431 Works

Data from: What can aquatic gastropods tell us about phenotypic plasticity? A review and meta-analysis

Paul E. Bourdeau, Roger K. Butlin, Christer Brönmark, Timothy C. Edgell, Jason T. Hoverman & Johan Hollander
There have been few attempts to synthesise the growing body of literature on phenotypic plasticity to reveal patterns and generalities about the extent and magnitude of plastic responses. Here, we conduct a review and meta-analysis of published literature on phenotypic plasticity in aquatic (marine and freshwater) gastropods, a common system for studying plasticity. We identified 96 studies, using pre-determined search terms, published between 1985 and November 2013. The literature was dominated by studies of predator-induced...

Data from: The wake of hovering flight in bats

Jonas Håkansson, Anders Hedenström, York Winter & L. Christoffer Johansson
Hovering means stationary flight at zero net forward speed, which can be achieved by animals through muscle powered flapping flight. Small bats capable of hovering typically do so with a downstroke in an inclined stroke plane, and with an aerodynamically active outer wing during the upstroke. The magnitude and time history of aerodynamic forces should be reflected by vorticity shed into the wake. We thus expect hovering bats to generate a characteristic wake, but this...

Data from: Mutation screening of 1,237 cancer genes across six model cell lines of basal-like breast cancer

Eleonor Olsson, Christof Winter, Anthony George, Yilun Chen, Therese Törngren, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Åke Borg, Sofia K. Gruvberger-Saal & Lao H. Saal
Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive subtype generally characterized as poor prognosis and lacking the expression of the three most important clinical biomarkers, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2. Cell lines serve as useful model systems to study cancer biology in vitro and in vivo. We performed mutational profiling of six basal-like breast cancer cell lines (HCC38, HCC1143, HCC1187, HCC1395, HCC1954, and HCC1937) and their matched normal lymphocyte DNA using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing...

Data from: Antagonistic natural and sexual selection on wing shape in a scrambling damselfly

David Outomuro, Linus Söderquist, Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, María Cortázar-Chinarro, Cecilia Lundgren & Frank Johansson
Wings are a key trait underlying the evolutionary success of birds, bats, and insects. For over a century, researchers have studied the form and function of wings to understand the determinants of flight performance. However, to understand the evolution of flight, we must comprehend not only how morphology affects performance, but also how morphology and performance affect fitness. Natural and sexual selection can either reinforce or oppose each other, but their role in flight evolution...

Data from: Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi stabilize litter-derived carbon in soil?

Erik Verbruggen, Jan Jansa, Edith C. Hammer & Matthias C. Rillig
1. Fine roots and mycorrhiza often represent the largest input of carbon (C) into soils, and are therefore of primary relevance to the soil C balance. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have previously been found to increase litter decomposition which may lead to reduced soil C stocks, but these studies have focused on immediate decomposition of relatively high amounts of high-quality litter and may therefore not hold in many ecological settings over longer terms. 2. Here...

Data from: The interplay between local ecology, divergent selection and genetic drift in population divergence of a sexually antagonistic female trait

Kristina Karlsson Green, Erik I. Svensson, Johannes Bergsten, Roger Härdling & Bengt Hansson
Genetically polymorphic species offer the possibility to study maintenance of genetic variation and the potential role for genetic drift in population divergence. Indirect inference of the selection regimes operating on polymorphic traits can be achieved by comparing population divergence in neutral genetic markers with population divergence in trait frequencies. Such an approach could further be combined with ecological data to better understand agents of selection. Here, we infer the selective regimes acting on a polymorphic...

Data from: Disentangling plant and soil microbial controls on carbon and nitrogen loss in grassland mesocosms

Franciska T. De Vries, Helene Bracht Jorgensen, Katarina Hedlund & Richard D. Bardgett
1. It is well known that plant–soil interactions play an important role in determining the impact of global change phenomena on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Little is known, however, about the individual and relative importance for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling of non-random changes in plant and soil communities that result from global change phenomena, such as fertilization and agricultural intensification. 2. We set up a field-based mesocosm experiment in which we re-inoculated soil...

Data from: Mutant invasions and adaptive dynamics in variable environments

Jörgen Ripa & Ulf Dieckmann
The evolution of natural organisms is ultimately driven by the invasion and possible fixation of mutant alleles. The invasion process is highly stochastic, however, and the probability of success is generally low, even for advantageous alleles. Additionally, all organisms live in a stochastic environment, which may have a large influence on what alleles are favorable, but also contributes to the uncertainty of the invasion process. We calculate the invasion probability of a beneficial, mutant allele...

Data from: Individual boldness is linked with protective shell shape in aquatic snails

Johan Ahlgren, Ben B. Chapman, P. Anders Nilsson, Christer Brönmark & C. Bronmark
The existence of consistent individual differences in behaviour (‘animal personality’) has been well documented in recent years. However, how such individual variation in behaviour is maintained over evolutionary time is an ongoing conundrum. A well-studied axis of animal personality is individual variation along a bold–shy continuum, where individuals differ consistently in their propensity to take risks. A predation-risk cost to boldness is often assumed, but also that the reproductive benefits associated with boldness lead to...

Data from: Serial monitoring of circulating tumor DNA in patients with primary breast cancer for detection of occult metastatic disease

Eleonor Olsson, Christof Winter, Anthony George, Yilun Chen, Jillian Howlin, Man‐Hung Eric Tang, Malin Dahlgren, Ralph Schulz, Dorthe Grabau, Danielle Van Westen, Mårten Fernö, Christian Ingvar, Carsten Rose, Pär‐Ola Bendahl, Lisa Rydén, Åke Borg, Sofia K. Gruvberger-Saal, Helena Jernström & Lao H. Saal
Metastatic breast cancer is usually diagnosed after becoming symptomatic, at which point it is rarely curable. Cell‐free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) contains tumor‐specific chromosomal rearrangements that may be interrogated in blood plasma. We evaluated serial monitoring of ctDNA for earlier detection of metastasis in a retrospective study of 20 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer and long follow‐up. Using an approach combining low‐coverage whole‐genome sequencing of primary tumors and quantification of tumor‐specific rearrangements in plasma...

Data from: Evidence of concurrent local adaptation and high phenotypic plasticity in a polar microeukaryote

Karin Rengefors, Ramiro Logares, Johanna Laybourn-Parry & Rebecca J. Gast
Here we investigated whether there is evidence of local adaptation in strains of an ancestrally marine dinoflagellate to the lacustrine environment they now inhabit (optimal genotypes) and/or if they have evolved phenotypic plasticity (a range of phenotypes). Eleven strains of Polarella glacialis were isolated and cultured from three different environments: the polar seas, a hyposaline and a hypersaline Antarctic lake. Local adaptation was tested by comparing growth rates of lacustrine and marine strains at their...

Data from: Population divergence in chemical signals and the potential for premating isolation between islet- and mainland populations of the Skyros wall lizard, (Podarcis gaigeae)

Anna Runemark, Marianne Gabirot & Erik I Svensson
When sexually selected traits diverge due to different local selective environments premating isolation might arise as a correlated response. However, sexually selected traits might also diverge by stochastic forces. Here, we show that odour-based mate preferences and scent composition have diverged between islet- and mainland populations of Skyros wall lizard, Podarcis gaigeae. We quantified the degree of scent-mediated premating isolation between populations. Islet lizards preferred scent from islet lizards, whereas the mainland populations were less...

Data from: Altered gene expression and ecological divergence in sibling allopolyploids of Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae)

Ovidiu Paun, Richard M. Bateman, Michael F. Fay, Javier A. Luna, Justin Moat, Mikael Hedrén & Mark W Chase
Background: Hybridization and polyploidy are potent forces that have regularly stimulated plant evolution and adaptation. Dactylorhiza majalis s.s., D. traunsteineri s.l. and D. ebudensis are three allopolyploid species of a polyploid complex formed through unidirectional (and, in the first two cases, recurrent) hybridization between the widespread diploids D. fuchsii and D. incarnata. Differing considerably in geographical extent and ecological tolerance, the three allopolyploids together provide a useful system to explore genomic responses to allopolyploidization and...

Data from: MHC-I provides both quantitative resistance and susceptibility to blood parasites in blue tits in the wild

Juan Rivero-De Aguilar, Helena Westerdahl, Josue Martínez-De La Puente, Gustavo Tomas, Javier Martínez & Santiago Merino
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are central for the adaptive immune response against parasites. Here, we investigated potential associations among MHC-I alleles and blood parasite infections in a natural breeding population of a passerine bird, the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, in central Spain. We screened both infection status (presence/absence of infection) and infection intensity to the pathogenic blood parasites Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon. Three MHC-I alleles (UA104, UA108 and UA117) were associated with higher or lower...

Data from: A predation cost to bold fish in the wild

Kaj Hulthén, Ben B. Chapman, P. Anders Nilsson, Lars-Anders Hansson, Christian Skov, Jakob Brodersen, Jerker Vinterstare & Christer Brönmark
Studies of predator-mediated selection on behaviour are critical for our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of behavioural diversity in natural populations. Consistent individual differences in prey behaviour, especially in the propensity to take risks (“boldness”), are widespread in the animal kingdom. Theory predicts that individual behavioural types differ in a cost-benefit trade-off where bolder individuals benefit from greater access to resources while paying higher predation-risk costs. However, explicitly linking predation events to individual behaviour...

Data from: Evolution and systematics of polyploid Nigritella (Orchidaceae)

Mikael Hedrén, Richard Lorenz, Herwig Teppner, Branko Dolinar, Cesario Giotta, Norbert Griebl, Sven Hansson, Ulrich Heidtke, Erich Klein, Giorgio Perazza, David Ståhlberg & Bostjan Surina
Members of the orchid genus Nigritella are widespread in European mountains, but species circumscriptions and evolutionary patterns in the genus are subjects to conflicting opinions. We analyzed a representative material of Nigritella for differentiation at nuclear and plastid marker loci. In agreement with predictions from embryological studies, diploid members of Nigritella are sexual and mostly out-crossing, whereas triploid, tetraploid and pentaploid members are apomicts. The diploid taxa were poorly differentiated in the investigated molecular markers,...

Data from: Linking intra- and interspecific assortative mating: consequences for asymmetric sexual isolation

Erik I. Svensson, Anna Nordén, John T. Waller & Anna Runemark
Assortative mating is of interest because of its role in speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. However, we know little about how within-species assortment is related to interspecific sexual isolation. Most previous studies of assortative mating have focused on a single trait in males and females, rather than utilizing multivariate trait information. Here we investigate how intraspecific assortative mating relates to sexual isolation in two sympatric and congeneric damselfly species (genus Calopteryx). We connect...

Data from: Shock and stabilisation following long-term drought in tropical forest from 15 years of litterfall dynamics

Lucy Rowland, Antonio C. L. Da Costa, Alex A. R. Oliveira, Samuel S. Almeida, Leandro V. Ferreira, Yadvinder Malhi, Dan B. Metcalfe, Maurizio Mencuccini, John Grace & Patrick Meir
Litterfall dynamics in tropical forests are a good indicator of overall tropical forest function, indicative of carbon invested in both photosynthesising tissues and reproductive organs such as flowers and fruits. These dynamics are sensitive to changes in climate, such as drought, but little is known about the long-term responses of tropical forest litterfall dynamics to extended drought stress. We present a 15-year dataset of litterfall (leaf, flower and fruit, and twigs) from the world's only...

Data from: Disentangling population strategies of two cladocerans adapted to different ultraviolet regimes

Carla E. Fernández, Melina Campero, Cintia Uvo, Lars Anders Hansson & Lars-Anders Hansson
Zooplankton have evolved several mechanisms to deal with environmental threats, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and in order to identify strategies inherent to organisms exposed to different UVR environments, we here examine life-history traits of two lineages of Daphnia pulex. The lineages differed in the UVR dose they had received at their place of origin from extremely high UVR stress at high-altitude Bolivian lakes to low UVR stress near the sea level in temperate Sweden....

Data from: How animals follow the stars

James J. Foster, Jochen Smolka, Dan-Eric Nilsson & Marie Dacke
Throughout history, the stars have provided humans with ever more information about our world, enabling increasingly accurate systems of navigation in addition to fuelling some of the greatest scientific controversies. What information animals have evolved to extract from a starry sky and how they do so, is a topic of study that combines the practical and theoretical challenges faced by both astronomers and field biologists. While a number of animal species have been demonstrated to...

Data from: Barometer logging reveals new dimensions of individual songbird migration

Sissel Sjöberg, Lykke Pedersen, Gintaras Malmiga, Thomas Alerstam, Bengt Hansson, Dennis Hasselquist, Kasper Thorup, Anders P. Tøttrup, Arne Andersson & Johan Bäckman
Recent advances in tracking technology are based on the use of miniature sensors for recording new aspects of individual migratory behaviour. In this study, we have used activity data loggers with barometric and temperature sensors to record the flight altitudes as well as ground elevations during stationary periods of migratory songbirds. We tracked one individual of red-backed shrike and one great reed warbler along their autumn migration from Europe to Africa. Both individuals performed their...

Sex differences in helping effort reveal the effect of future reproduction on cooperative behaviour in birds

Philip A. Downing, Ashleigh S. Griffin & Charlie K. Cornwallis
The evolution of helping behaviour in species that breed cooperatively in family groups is typically attributed to kin selection alone. However, in many species, helpers go on to inherit breeding positions in their natal groups, but the extent to which this contributes to selection for helping is unclear, as the future reproductive success of helpers is often unknown. To quantify the role of future reproduction in the evolution of helping, we compared the helping effort...

Data from: Effects of interspecific coexistence on laying date and clutch size in two closely related species of hole‐nesting birds

Anders Pape Møller, Javier Balbontin, André A. Dhondt, Vladimir Remeš, Frank Adriaensen, Clotilde Biard, Jordi Camprodon, Mariusz Cichoń, Blandine Doligez, Anna Dubiec, Marcel Eens, Tapio Eeva, Anne E. Goodenough, Andrew G. Gosler, Lars Gustafsson, Philipp Heeb, Shelley A. Hinsley, Staffan Jacob, Rimvydas Juškaitis, Toni Laaksonen, Bernard Leclercq, Bruno Massa, Tomasz D. Mazgajski, Rudi G. Nager, Jan-Åke Nilsson … & Ruedi G. Nager
Coexistence between great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, but also other hole‐nesting taxa, constitutes a classic example of species co‐occurrence resulting in potential interference and exploitation competition for food and for breeding and roosting sites. However, the spatial and temporal variations in coexistence and its consequences for competition remain poorly understood. We used an extensive database on reproduction in nest boxes by great and blue tits based on 87 study plots across...

Data from: Genetic structure in parasitic Rhinanthus angustifolius is determined by geographical distance rather than habitat – implications for taxonomy and conservation

Anneli Jonstrup, Stefan Andersson & Mikael Hedrén
Analyses of intraspecific genetic structure can promote the conservation of genetic diversity of rare or declining plant species by enabling identification of proper management units. Here we investigate the genetic structure of the annual hemiparasitic herb Rhinanthus angustifolius to evaluate the genetic distinctness of two currently described subspecies and three habitat-related groups of populations inferred from recent common-garden data. Data from 11 nuclear microsatellite loci, obtained from 17 southern Swedish populations of R. angustifolius, were...

Data from: Testing the heat dissipation limit theory in a breeding passerine

Jan-Åke Nilsson & Andreas Nord
The maximum work rate of animals has recently been suggested to be determined by the rate at which excess metabolic heat generated during work can be dissipated (heat dissipation limitation theory; HDL). As a first step towards testing this theory in wild animals, we experimentally manipulated brood size in breeding marsh tits (Poecile palustris) to change their work rate. Parents feeding nestlings generally operated at above-normal body temperatures. Body temperature in both males and females...

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