14 Works

Hornbill abundance and breeding incidence in relation to habitat modification and fig fruit availability

Pooja Yashwant Pawar, Divya Mudappa & T. R. Shankar Raman
Asian hornbills are known to forage and breed in fragmented rainforests and agroforestry plantations in human‐modified landscapes adjoining contiguous protected forests. However, the factors influencing year‐round hornbill abundance, demography and tracking of key food resources such as wild fig Ficus fruits in modified habitats and protected forests remain poorly understood. We carried out monthly surveys of two species of high conservation concern, the Vulnerable Great Hornbill (GH, Buceros bicornis) and the endemic Malabar Grey Hornbill...

Active restoration fosters better recovery of tropical rainforest birds than natural regeneration in degraded forest fragments

T. R. Shankar Raman & Priyanka Hariharan
Ecological restoration has emerged as a key strategy for conserving tropical forests and habitat specialists, and monitoring faunal recovery using indicator taxa like birds can help assess restoration success. Few studies have examined, however, whether active restoration achieves better recovery of bird communities than natural regeneration, or how bird recovery relates to habitat affiliations of species in the community. In rainforests restored over the past two decades in a fragmented landscape (Western Ghats, India), we...

Building an ecologically-founded disease risk prioritization framework for migratory species based on contact with livestock

Munib Khanyari, Sarah Robinson, Eric Morgan, Tony Brown, Navinder Singh, Albert Salemgareyev, Steffen Zuther, Richard Kock & E Milner-Gulland
1. Shared use of rangelands by livestock and wildlife can lead to disease transmission. To align agricultural livelihoods with wildlife conservation, a multi-pronged and interdisciplinary approach for disease management is needed, particularly in data-limited situations with migratory hosts. Migratory wildlife and livestock can range over vast areas, and opportunities for disease control interventions are limited. Predictive frameworks are needed which can allow for identification of potential sites and timings of interventions. 2. We developed an...

Fecal egg counts for Kinnaura livestock and Asiatic Ibex in Pin Valley India

Munib Khanyari
Disease cross-transmission between wild and domestic ungulates can have negative impacts on agricultural economies and wildlife conservation. Assessing how to reduce these impacts is key to maintaining people’s livelihoods while also conserving wild ungulate populations. In the trans-Himalayan region of Pin valley, migratory flocks of sheep and goats share pastures seasonally with the resident wild ungulate, Asiatic ibex (Capra sibirica), leading to the possibility of disease cross-transmission. We focused our work on gastro-intestinal nematode (GINs)...

Data from: Native shade trees aid bird conservation in tea plantations in southern India

T. R. Shankar Raman, Chayant Gonsalves, Panchapakesan Jeganathan & Divya Mudappa
In the Western Ghats, India, we study how different intensities of tea cultivation influence birds. We compared bird communities in conventional monoculture tea and mixed-shade tea plantations, both of which use agrochemicals, with organic tea plantations, a rainforest fragment, and continuous rainforest within the Anamalai Tiger Reserve. In 225 point count surveys, overall bird species richness and abundance were lowest in conventional tea and up to 33% higher in organic tea. Mixed-shade tea had 40%...

Data from: Gardeners of the forest: hornbills govern the spatial distribution of large seeds

Rohit Naniwadekar, Charudutt Mishra, Kavita Isvaran & Aparajita Datta
Seed dispersal by frugivores is vital to the maintenance of tree diversity in tropical forests. However, determining the influence of different frugivores over the distribution of their food plants is difficult, given the complexity of these interactions in the tropics. Consequently, most studies have been restricted to small scales, examining seed dispersal and establishment associated with nests, roosts or fruiting trees. Here, we evaluate the role of frugivorous hornbills in dispersing seeds at spatial scales...

Canopy cover and ecological restoration increase natural regeneration of rainforest trees in the Western Ghats, India

Anand M Osuri, Divya Mudappa, Srinivasan Kasinathan & T. R. Shankar Raman
Restoration of canopy cover through tree planting can assist in overcoming barriers to natural regeneration and catalyze recovery of degraded tropical forests. India has made international pledges to restore millions of hectares of degraded forests by 2030, but lacks empirical research on regeneration under different types of planted and natural overstories to guide this mission. We conducted a field study (65 plots of 25 m2) to examine the influence of overstory type and canopy cover...

Varying impacts of logging frequency on tree communities and carbon storage across evergreen and deciduous tropical forests in the Andaman Islands, India

Akshay Surendra, Anand Osuri & Jayashree Ratnam
The majority of Earth’s tropical forests have been selectively logged; some on repeated occasions. Selective logging is known to affect forest structure, composition and function in various ways, but how such effects vary with logging frequency and across forest types remains unclear. In the Andaman Archipelago in India, we examined adult and pole-sized trees in baseline (unlogged since 1990s), once-logged (logged between 2007 and 2014) and twice-logged (logged in early 1990s and between 2007 and...

Data from: Are fragments fruitful? A comparison of plant–seed disperser communities between fragments and contiguous forest in north-east India

Abir Jain, Navendu V. Page, Gopal S. Rawat & Rohit Naniwadekar
Plant–seed disperser interactions are critical for maintaining tropical plant diversity. However, these interactions are altered by habitat fragmentation, a pervasive threat to the tropics globally. We compared vegetation structure, richness and composition of plant–seed disperser interactions across two forest fragments (area: ~25 km2), and one contiguous forest site in the last remaining lowland tropical forests in north-east India. We compared network-level indices (nestedness, generality, and vulnerability) and species-level indices (degree and species strength) to identify...

Spatial variation in population-density, movement and detectability of snow leopards in a multiple use landscape in Spiti Valley, Trans-Himalaya

Rishi Kumar Sharma, Koustubh Sharma, David Borchers, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Kulbhushan Singh Suryawanshi & Charudutt Mishra
The endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia occurs in human use landscapes in the mountains of South and Central Asia. Conservationists generally agree that snow leopards must be conserved through a land-sharing approach, rather than land-sparing in the form of strictly protected areas. Effective conservation through land-sharing requires a good understanding of how snow leopards respond to human use of the landscape. Snow leopard density is expected to show spatial variation within a landscape because of...

Identifying relationships between multi-scale social-ecological factors to explore ungulate health in a Western Kazakhstan rangeland

Munib Khanyari, Sarah Robinson, Eric Morgan, Albert Salemgareyev & E.J. Milner-Gulland
1. Rangelands are multi-use landscapes which are socially and ecologically important in different ways. Among other interactions, shared use of rangelands by wildlife and livestock can lead to disease transmission. Understanding wildlife and livestock health and managing disease transmission in rangelands requires an integration of social and ecological knowledge. 2. Using the example of Western Kazakhstan, home to two types of ungulate hosts, the critically-endangered saiga antelopes, Saiga tatarica, and livestock, we conducted a cross-scale...

Seed fates of four rainforest tree species in the fragmented forests of Anamalais in the southern Western Ghats, India

Abhishek Gopal, Divya Mudappa, TR Shankar Raman & Rohit Naniwadekar
Seed predation is a key ecosystem process governing the plant population and community structure in forests. Forest fragmentation and habitat loss have been shown to affect seed predation, leading to altered tree recruitment. However, the effects of fragmentation and habitat loss on seed predation are highly variable and context-specific, with limited information from South Asia. For four rainforest tree species in a production landscape of tea and coffee, we examined the influence of forest type...

Predicting parasite dynamics in mixed-use trans-Himalayan pastures to underpin management of cross-transmission between livestock and bharal

Munib Khanyari
The complexities of multi-use landscapes require sophisticated approaches to addressing disease transmission risks. We explored gastro-intestinal nematode (GINs) infections in the North India Trans-Himalayas through a socio-ecological lens, integrating parasite transmission modelling with field surveys and local knowledge, and evaluated the likely effectiveness of potential interventions. Bharal (blue sheep; Pseudois nayaur), a native wild herbivore, and livestock share pasture year-round and livestock commonly show signs of GINs infection. While both wild and domestic ungulates had...

Rawdatafiles for snow leopard population estimation

Manvi Sharma
1. Effective management of charismatic large carnivores requires robust monitoring of their population at local, regional and global scales. While enormous progress has been made to estimate carnivore populations at local scales, estimates at regional and global scales remain elusive. In the first systematic effort at a large regional scale, we estimated the population of the elusive snow leopard Panthera uncia over an area of 26,112 km2 in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. 2....

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Nature Conservation Foundation
  • Queen's University Belfast
  • Royal Veterinary College
  • University of St Andrews
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • Yale University
  • University of Oxford
  • Wildlife Institute of India