16 Works

Data from: Comparing two classes of alpha diversities and their corresponding beta and (dis)similarity measures, with an application to the Formosan sika deer (Cervus nippon taiouanus) reintroduction program

Anne Chao, Chun-Huo Chiu, Shu-Hui Wu, Chun-Lin Huang & Yiching Lin
1. Diversity partitioning, which decomposes gamma diversity into alpha and beta components, is commonly used to obtain measures that quantify spatial/temporal diversity and compositional similarity or dissimilarity among assemblages. We focus on the decomposition of diversity as measured by Hill numbers (parameterized by a diversity order q≧0). 2. At least three diversity-partitioning schemes based on Hill numbers have been proposed. These schemes differ in the way they formulate alpha diversity. We focus on comparing two...

Data from: Quantitative trait transcripts for nicotine resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

Gisele Passador-Gurgel, Wen-Ping Hsieh, Priscilla Hunt, Nigel Deighton & Greg Gibson
Although most genetic association studies are performed with the intention of detecting nucleotide polymorphisms that are correlated with a complex trait, transcript abundance should also be expected to associate with diseases or phenotypes. We performed a scan for such quantitative trait transcripts in adult female heads of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) that might explain variation for nicotine resistance. The strongest association was seen for abundance of ornithine aminotransferase transcripts, implicating detoxification and neurotransmitter biosynthesis...

Data from: The interaction of fatigue cracks with a residual stress field using thermoelastic stress analysis and synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments

Khurram Amjad, David Asquith, Eann A. Patterson, Christopher M. Sebastian & Wei-Chung Wang
This article presents an experimental study on the fatigue behaviour of cracks emanating from cold-expanded holes utilising thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (SXRD) techniques with the aim of resolving the long-standing ambiguity in the literature regarding potential relaxation, or modification, of beneficial compressive residual stresses as a result of fatigue crack propagation. The crack growth rates are found to be substantially lower as the crack tip moved through the residual stress zone...

Data from: Rarefaction and extrapolation with Hill numbers: a framework for sampling and estimation in species diversity studies

Anne Chao, Nicholas J. Gotelli, T. C. Hsieh, Elizabeth L. Sander, K. H. Ma, Robert K. Colwell & Aaron M. Ellison
Quantifying and assessing changes in biological diversity are central aspects of many ecological studies, yet accurate methods of estimating biological diversity from sampling data have been elusive. Hill numbers, or the effective number of species, are increasingly used to characterize the taxonomic, phylogenetic, or functional diversity of an assemblage. However, empirical estimates of Hill numbers, including species richness, tend to be an increasing function of sampling effort and, thus, tend to increase with sample completeness....

Data from: Number sense and state-dependent valuation in cuttlefish

Tsang-I Yang & Chuan-Chin Chiao
Identifying the amount of prey available is an important part of an animal's foraging behaviour. The risk-sensitive foraging theory predicts that an organism's foraging decisions with regard to food rewards depending upon its satiation level. However, the precise interaction between optimal risk-tolerance and satiation level remains unclear. In this study, we examined, firstly, whether cuttlefish, with one of the most highly evolved nervous system among the invertebrates, have number sense, and secondly, whether their valuation...

Data from: Construction of Taiwanese adult reference phantoms for internal dose evaluation

Shu-Jun Chang, Shih-Yen Hung, Yan-Lin Liu & Shiang-Huei Jiang
In the internal dose evaluation, the specific absorbed fraction (SAF) and S-value are calculated from the reference phantom based on Caucasian data. The differences in height and weight between Caucasian and Asian may lead to inaccurate dose estimation. In this study, we developed the Taiwanese reference phantoms. 40 volunteers were recruited. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained, and the contours of 15 organs were drawn. The Taiwanese reference man (TRM) and Taiwanese reference woman (TRW)...

A global phylogenomic study of the Thelypteridaceae

Susan Fawcett, Alan Smith, Michael Sundue, Gordon Burleigh, Emily Sessa, Li-Yaung Kuo, Cheng-Wei Chen, Weston Testo, Michael Kessler & David Barrington
The generic classification of the Thelypteridaceae has been the subject of much controversy. Proposed taxonomic systems have varied from recognizing more than 1000 species in the family within the single genus Thelypteris, to systems favoring upwards of 30 genera. Insights on intrafamilial relationships have been gained from recent phylogenetic studies, especially for the Neotropics; however, in the most recent classification, 10 of 30 recognized genera are either non-monophyletic or untested. In the present study, we...

Data from: Phylogenetic beta diversity, similarity, and differentiation measures based on Hill numbers

Chun-Huo Chiu, Lou Jost & Anne Chao
Until now, decomposition of abundance-sensitive gamma (regional) phylogenetic diversity measures into alpha and beta (within- and between-group) components has been based on an additive partitioning of phylogenetic generalized entropies, especially Rao's quadratic entropy. This additive approach led to a phylogenetic measure of differentiation between assemblages: (gamma − alpha)/gamma. We show both empirically and theoretically that this approach inherits all of the problems recently identified in the additive partitioning of non-phylogenetic generalized entropies. When within-assemblage (alpha)...

Shape-controlled single-crystal growth of InP at low temperatures down to 220 ℃

Der-Hsien Lien, Mark Hettick, Hao Li, Ali Javey, Matthew Yeh, Tzu-Yi Yang, Niharika Gupta, Matin Amani, Daryl Chrzan & Yu-Lun Chueh
III-V compound semiconductors are widely used for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, interfacing III-Vs with other materials has been fundamentally limited by the high growth temperatures and lattice-match requirements of traditional deposition processes. Recently, we developed the templated liquid phase (TLP) crystal growth method for enabling direct growth of shape-controlled single crystal III-Vs on amorphous substrates. Although in theory, the lowest temperature for TLP growth is that of the melting point of the group III...

The Relationship between Obesity-Related Factors and Graves' Orbitopathy

Ching Lu, Chao-Lun Lai, Chih-Man Yang, Chie-Shung Kao, Tien-Chun Chang & Ming-Der Perng
Background/Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are relationships between obesity-related factors including body mass index (BMI), diabetes or prediabetes, hyperlipidemia, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Graves’ orbitopathy (GO). Subjects/Methods: Eighty-four patients with Graves’ disease (GD) (42 without GO and 42 with GO) were enrolled in this Cross-sectional cohort study. Sex, age, GD treatment history, height, body...

Explaining illness with evil: Pathogen prevalence fosters moral vitalism

Brock Bastian, Christin-Melanie Vauclair, Steve Loughnan, Paul Bain, Ashwini Ashokkumar, Maja Becker, Michal Bilewicz, Emma Collier-Baker, Carla Crespo, Paul W. Eastwick, Ronald Fischer, Malte Friese, Ángel Gómez, Valeschka M. Guerra, Jose Luis Castellanos Guevara, Katja Hanke, Nic Hooper, Li-Li Huang, Shi Junqi, Minoru Karasawa, Peter Kuppens, Siri Leknes, Müjde Peker, Cesar Pelay, Afoditi Pina … & William B. Swann
Pathogens represent a significant threat to human health leading to the emergence of strategies designed to help manage their negative impact. We examined how spiritual beliefs developed to explain and predict the devastating effects of pathogens and spread of infectious disease. Analysis of existing data in Studies 1 and 2 suggests that moral vitalism (beliefs about spiritual forces of evil) is higher in geographical regions characterized by historical higher levels of pathogens. Furthermore, drawing on...

soundscape_IR: A source separation toolbox for exploring acoustic diversity in soundscapes

Yi-Jen Sun, Shih-Ching Yen & Tzu-Hao Lin
1. Soundscapes contain rich acoustic information associated with animal behaviors, environmental characteristics, and human activities, providing opportunities for predicting biodiversity changes and associated drivers. However, assessing the diversity of animal vocalizations remains challenging due to the interference of environmental and anthropogenic noise. A tool for separating sound sources and delineating changes in acoustic signals is crucial for an effective assessment of acoustic diversity. 2. We present soundscape_IR, an open-source Python toolbox dedicated to soundscape information...

Data from: Mismatch between the eye and the optic lobe in the giant squid

Yung-Chieh Liu, Tsung-Han Liu, Chun-Chieh Yu, Chia-Hao Su & Chuan-Chin Chiao
Giant squids (Architeuthis) are a legendary species among the cephalopods. They live in the deep sea and are well known for their enormous body and giant eyes. It has been suggested that their giant eyes are not adapted for the detection of either mates or prey at distance, but rather are best suited for monitoring very large predators, such as sperm whales, at distances exceeding 120 m and at a depth below 600 m (Nilsson...

Data from: Rarefaction and extrapolation: making fair comparison of abundance-sensitive phylogenetic diversity among multiple assemblages

T.C. Hsieh & Anne Chao
Measures of phylogenetic diversity are basic tools in many studies of systematic biology. Faith’s PD (sum of branch lengths of a phylogenetic tree connecting all focal species) is the most widely used phylogenetic measure. Like species richness, Faith’s PD based on sampling data is highly dependent on sample size and sample completeness. The sample-size- and sample-coverage-based integration of rarefaction and extrapolation of Faith’s PD was recently developed to make fair comparison across multiple assemblages. However,...

Data from: Incorporation of surface-modified hydroxyapatite into poly(methyl methacrylate) to improve biological activity and bone ingrowth

Kuan-Lin Ku, Yu-Shan Wu, Chi-Yun Wang, Ding-Wei Hong, Zong-Xing Chen, Ching-An Huang, I-Ming Chu & Po-Liang Lai
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is the most frequently used bone void filler in orthopedic surgery. However, the interface between the PMMA-based cement and adjacent bone tissue is typically weak as PMMA bone cement that is inherently bioinert and not ideal for bone ingrowth. The present study aims to improve the affinity between the polymer and ceramic interphases. By surface modifying nano-sized hydroxyapatite (nHAP) with ethylene glycol and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) sequentially via a two-step ring opening reaction,...

The global distribution of known and undiscovered ant biodiversity

Jamie Kass, Benoit Guénard, Kenneth Dudley, Clinton Jenkins, Fumika Azuma, Brian Fisher, Catherine Parr, Heloise Gibb, John Longino, Philip Ward, Anne Chao, David Lubertazzi, Michael Weiser, Walter Jetz, Robert Guralnick, Rumsaïs Blatrix, James Des Lauriers, David Donoso, Christos Georgiadis, Kiko Gomez, Peter Hawkes, Robert Johnson, John Lattke, Joe MacGown, William Mackay … & Evan Economo
Invertebrates constitute the majority of animal species and are critical for ecosystem functioning and services. Nonetheless, global invertebrate biodiversity patterns and their congruences with vertebrates remain largely unknown. We resolve the first high-resolution (~20-km) global diversity map for a major invertebrate clade, ants, using biodiversity informatics, range modeling, and machine learning to synthesize existing knowledge and predict the distribution of undiscovered diversity. We find that ants and different vertebrate groups have distinct features in their...

Registration Year

  • 2022
  • 2019
  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2013
  • 2010

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • National Tsing Hua University
  • University of Vermont
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
  • University of Florida
  • Harvard University
  • North Carolina State University
  • University of Bath
  • Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional
  • Victoria University of Wellington