109 Works

Data from: Ambient temperature, body condition and sibling rivalry explain feather corticosterone levels in developing black kites

Lidia López-Jiménez, Julio Blas, Alessandro Tanferna, Sonia Cabezas, Tracy Marchant, Fernando Hiraldo & Fabrizio Sergio
In birds, the steroid hormone corticosterone (CORT) is considered a major mediator in a number of physiological mechanisms and behaviours critical for the regulation of an organism's energy balance. However, the question of whether the way in which circulating plasma CORT is incorporated into feathers actually reflects this regulation, and consequently whether feather CORT (CORT-F) measures allow to make inferences on past levels of energetic demands (also known as the allostatic load), remains unclear. While...

Data from: Olfactory cues of habitats facilitate learning about landscapes of fear

Matthew D. Mitchell, Adam L. Crane, Kevin R. Bairos-Novak, Maud C.O. Ferrari, Douglas P. Chivers & Maud C O Ferrari
Across landscapes, prey are exposed to different levels of predation risk within different habitats. However, little is known about how prey learn about risk in different habitat types. Here, we examined if wood frog tadpoles, Lithobates sylvatica, use olfactory cues from two distinct, plant-dominated habitats (cattail and pond weed) to learn about the overall risk within a habitat and the risk posed by a specific predator species within different habitats. In our first experiment, tadpoles...

Data from: Social learning in a high-risk environment: incomplete disregard for the ‘minnow that cried pike’ results in culturally transmitted neophobia

Adam L. Crane, Anthony G. E. Mathiron & Maud C. O. Ferrari
Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became...

Data from: Positron-emitting radiotracers spatially resolve unexpected biogeochemical relationships linked with methane oxidation in Arctic soils

Michael Schmidt, Steven Mamet, Curtis Senger, Alixandra Schebel, Mitsuaki Ota, Tony Tian, Umair Aziz, Lisa Stein, Tom Regier, Kevin Stanley, Derek Peak & Steven Siciliano
Arctic soils are marked by cryoturbic features, which impact soil-atmosphere methane (CH4) dynamics vital to global climate regulation. Cryoturbic diapirism alters C/N chemistry within frost boils by introducing soluble organic carbon and nutrients, potentially influencing microbial CH4 oxidation. CH4 oxidation in soils, however, requires a spatio-temporal convergence of ecological factors to occur. Spatial delineation of microbial activity with respect to these key microbial and biogeochemical factors at relevant scales is experimentally challenging in inherently complex...

Neonicotinoid and sulfoximine pesticides differentially impair insect escape behaviour and motion detection

John Gray, Rachel Parkinson & Sinan Zhang
Insect nervous systems offer unique advantages for studying interactions between sensory systems and behaviour given that they are complex and yet highly tractable. By examining the neural coding of salient environmental stimuli and resulting behavioural output in the context of environmental stressors, we gain an understanding of the effects of these stressors on brain and behaviour and provide insight into normal function. The implication of neonicotinoid (neonic) pesticides in contributing to declines of non-target species,...

Egg covering in great tits and effects on pied flycatchers

Tore Slagsvold & Karen L. Wiebe
This dataset contains data from experiments carried out in a woodland area and described in the paper: “T. Slagsvold, and Wiebe, K. L. (2021) “Egg covering in cavity nesting birds may prevent nest usurpation by other species.” https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-021-03045-w The experiments investigated a new hypothesis, namely that the cavity nesting birds, like titmice, cover their eggs when they leave the nest during the egg laying period to prevent usurpation of the cavity by other birds. We...

Coral degradation impairs learning of non-predators by Whitetail damselfish

Douglas Chivers, Mark McCormick, Eric Fakan, Jake Edmiston & Maud Ferrari
A prerequisite for effective antipredator responses is the ability of the prey to distinguish animals that pose a threat from those that do not. Prey often have efficient learning mechanisms to learn threats but learning to recognize nonpredators may be equally or more important. Moreover, the ability to generalize learned information is of key importance for prey animals. Prey take information they know about one species to make ‘educated guesses’ about the predatory/nonpredatory status of...

Data from: Resource exploitation collapses the home range of an apex predator

Melanie Dickie, Robert Serrouya, Avgar Tal, Philllip McLouglin, Scott McNay, Craig DeMars & Stan Boutin
Optimizing energy acquisition and expenditure is a fundamental trade-off for consumers, strikingly reflected in how mobile organisms use space. Several studies have established that home range size decreases as resource density increases, but the balance of costs and benefits associated with exploiting a given resource density is unclear. We evaluate how the ability of consumers to exploit their resources through movement (termed “resource exploitation”) interacts with resource density to influence home range size. We then...

Social effects on annual fitness in red squirrels

Andrew McAdam, Quinn Webber, Ben Dantzer, Jeff Lane & Stan Boutin
When resources are limited, mean fitness is constrained and competition can cause genes and phenotypes to enhance an individual’s own fitness while reducing the fitness of their competitors. Negative social effects on fitness have the potential to constrain adaptation, but the interplay between ecological opportunity and social constraints on adaptation remains poorly studied in nature. Here, we tested for evidence of phenotypic social effects on annual fitness (survival and reproductive success) in a long-term study...

Data from: Body temperature, heart rate, and activity patterns of two boreal homeotherms in winter: homeostasis, allostasis, and ecological coexistence

Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Yasmine Majchrzak, Michael Peers, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane, Andrew McAdam & Murray Humphries
Organisms survive environmental variation by combining homeostatic regulation of critical states with allostatic variation of other traits, and species differences in these responses can contribute to coexistence in temporally-variable environments. In this paper, we simultaneously record variation in three functional traits – body temperature (Tb), heart rate, and activity - in relation to three forms of environmental variation – air temperature (Ta), photoperiod, and experimentally-manipulated resource levels – in free-ranging snowshoe hares and North American...

Identifying functional impacts of heat-resistant fungi on boreal forest recovery after wildfire

Nicola Day, Steve Cumming, Kari Dunfield, Jill Johnstone, Michelle Mack, Kirsten Reid, Merritt Turetsky, Xanthe Walker & Jennifer Baltzer
Fungi play key roles in carbon (C) dynamics of ecosystems: saprotrophs decompose organic material and return C in the nutrient cycle, and mycorrhizal species support plants that accumulate C through photosynthesis. The identities and functions of extremophile fungi present after fire can influence C dynamics, particularly because plant-fungal relationships are often species-specific. However, little is known about the function and distribution of fungi that survive fires. We aim to assess the distribution of heat-resistant soil...

Data from: Multilevel and sex-specific selection on competitive traits in North American red squirrels.

David N. Fisher, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M. Humphries, Jeffrey E. Lane & Andrew G. McAdam
Individuals often interact more closely with some members of the population (e.g. offspring, siblings or group members) than they do with other individuals. This structuring of interactions can lead to multilevel natural selection, where traits expressed at the group-level influence fitness alongside individual-level traits. Such multilevel selection can alter evolutionary trajectories, yet is rarely quantified in the wild, especially for species that do not interact in clearly demarcated groups. We quantified multilevel natural selection on...

Data from: DIY meteorology: use of citizen science to monitor snow dynamics in a data-sparse city

Willemijn M. Appels, Lori Bradford, Kwok Pan Chun, Anna E. Coles & Graham Strickert
Cities are under pressure to operate their services effectively and project costs of operations across various timeframes. In high-latitude and high-altitude urban centers, snow management is one of the larger unknowns and has both operational and budgetary limitations. Snowfall and snow depth observations within urban environments are important to plan snow clearing and prepare for the effects of spring runoff on cities’ drainage systems. In-house research functions are expensive, but one way to overcome that...

Data from: Are more diverse parts of the mammalian skull more labile?

Marta Linde-Medina, Julia C. Boughner, Sharlene E. Santana & Rui Diogo
Morphological variation is unevenly distributed within the mammalian skull; some of its parts have diversified more than others. It is commonly thought that this pattern of variation is mainly the result of the structural organization of the skull, as defined by the pattern and magnitude of trait covariation. Patterns of trait covariation can facilitate morphological diversification if they are aligned in the direction of selection, or these patterns can constrain diversification if oriented in a...

Data from: Machine learning to classify animal species in camera trap images: applications in ecology

Micheal A. Tabak, Mohammad Sadegh Norouzzadeh, Michael A. Tabak, David W. Wolfson, Steven J. Sweeney, Paul A. Di Salvo, Ryan S. Miller, Jesse S. Lewis, Jeff Clune, Ryan K. Brook, Elizabeth G. Mandeville, Paul M. Lukacs, Anna K. Moeller, Raoul K. Boughton, Bethany Wight, James C. Beasley & Peter E. Schlichting
Motion‐activated cameras (“camera traps”) are increasingly used in ecological and management studies for remotely observing wildlife and are amongst the most powerful tools for wildlife research. However, studies involving camera traps result in millions of images that need to be analysed, typically by visually observing each image, in order to extract data that can be used in ecological analyses. We trained machine learning models using convolutional neural networks with the ResNet‐18 architecture and 3,367,383 images...

Data from: Tissue-specific changes in apoplastic proteins and cell wall structure during cold acclimation of winter wheat crowns

Ian R. Willick, Daisuke Takahashi, D. Brian Fowler, Matsuo Uemura & Karen K. Tanino
The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown is the critical organ of low temperature stress survival over winter. In cold-acclimated crowns, ice formation in the apoplast causes severe tissue disruption as it grows at the expense of intracellular water. While previous crown studies have shown the vascular transition zone (VTZ) to have a higher freezing sensitivity than the shoot apical meristem (SAM), the mechanism behind the differential freezing response is not fully understood. Cooling cold-acclimated crowns...

Data from: Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection increases apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface in late gestation pregnant gilts

Predrag Novakovic, John C. S. Harding, Ahmad N. Al-Dissi & Susan E. Detmer
The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI). The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions,...

Data from: Publication reform to safeguard wildlife from researcher harm

Kate A. Field, Paul C. Paquet, Kyle Artelle, Gilbert Proulx, Ryan K. Brook & Chris T. Darimont
Despite abundant focus on responsible care of laboratory animals, we argue that inattention to the maltreatment of wildlife constitutes an ethical blind spot in contemporary animal research. We begin by reviewing significant shortcomings in legal and institutional oversight, arguing for the relatively rapid and transformational potential of editorial oversight at journals in preventing harm to vertebrates studied in the field and outside the direct supervision of institutions. Straightforward changes to animal care policies in journals,...

Data from: Partitioning drivers of spatial genetic variation for a continuously-distributed population of boreal caribou: implications for management unit delineation

Pauline Priadka, Micheline Manseau, Tim Trottier, Dave Hervieux, Paul Galpern, Philip D. McLoughlin & Paul J. Wilson
Isolation-by-distance (IBD) is a natural pattern not readily incorporated into theoretical models nor traditional metrics for differentiating populations, although clinal genetic differentiation can be characteristic of many wildlife species. Landscape features can also drive population structure additive to baseline IBD resulting in differentiation through isolation-by-resistance (IBR). We assessed the population genetic structure of boreal caribou across western Canada using non-spatial (STRUCTURE) and spatial (MEMGENE) clustering methods and investigated the relative contribution of IBD and IBR...

Data from: Cognitive resonance: when information carry-over constrains cognitive plasticity

Maud C. O. Ferrari, Marianna E. Horn & Douglas P. Chivers
1. When faced with a changing environment, some species appear to adapt quickly, while others seem unable to update the value of environmental cues on which they base their decisions, leading them to display seemingly maladaptive responses. 2. While behavioural and cognitive plasticity are two traits that should predict the ability of species to update the value of environmental cues, we argue that this flexibility may be constrained by ontogeny. While sensitive periods have been...

Data from: Environmental and demographic drivers of male mating success vary across sequential reproductive episodes in a polygynous breeder

Jeffrey A. Manning & Philip D. McLoughlin
Ecological and social factors underpinning the inequality of male mating success in animal societies can be related to sex ratio, sexual conflict between breeders, effects of non-breeders, resource dispersion, climatic conditions, and the various sequential stages of mating competition that constitute the sexual selection process. Here, we conducted an individual-based study to investigate how local resource availability and demography interact with annual climate conditions to determine the degree of male mating inequality, and thus opportunity...

Data from: The socially mediated recovery of a fearful fish paired with periodically replaced calm models

Adam L. Crane, Kevin R. Bairos-Novak, Laurel H. Sacco, Maud C.O. Ferrari & Maud C. O. Ferrari
Social learning is an important mechanism for acquiring knowledge about environmental risk. However, little work has explored the learning of safety and how such learning outcomes are shaped by the social environment. Here, we exposed minnows, Pimephales promelas, to a high-risk environment to induce behavioral responses associated with fear (e.g., neophobia). We then used the presence of calm conspecific models (low-risk individuals) to weaken these responses. When observers (individuals from the high-risk environment) and models...

Data from: Prenatal exposure to predation affects predator recognition learning via lateralization plasticity

Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Douglas P. Chivers, Matthew D. Mitchell & Maud C. O. Ferrari
Prey with cerebral lateralization often shows a bias in escape direction and asymmetrical use of eyes for scanning. Such asymmetries are likely to cause ecological disadvantages when, for example, predators attack from the side in which the prey is more susceptible. However, lateralized individuals are diffuse in many species and, paradoxically, their frequency increases via developmental plasticity in environments with high-predation risk. Using wood frog tadpoles, Lithobates sylvaticus, we tested the hypothesis that cerebral lateralization...

Data from: Novel insights into relationships between egg corticosterone and timing of breeding revealed by LC-MS/MS

Tom Rosendahl Larsen, Graham D. Fairhurst, Siegrid De Baere, Siska Croubels, Wendt Müller, Liesbeth De Neve & Luc Lens
Inter- and intra-clutch variation in egg corticosterone (CORT), the major glucocorticoid in birds, may provide insights into how maternal stress levels vary with the timing of breeding and with laying order. Common analytical methods (e.g. immunoassays), however, suffer from cross-reaction with other steroids, leading to potential overestimation of CORT concentrations which can obscure true hormone–environment relationships and complicate among-study comparisons. We here apply a new LC-MS/MS technique, which has recently been shown to avoid the...

Data from: Multivariate species boundaries and conservation of harlequin poison frogs

Andres Posso-Terranova & Jose Andrés
In this paper we present an iterative method for delimiting species under the general lineage concept (GLC) based on the multivariate clustering of morphological, ecological, and genetic data. Our rationale is that distinct multivariate groups correspond to evolutionarily independent metapopulation lineages because they reflect the common signal of different secondary defining properties (environmental and genetic distinctiveness, phenotypic diagnosability, etc.) that imply the existence of barriers preventing or limiting gene exchange. We applied this method to...

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