are more likely to occur in the core than on the margins of top...

Data from: Environmental structure and energetic consequences in groups of young mice

Delia S. Shelton, Paul M. Meyer & Karen M. Ocasio
Microenvironments can have considerable physiological consequences for the inhabitants by influencing the movements of individual members. The microenvironment can permit more diverse aggregation patterns or restrict movements to certain dimensions. Here, we tested whether aspects of the microenvironment that influenced aggregation patterns also influenced the energetics of groups of young animals. We tested the effects of enclosure configuration on the group temperature and respiration of infant mice (Mus musculus). We monitored the huddle temperature and...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses reveal a deep history of hybridization and polyploidy in the Neotropical genus Lachemilla (Rosaceae)

Diego F. Morales-Briones, Aaron Liston & David C. Tank
Hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, and phylogenetic error produce similar incongruence patterns, representing a great challenge for phylogenetic reconstruction. Here, we use sequence capture data and multiple species tree and species network approaches to resolve the backbone phylogeny of the Neotropical genus Lachemilla, while distinguishing among sources of incongruence. We used 396 nuclear loci and nearly complete plastome sequences from 27 species to clarify the relationships among the major groups of Lachemilla, and explored multiple sources...

Data from: Detecting diversification rates in relation to preservation and tectonic history from simulated fossil records

Tara M. Smiley
For mammals today, mountains are diverse ecosystems globally, yet the strong relationship between species richness and topographic complexity is not a persistent feature of the fossil record. Based on fossil-occurrence data, diversity and diversification rates in the intermontane western North America varied through time, increasing significantly during an interval of global warming and regional intensification of tectonic activity from 18 to 14 Ma. However, our ability to infer origination and extinction rates reliably from the...

Data from: Phenotype-environment association of the oxygen transport system in trimorphic European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) populations

Melissa L. Evans, Kim Præbel, Stefano Peruzzi, Per-Arne Amundsen & Louis Bernatchez
Replicated adaptive radiation events, typified by phenotypic divergence across resource axes, provide important insight into the eco-evolutionary dynamics that lead to the formation of new species. Here, we show that in trimorphic adaptive radiations of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), divergence of the oxygen transport system has occurred across the pelagic/littoral (shallow)—profundal (deep) resource axis, and at multiple biological scales. Profundal whitefish exhibited significantly larger red blood cells (RBCs), a greater proportion of cathodic hemoglobin protein...

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