Objectives: To explore whether the rule of law is a foundational determinant of health that underlies other socioeconomic, political and cultural factors that have been associated with health outcomes. Setting: Global project. Participants: Data set of 96 countries, comprising 91% of the global population. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The following health indicators, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, life expectancy, and cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality rate, were included to explore their association with...
An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expression of the transcription factor optix, which in...
Data from: Environmental gradients and the evolution of successional habitat specialization: a test case with 14 Neotropical forest sitesSusan G. Letcher, Jesse R. Lasky, Robin L. Chazdon, Natalia Norden, S. Joseph Wright, Jorge A. Meave, Eduardo A. Pérez-García, Rodrigo Muñoz, Eunice Romero-Pérez, Ana Andrade, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Tony V. Bentos, Radika Bhaskar, Frans Bongers, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Ricardo G. César, Deborah A. Clark, David B. Clark, Dylan Craven, Alexander DeFrancesco, Juan M. Dupuy, Bryan Finegan … & G. Bruce Williamson
1. Successional gradients are ubiquitous in nature, yet few studies have systematically examined the evolutionary origins of taxa that specialize at different successional stages. Here we quantify successional habitat specialization in Neotropical forest trees and evaluate its evolutionary lability along a precipitation gradient. Theoretically, successional habitat specialization should be more evolutionarily conserved in wet forests than in dry forests due to more extreme microenvironmental differentiation between early and late successional stages in wet forest. 2....
Data from: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) predicts non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in different tissue types of a broad range of tree speciesJorge A. Ramirez, Juan M. Posada, I. Tanya Handa, Günter Hoch, Michael Vohland, Christian Messier & Björn Reu
1. The allocation of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) to reserves constitutes an important physiological mechanism associated with tree growth and survival. However, procedures for measuring NSC in plant tissue are expensive and time-consuming. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a high-throughput technology that has the potential to infer the concentration of organic constituents for a large number of samples in a rapid and inexpensive way based on empirical calibrations with chemical analysis. 2. The main objectives of this...
Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know whyC. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...
Del Rosario University5
Organization for Tropical Studies2
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute2
Wageningen University & Research2
University of Quebec at Montreal1
Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado1
University of Adelaide1
University of Liège1
Federal University of Southern Bahia1