12 Works

Demographic rates and stature of tree species in 13 sub-tropical forests: annual growth, annual survival, annual recruitment >( 1 cm dbh), stature (max dbh)

Stephan Kambach, Richard Condit, Salomón Aguilar, Helge Bruelheide, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Chia-Hao Chang-Yang, Yu-Yun Chen, George Chuyong, Stuart J. Davies, Sisira Ediriweera, Corneille E. N. Ewango, Edwino S. Fernando, Nimal Gunatilleke, Savitri Gunatilleke, Stephen P Hubbell, Akira Itoh, David Kenfack, Somboon Kiratiprayoon, Yi-Ching Lin, Jean-Remy Makana, Mohizah Bt. Mohamad, Nantachai Pongpattananurak, Rolando Pérez, Lillian Jennifer V. Rodriguez, I-Fang Sun … & Nadja Rüger
Organisms of all species must balance their allocation to growth, survival and recruitment. Among tree species, evolution has resulted in different life-history strategies for partitioning resources to these key demographic processes. Life-history strategies in tropical forests have often been shown to align along a trade-off between fast growth and high survival, i.e. the well-known fast-slow continuum. In addition, an orthogonal trade-off has been proposed between tall stature – resulting from fast growth and high survival...

Data from: Pleistocene speciation with and without gene flow in Euphaea damselflies of subtropical and tropical East Asian islands

Chung-Ping Lin & Yat-Hung Lee
Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene period could have had a profound impact on the origin of tropical species by the alternation of allopatric isolation and inter-population gene flow cycles. However, whether tropical speciation involves strictly allopatric isolation, or proceeds in the face of homogenizing gene flow, is relatively unclear. Here, we investigated geographical modes of speciation in four closely-related Euphaea damselfly species endemic to the subtropical and tropical East Asian islands using coalescent analyses of...

Data from: Can differential nutrient extraction explain property variations in a predatory trap?

Sean J. Blamires, Dakota Piorkowski, Angela Chuang, Yi-Hsuan Tseng, Søren Toft, I-Min Tso & I.-M. Tso
Predators exhibit flexible foraging to facilitate taking prey that offer important nutrients. Because trap-building predators have limited control over the prey they encounter, differential nutrient extraction and trap architectural flexibility may be used as a means of prey selection. Here, we tested whether differential nutrient extraction induces flexibility in architecture and stickiness of a spider's web by feeding Nephila pilipes live crickets (CC), live flies (FF), dead crickets with the web stimulated by flies (CD)...

Data from: ENSO and frost co-determine decade-long temporal variation in flower and seed production in a subtropical rain forest

Chia-Hao Chang-Yang, I-Fang Sun, Cheng-Han Tsai, Chia-Ling Lu & Chang-Fu Hsieh
Flower and seed production of plants can be greatly influenced by both natural climatic oscillations and local weather extremes. However, owing to the rarity of long-term monitoring studies conducted at a sufficient temporal scale to capture climatic oscillations and the unpredictability of extreme weather events, evidence that demonstrates how these two external forcings act in concert to drive plant reproduction remains scarce. In addition, considerable variation in species’ phenological responses to the external climatic forcings...

Meta-analysis reveals materiomic relationships in major ampullate silk across the spider phylogeny

Hamish Craig, Dakota Piorkowski, Michael Kasumovic, Shinichi Nakagawa & Sean Blamires
Spider Major Ampullate (MA) silk, with its combination of strength and extensibility, outperforms any synthetic equivalents. There is thus much interest in understanding its underlying materiome. While expression of the different silk proteins (spidroins) appears an integral component of silk performance, our understanding of the nature of the relationship between the spidroins, their constituent amino acids, and MA silk mechanics is ambiguous. To provide clarity on these relationships across spider species we performed a meta-analysis...

Data from: Multifunctionality of an arthropod predator’s body colouration

Hsien-Chun Liao, Chen-Pan Liao, Sean J. Blamires & I-Min Tso
Animal body colours can be shaped by many factors, including the need to attract mates, avoid predators, and lure prey. In some contexts these needs might compete. A number of studies have recently demonstrated that the silver, white, yellow or red bodies of spiders attract mates, lure prey, or startle predators. Nevertheless, when spider bodies display different colours little is known about the multifunctionality of the colours and whether they interact. The Australasian coin spider,...

Hidden introductions of freshwater red algae via the aquarium trade exposed by DNA barcodes

Shing Zhan, Tsai-Yin Hsieh, Lan-Wei Yeh, Ting-Chun Kuo, Shoichiro Suda & Shao-Lun Liu
The global aquarium trade can introduce alien freshwater invaders, potentially impacting local aquatic ecosystems and their biodiversity. The role of the aquarium trade in spreading freshwater red macroalgae that hitchhike on ornamental aquatic plants and animals is unassessed. We investigated this human-mediated phenomenon via a broad biodiversity survey and genetic analysis of freshwater red algae in the field and aquarium shops in East Asia. Results We found 26 molecular operational taxonomic units (mOTUs) in Taiwan,...

Data from: Comparing two classes of alpha diversities and their corresponding beta and (dis)similarity measures, with an application to the Formosan sika deer (Cervus nippon taiouanus) reintroduction program

Anne Chao, Chun-Huo Chiu, Shu-Hui Wu, Chun-Lin Huang & Yiching Lin
1. Diversity partitioning, which decomposes gamma diversity into alpha and beta components, is commonly used to obtain measures that quantify spatial/temporal diversity and compositional similarity or dissimilarity among assemblages. We focus on the decomposition of diversity as measured by Hill numbers (parameterized by a diversity order q≧0). 2. At least three diversity-partitioning schemes based on Hill numbers have been proposed. These schemes differ in the way they formulate alpha diversity. We focus on comparing two...

Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America

Duncan N. L. Menge, Ryan A. Chisholm, Stuart J. Davies, Kamariah Abu Salim, David Allen, Mauricio Alvarez, Norm Bourg, Warren Y. Brockelman, Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin, Nathalie Butt, Min Cao, Wirong Chanthorn, Wei-Chun Chao, Keith Clay, Richard Condit, Susan Cordell, João Batista Da Silva, H. S. Dattaraja, Ana Cristina Segalin De Andrade, Alexandre A. Oliveira, Jan Den Ouden, Michael Drescher, Christine Fletcher, Christian P. Giardina, C. V. Savitri Gunatilleke … & Tak Fung
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...

Data from: Evidence of trait shifts in response to forest disturbance in Taiwanese Carabus masuzoi (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

Yen-Ting Chen, Lan-Wei Yeh, I-Min Tso, Hui-Chen Lin, Liang-Kong Lin & Chung-Ping Lin
Shifts of functional traits are important because phenotypic responses of species to environmental changes caused by natural and anthropogenic disturbances are fundamental in determining the risk of population extinction. This study tested the effect of forest thinning on the body shape and male genital size of an endemic ground beetle species Carabus masuzoi (Imura and Satô 1989) (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in cypress plantations started approximately 30 years ago in central Taiwan. The beetles were sampled and...

The eye size of the bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) varies from springs to swamps

Chia-Hao CHANG
Variation in lighting environments creates different demands of visual systems for the successful detection and interpretation of visual signals in a given setting. Eye size is a critical property of the visual system as it is has strong effects on visual acuity and visual sensitivity. While many comparative studies have examined eye size across fishes that live in disparate lighting environments (i.e., caves versus surface habitats, mesopelagic versus pelagic depths, turbid versus clear water), fewer...

Dunlin subspecies exhibit regional segregation and high site fidelity along the East Asian−Australasian Flyway

Benjamin Lagassé, Richard Lanctot, Mark Barter, Stephen Brown, Chung-Yu Chiang, Chi-Yeung Choi, Yuri Gerasimov, Steve Kendall, Joseph Liebezeit, Konstantin Maslovsky, Alexander Matsyna, Ekaterina Matsyna, David Payer, Sarah Saalfeld, Yoshimitsu Shigeta, Ivan Tiunov, Pavel Tomkovich, Olga Valchuk & Michael Wunder
The degree that individuals migrate among particular breeding, migration, and wintering sites can have important implications for prioritizing conservation efforts. Four subspecies of Dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate along the East Asian−Australasian Flyway (EAAF). Each subspecies has a distinct and well-defined breeding range, but their migration and winter ranges are poorly defined or unknown. We assessed the migratory connectivity of 3 of these subspecies by evaluating a dataset that encompasses 57 years (1960–2017), and comprises more...

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