57 Works

Data from: Demographic stimulation of the obligate understorey herb, Panax quinquefolius L., in response to natural forest canopy disturbances

Jennifer L. Chandler & James B. McGraw
1.Natural and anthropogenic forest canopy disturbances significantly alter forest dynamics and lead to multi-dimensional shifts in the forest understorey. An understorey plant's ability to exploit alterations to the light environment caused by canopy disturbance leads to changes in population dynamics. The purpose of this work was to determine if population growth of a species adapted to low light increases in response to additional light inputs caused by canopy disturbance, or alternatively, declines due to long-term...

Data from: From success to persistence: Identifying an evolutionary regime shift in the diverse Paleozoic aquatic arthropod group Eurypterida, driven by the Devonian biotic crisis

James C. Lamsdell & Paul A. Selden
Mass extinctions have altered the trajectory of evolution a number of times over the Phanerozoic. During these periods of biotic upheaval a different selective regime appears to operate, although it is still unclear whether consistent survivorship rules apply across different extinction events. We compare variations in diversity and disparity across the evolutionary history of a major Paleozoic arthropod group, the Eurypterida. Using these data, we explore the group's transition from a successful, dynamic clade to...

Data from: A 454 survey reveals the community composition and core microbiome of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) across an urban landscape

Matthew Meriweather, Sara Matthews, Rita Rio & Regina S. Baucom
Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core constituents of the microbial communities found in association with arthropod hosts is of crucial importance for insects that may vector human or agricultural pathogens. The hematophagous Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), known as the human bed bug, has made a recent resurgence in North America, as well as worldwide, potentially owing to increased travel, climate change and resistance to insecticides. A comprehensive survey of the bed bug microbiome has not...

Data from: Large effect quantitative trait loci for salicinoid phenolic glycosides in Populus: implications for gene discovery

Scott A. Woolbright, Brian J. Rehill, Richard L. Lindroth, Stephen P. DiFazio, Gregory D. Martinsen, Mathew S. Zinkgraf, Gerard J. Allan, Paul Keim, Thomas G. Whitham & Matthew S. Zinkgraf
Genomic studies have been used to identify genes underlying many important plant secondary metabolic pathways. However, genes for salicinoid phenolic glycosides (SPGs)—ecologically important compounds with significant commercial, cultural, and medicinal applications—remain largely undescribed. We used a linkage map derived from a full‐sib population of hybrid cottonwoods (Populus spp.) to search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the SPGs salicortin and HCH‐salicortin. SSR markers and primer sequences were used to anchor the map to the V3.0...

Data from: A new Devonian euthycarcinoid evidences the use of different respiratory strategies during the marine-to-terrestrial transition in the myriapod lineage

Pierre Gueriau, James C. Lamsdell, Roy A. Wogelius, Phillip L. Manning, Victoria M. Egerton, Uwe Bergmann, Loïc Bertrand & Julien Denayer
Myriapods were, together with arachnids, the earliest animals to occupy terrestrial ecosystems, by at least the Silurian. The origin of myriapods and their land colonization have long remained puzzling until euthycarcinoids, an extinct group of aquatic arthropods considered amphibious, were shown to be stem group myriapods, extending the lineage to the Cambrian and evidencing a marine-to-terrestrial transition. Although possible respiratory structures comparable to the air-breathing tracheal system of myriapods are visible in several euthycarcinoids, little...

Data from: Testing models of reciprocal relations between social influence and integration in STEM across the college years

Paul Hernandez, V. Bede Agocha, Lauren Carney, Mica Estrada, Sharon Lee, David Loomis, Michelle Williams & Crystal Park
The present study tests predictions from the Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influences (TIMSI) concerning processes linking social interactions to social integration into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) communities and careers. Students from historically overrepresented groups in STEM were followed from their senior year of high school through their senior year in college. Based on TIMSI, we hypothesized that interactions with social influence agents (operationalized as mentor network diversity, faculty mentor support, and research...

Water availability drives fine root dynamics in a Eucalyptus woodland under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

Juan Piñeiro, Raul Ochoa-Hueso, John Drake, Mark Tjoelker & Sally Power
Fine roots are a key component of carbon and nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems. Rising atmospheric [CO2] (eCO2) is likely to alter the production and activity of fine roots, with important consequences for forest carbon storage. Yet empirical evidence of the role of eCO2 in driving root dynamics in low-nutrient forested ecosystems is limited, particularly for grassy woodlands, an ecosystem type of global importance. We sampled fine roots across seasons over a two-year period to...

Characterization of Salix nigra floral insect community and activity of three native Andrena bees

Stephen DiFazio, Sandra Simon, Ken Keefover-Ring, Yong-Lak Park, Gina Wimp & Julianne Grady
Salix nigra (black willow) is a widespread tree that hosts many species of polylectic hymenopterans and oligolectic bees of the genus Andrena. The early flowering of S. nigra makes it an important nutritive resource for insects emerging from hibernation. However, since S. nigra is dioecious, not all insect visits will lead to successful pollination. Using both visual observation and pan-trapping we characterized the community of insects that visited S. nigra flowers and assessed differences among...

WorldClim, elevation and distribution data for all palms from: The ecology of palm genomes: Repeat-associated genome size expansion is constrained by aridity

Rowan Schley, Jaume Pellicer, Xue-Jun Ge, Craig Barrett, Sidonie Bellot, Maite Guignard, Petr Novak, Donald Fraser, William Baker, Steven Dodsworth, Jiri Macas, Andrew Leitch & Ilia Leitch
Genome size varies 2,400-fold across plants, influencing their evolution through changes in cell size and cell division rates which impact plants’ environmental stress tolerance. Repetitive element expansion explains much genome size diversity, and the processes structuring repeat ‘communities’ are analogous to those structuring ecological communities. However, which environmental stressors influence repeat community dynamics has not yet been examined from an ecological perspective. We measured genome size and leveraged climatic data for 91% of genera within...

Data from: Early phylogeny of crinoids within the pelmatozoan clade

William I. Ausich, Thomas W. Kammer, Elizabeth C. Rhenberg & David F. Wright
Phylogenetic relationships among early crinoids are evaluated by maximizing parsimonious-informative characters that are unordered and unweighted. Primarily Tremadocian–Darriwilian (Early–Middle Ordovician) taxa are analysed. Stratigraphic congruence metrics support the best phylogenetic hypothesis derived using parsimony methods. This study confirms the traditionally recognized lineages of Palaeozoic crinoids and provides new information on the branching order of evolving lineages. Camerates are basal crinoids with progressively more tipward groups (from an Ordovician perspective) being protocrinoids, cladids (paraphyletic), hybocrinids and...

Data from: Sulfur resistance of Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalysts for low-temperature NH3–SCR

Quan Xu, Wenjing Yang, Shitong Cui, Jason Street & Yan Luo
Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst prepared using a simple impregnation method demonstrated a better low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 (NH3-SCR) activity in comparison with the sol-gel method. The Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst loading with 20% Ce had the best low-temperature activity and achieved a NO conversion rate higher than 90% at 140-260°C with a 99.7% NO conversion rate at 180 °C. The Ce-Mn/TiO2 catalyst only had a 6% NO conversion rate decrease after 100 ppm of SO2...

Data from: Human macular Müller cells rely more on serine biosynthesis to combat oxidative stress than those from the periphery

Ting Zhang, Ling Zhu, Michele Catherine Madigan, Wei Liu, Weiyong Shen, Svetlana Cherepanoff, Fanfan Zhou, Shaoxue Zeng, Jianhai Du & Mark Cedric Gillies
The human macula is more susceptible than the peripheral retina to developing blinding conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy. A key difference between them may be the nature of their Müller cells. We found primary cultured Müller cells from macula and peripheral retina display significant morphological and transcriptomic differences. Macular Müller cells expressed more Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase (PHGDH, a rate-limiting enzyme in serine synthesis) than peripheral Müller cells. The serine synthesis, glycolytic and mitochondrial...

Data from: Altered spring phenology of North American freshwater turtles and the importance of representative populations

Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker & Gordon R. Ultsch
Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon, Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting...

Data from: Decay rates of leaf litters from arbuscular mycorrhizal trees are more sensitive to soil effects than litters from ectomycorrhizal trees

Meghan G. Midgley, Edward Brzostek & Richard P. Phillips
While it is well established that leaf litter decomposition is controlled by climate and substrate quality at broad spatial scales, conceptual frameworks that consider how local-scale factors affect litter decay in heterogeneous landscapes are generally lacking. A critical challenge in disentangling the relative impacts of and interactions among local-scale factors is that these factors frequently covary due to feedbacks between plant and soil communities. For example, forest plots dominated by trees that associate with ectomycorrhizal...

A new method for quantifying heterochrony in evolutionary lineages

James Lamsdell
The occupation of new environments by evolutionary lineages is frequently associated with morphological changes. This co-variation of ecotype and phenotype is expected due to the process of natural selection, whereby environmental pressures lead to the proliferation of morphological variants that are a better fit for the prevailing abiotic conditions. One primary mechanism by which phenotypic variants are known to arise is through changes in the timing or duration of organismal development resulting in alterations to...

Data from: Stranger than a scorpion: a reassessment of Parioscorpio venator, a problematic arthropod from the Llandoverian Waukesha Lagerstätte

Evan Anderson, James Schiffbauer, Sarah Jacquet, James Lamsdell, Joanne Kluessendorf & Donald Mikulic
A relatively uncommon arthropod of the Waukesha lagerstätte, Parioscorpio venator, is redescribed as an arthropod bearing a combination of characters that defy ready classification. Diagnostic features include sub-chelate ‘great appendages’, a lack of antennae, multiramous anterior trunk appendages, filamentous fan-like rear trunk appendages, and apparently thin and poorly preserved pleural fields. Phylogenetic analysis resolves this organism as basal to crown-group Mandibulata and Chelicerata, but its exact placement is inconclusive. Thus, we compare its morphology to...

Evolution and development at the origin of a phylum

Bradley Deline, Jeffery Thompson, Nicholas Smith, Samuel Zamora, Imran Rahman, Sarah Sheffield, William Ausich, Thomas Kammer & Colin Sumrall
Quantifying morphological evolution is key to determining the patterns and processes underlying the origin of phyla. We constructed a hierarchical morphological character matrix to characterize the radiation and establishment of echinoderm body plans during the early Paleozoic. This showed that subphylum-level clades diverged gradually through the Cambrian, and the distinctiveness of the resulting body plans was amplified by the extinction of transitional forms and obscured by convergent evolution during the Ordovician. Higher-order characters that define...

Bioaccumulation of the pesticide Imidacloprid in stream organisms and sublethal effects in salamanders in West Virginia

Sara Crayton, Petra Wood, Donald Brown, Alice Millikin, Terence McManus, Tyler Simpson, Kang-Mo Ku & Yong-Lak Park
Dataset for the article "Bioaccumulation of the Pesticide Imidacloprid in Stream Organisms and Sublethal Effects on Salamanders." Contains imidacloprid and metabolite concentrations for Desmognathus spp., benthic macroinvertebrates, and stream water. Also contains corticosterone concentration data for Desmognathus spp. and body condition indices for 5 species of stream salamander in relation to water imidacloprid concentrations.Dataset for the article "Bioaccumulation of the Pesticide Imidacloprid in Stream Organisms and Sublethal Effects on Salamanders." Contains imidacloprid and metabolite concentrations...

Bayesian N-mixture and occupancy modeling code for songbirds

Eric Margenau, Christopher Rota & Petra Wood
The proliferation of energy rights-of-way (pipelines and powerlines; ROWs) in the central Appalachian region has prompted wildlife management agencies to consider ways to use these features to manage and conserve at-risk songbird species. However, little empirical evidence exists regarding best management strategies to enhance habitat surrounding ROWs for the songbird community during stopover or breeding periods. We used a before-after-control-impact design to study cut-back border (linear tree cuttings along abrupt forest edges) harvest width (15...

Water-borne and plasma corticosterone are not correlated in spotted salamanders

Alice Millikin, Sarah Woodley, Drew Davis, Ignacio Moore & James Anderson
Water-borne hormone measurement is a noninvasive method suitable for amphibians of all sizes that are otherwise difficult to sample. For this method, containment-water is assayed for hormones released by the animal. Originally developed in fish, the method has expanded to amphibians, but requires additional species-specific validations. We wanted to determine physiological relevance of water-borne corticosterone in spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) by comparing concentrations to those taken using established corticosterone sampling methods, such as plasma. Using...

Resource selection functions based on hierarchical generalized additive models provide new insights into individual animal variation and species distributions

Jennifer McCabe, John Clare, Tricia Miller, Todd Katzner, Jeff Cooper, Scott Somershoe, David Hanni, Christine Kelly, Robert Sargent, Eric Soehren, Carrie Threadgill, Mercedes Maddox, Jonathan Stober, Mark Martell, Thomas Salo, Andrew Berry, Michael Lanzone, Melissa Braham & Christopher McClure
Habitat selection studies are designed to generate predictions of species distributions or inference regarding general habitat associations and individual variation in habitat use. Such studies frequently involve either individually indexed locations gathered across limited spatial extents and analyzed using resource selection functions (RSF), or spatially extensive locational data without individual resolution typically analyzed using species distribution models. Both analytical methodologies have certain desirable features, but analyses that combine individual- and population-level inference with flexible non-linear...

Data from: Botany is the root and the future of invasion biology

Nicholas Kooyers, Brittany Sutherland, Craig Barrett, James Beck, Michael McKain, Maribeth Latvis & Erin Sigel
This dataset was used to create Figure 1 within the linked On the Nature of Things article. The article describes how botanists have historically contributed to the field of invasion biology and why botanists should be an important contributor in the coming years. To make this point, we compared the relative frequencies of google ngrams containing the words 'invasive species', 'invasive plants', or the sum of frequencies from several different animal taxa including: ‘invasive insects’,...

Winds aloft over three water bodies influence spring stopover distributions of migrating birds along the Gulf of Mexico coast

Hannah Clipp, Jeffrey Buler, Jaclyn Smolinsky, Kyle Horton, Andrew Farnsworth & Emily Cohen
Migrating birds contend with dynamic wind conditions that ultimately influence most aspects of their migration, from broad-scale movements to individual decisions about where to rest and refuel. We used weather surveillance radar data to measure spring stopover distributions of northward migrating birds along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast and found a strong influence of winds over non-adjacent water bodies, the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, along with the contiguous Gulf of Mexico. Specifically, we...

Data from: A 34K SNP genotyping array for Populus trichocarpa: Design, application to the study of natural populations and transferability to other Populus species

Armando Geraldes, Steve P. DiFazio, Gancho T. Slavov, Priya Ranjan, Wellington Muchero, Jan Hannemann, Lee E. Gunter, Ann M. Wymore, Christopher J. Grassa, Nima Farzaneh, Ilga Porth, Athena D. Mckown, Oleksandr Skyba, Eryang Li, Miki Fujita, Jaroslav Klápště, Joel Martin, Wendy Schackwitz, Christa Pennacchio, Daniel Rokhsar, Michael C. Friedmann, Geoffrey O. Wasteneys, Robert D. Guy, Yousry A. El-Kassaby, Shawn D. Mansfield … & Gerald A. Tuskan
Genetic mapping of quantitative traits requires genotypic data for large numbers of markers in many individuals. For such studies, the use of large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays still offers the most cost-effective solution. Herein we report on the design and performance of a SNP genotyping array for Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood). This genotyping array was designed with SNPs pre-ascertained in 34 wild accessions covering most of the species latitudinal range. We adopted a...

Data from: Undergraduate research experiences broaden diversity in the scientific workforce

Paul R. Hernandez, Anna Woodcock, Mica Estrada & P. Wesley Schultz
New data highlight the importance of undergraduate research experiences (UREs) for keeping underrepresented science students on the pathway to a scientific career. We used a large-scale, 10-year longitudinal, multi-institutional, propensity score matched research design to compare the academic performance and persistence in science of students that participated in URE(s) compared to similar students that had no research experience. Results showed that students who completed 10-or-more hours of co-curricular faculty mentored research per week across two...

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