10 Works

Wild at heart: programs to diminish negative ecological and evolutionary effects of conservation hatcheries

Megan Osborne, Thomas Dowling, Thomas Turner & Kim Scribner
Hatchery programs are critical for conservation and management of many imperiled fishes. Most traditional aquaculture programs negatively affect ecological performance, genetic, and phenotypic diversity of hatchery-origin fish compared with wild counterparts. Here, we synthesize outcomes of three conservation programs aimed at enhancing ‘wildness’. Each program focuses on a different species: lake sturgeon, razorback sucker, and Rio Grande silvery minnow. These species differ in key life history traits including size and age at sexual maturity, reproductive...

Do Synthesis Centers Synthesize? A Semantic Analysis of Topical Diversity in Research

Edward Hackett, Erin Leahy, John Parker, Ismael Rafols, Stephanie Hampton, Ugo Corte, Diego Chavarro, John Drake, Bart Penders, Laura Sheble, Niki Vermeulen & Todd Vision
Synthesis centers are a form of scientific organization that catalyzes and supports research that integrates diverse theories, methods and data across spatial or temporal scales to increase the generality, parsimony, applicability, or empirical soundness of scientific explanations. Synthesis working groups are a distinctive form of scientific collaboration that produce consequential, high-impact publications. But no one has asked if synthesis working groups synthesize: are their publications substantially more diverse than others, and if so, in what...

The skin microbiome facilitates adaptive tetrodotoxin production in poisonous newts

Patric Vaelli, Kevin Theis, Janet Williams, James Foster, Lauren O'Connell & Heather Eisthen
Rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) use tetrodotoxin (TTX) to block voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels as a chemical defense against predation. Interestingly, newts exhibit extreme population-level variation in toxicity attributed to a coevolutionary arms race with TTX-resistant predatory snakes, but the source of TTX in newts is unknown. Here, we investigated whether symbiotic bacteria isolated from toxic newts could produce TTX. We characterized the skin-associated microbiota from a toxic and non-toxic population of newts and established pure...

Trade-off between fecundity and survival generates stabilizing selection on gall size

Scott Egan, Amanda Weaver, Glen Hood & Michael Foster
Complex interactions within multi-trophic communities are fundamental to the evolution of individual species that reside within them. One common outcome of species interactions are fitness trade-offs, where traits adaptive in some circumstances are maladaptive in others. Here, we identify a fitness trade-off between fecundity and survival in the cynipid wasp Callirhytis quercusbatatoides that induces multi-chambered galls on the stem of its host plant Quercus virginiana. We first quantified this trade-off in natural populations by documenting...

Data from: Vaginal host immune-microbiome interactions in a cohort of primarily African-American women who ultimately underwent spontaneous preterm birth or delivered at term

Violetta Florova & Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
Background: Recent studies suggest that alterations in the vaginal microbiome allow for the assessment of the risk for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the associations between the local immune response and the vaginal microbiome are still poorly understood. Herein, we characterize the vaginal host immune-microbiome interactions in women who ultimately underwent PTB and in those who delivered at term. Methods: Vaginal fluid samples from 52 pregnant...

Asymmetric, but opposing reductions in immigrant viability and fecundity promote reproductive isolation among host-associated populations of an insect herbivore

Linyi Zhang, Glen Hood, Amy Roush, Shihan Shzu, Mattheau Comerford, James Ott & Scott Egan
Immigrant inviability can contribute to reproductive isolation (RI) during ecological speciation by reducing the survival of immigrants in non-native environments. However, studies that assess the fitness consequence of immigrants moving from native to non-native environments typically fail to explore the potential role of concomitant reductions in immigrant fecundity despite recent evidence suggesting its prominent role during local adaptation. Here, we evaluate the directionality and magnitude of both immigrant viability and fecundity to RI in a...

Genomic evidence for correlated trait combinations and antagonistic selection contributing to counterintuitive genetic patterns of adaptive diapause divergence in Rhagoletis flies

McCall Calvert, Meredith Doellman, Jeffrey Feder, Glenn Hood, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Mary Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Patrik Nosil, Dan Hahn & Gregory Ragland
Adaptation to novel environments often results in unanticipated genomic responses to selection. Here, we illustrate how multifarious, correlational selection helps explain a counterintuitive pattern of genetic divergence between the recently derived apple- and ancestral hawthorn-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Apple host race terminate diapause and emerge as adults earlier in the season than the hawthorn host race to coincide with the earlier fruiting phenology of their apple hosts. However, alleles at...

Data from: Evidence for spatial clines and mixed geographic modes of speciation for North American cherry-infesting Rhagoletis (Diptera:Tephritidae) flies

Meredith Doellman, Gilbert Saint Jean, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Glen Hood, Hannes Schuler, Daniel Bruzzese, Mary Glover, James Smith, Wee Yee, Robert Goughnour, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja & Jeffrey Feder
An important criterion for understanding speciation is the geographic context of population divergence. Three major modes of allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation define the extent of spatial overlap and gene flow between diverging populations. However, mixed modes of speciation are also possible, whereby populations experience periods of allopatry, parapatry, and/or sympatry at different times as they diverge. Here, we report clinal patterns of variation for 21 nuclear-encoded microsatellites and a wing spot phenotype for cherry-infesting...

Data from: Can the genomics of ecological speciation be predicted across the divergence continuum from host races to species? A case study in Rhagoletis

Meredith M. Doellman, Peter J. Meyers, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Patrik Nosil & Jeffrey L. Feder
Studies assessing the predictability of evolution typically focus on short-term adaptation within populations or the repeatability of change among lineages. A missing consideration in speciation research is to determine whether natural selection predictably transforms standing genetic variation within populations into differences between species. Here, we test whether host-related selection on diapause timing anticipates genome-wide differentiation during ecological speciation by comparing ancestral hawthorn and newly formed apple-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella to their sibling species...

Clinical recommendations to guide physical therapy practice for Huntington disease

Nora Fritz, Lori Quinn, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos, Ashwini Rao & Monica Busse
Objective In the past decade, an increasing number of studies have examined the efficacy of physical therapy interventions in people with Huntington disease (HD). Methods We performed a mixed-methods systematic review using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology and included experimental and observational study designs. The search resulted in 23 quantitative studies and 3 qualitative studies from which we extracted data using JBI standardized extraction tools. Results of this review suggested that physical therapy interventions may...

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