407 Works

Data from: Crypsis in the pelagic realm: evidence from exceptionally preserved fossil fish larvae from the Eocene Stolleklint Clay of Denmark

Miriam Heingård, Peter Sjövall, René Sylvestersen, Bo Schultz & Johan Lindgren
Marine deposits of earliest Eocene age in northern Jutland, Denmark, are renowned for yielding diverse teleost assemblages that have proved central for enhancing our understanding of the early evolution of many extant actinopterygian clades. In this study, we investigate diminutive larval fish fossils from the Stolleklint Clay, Ølst Formation, that retain multiple soft-tissue features preserved as distinct dark-coloured stains. In order to examine the elemental and molecular composition of these soft parts, we employed a...

Data from: Reduced crop density increases floral resources to pollinators without affecting crop yield in organic and conventional fields

William Sidemo-Holm, Romain Carrié, Johan Ekroos, Sandra A.M. Lindström & Henrik G. Smith
Effective weed control in agricultural crop fields increases yields, but simultaneously reduces floral resources for pollinators because many weed species provide pollen and nectar. Consequently, efforts to enhance crop yields on organic farms by using effective weed control methods risk compromising positive effects of organic farming on pollinating insects. Thus, it is important to find management strategies that alleviate the trade-off between crop yields and flowering weeds on organic farms. We investigated the relationship between...

Male incubation feeding and fleas

Juan Manuel Peralta-Sánchez & Jan-Åke Nilsson
Parasites exert a strong selection pressure on their hosts as manifested in behavioural antiparasite traits to reduce negative impacts on fitness. The numerous nest-dwelling ecto-parasites residing in avian nests make altricial birds excellent model-systems for investigating the relationship between parasites and their hosts. Here, we experimentally increased natural levels of hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) in blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nests during incubation, and tested their effects on parental incubation behaviours and reproductive performance. Our experimental...

Herbivores reduce seedling recruitment in alpine plant communities

Øystein H. Opedal, Kristin Nystuen, Dagmar Hagen, Håkon Holien, Mia Sørensen, Simone Lang, Sigrid Lindmo, G. RIchard Strimbeck & Bente Graae
Through changes in climate and other environmental factors, alpine tundra ecosystems are subject to increased cover of erect shrubs, reduced predictability of rodent dynamics, and changes in wild and domesticated herbivore densities. To predict the dynamics of these ecosystems, we need to understand how these simultaneous changes affect alpine vegetation. In the long term, vegetation dynamics may depend critically on seedling recruitment. To study drivers of alpine plant seedling recruitment, we set up a field...

Results of CNN-based pollen analysis

Ola Olsson, Melanie Karlsson, Anna S. Persson, Henrik G. Smith, Vidula Varadarajan, Johanna Yourstone & Martin Stjernman
Several datasets representing cross-validation of convoluted neural network (CNN) classification of pollen images. In each data file, one variable represents the pollen species (or pollen type when pollen are not identified to species level, but to a group of morphologically similar species represented by a type), and one the model predicted species. The remaining variables are the model likelihoods of the individual pollen grain belonging to a particular species. The maximum of these likelihoods will...

Root influence on soil nitrogen availability and microbial community dynamics results in contrasting rhizosphere priming effects in pine and spruce soil

Jian Li, Saeed Alaei, Moyan Zhou & Per Bengtson
1. The rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) is increasingly considered an important regulator of belowground C and N cycling, with implications for terrestrial ecosystem feedback to global change. Even so there is a lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying RPEs. 2. We used novel stable isotope probing methods to investigate RPEs in an experiment with Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings, two of the most common boreal forest species. We determined root exudation rates, RPEs...

Borrelia infection in bank voles Myodes glareolus is associated with specific DQB haplotypes which affect allelic divergence within individuals

Kristin Scherman, Lars Råberg & Helena Westerdahl
The high polymorphism of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes is generally considered to be a result of pathogen-mediated balancing selection. Such selection may operate in the form of heterozygote advantage, and/or through specific MHC allele–pathogen interactions. Specific MHC allele–pathogen interactions may promote polymorphism via negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), or selection that varies in time and/or space because of variability in the composition of the pathogen community (fluctuating selection; FS). In addition, divergent allele advantage (DAA)...

Data for: Larval environmental conditions influence plasticity in resource use by adults in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

Matthew Schrader, Benjamin Jarrett & Rebecca Kilner
Recent studies have shown that intraspecific patterns of phenotypic plasticity can mirror patterns of evolutionary diversification among species. This appears to be the case in Nicrophorus beetles. Within species, body size is positively correlated with the size of carrion used to provision larvae and parental performance. Likewise, among species, variation in body size influences whether species exploit smaller or larger carrion and the extent to which larvae depend on parental care. However, it is unclear...

Major population splits coincide with episodes of rapid climate change in a forest-dependent bird

Vera-Maria Warmuth, Malcolm Burgess, Marko Mägi, Toni Laaksonen, Andrea Manica, Andreas Nord, Craig Primmer, Glenn-Peter Sætre, Wolfgang Winkel & Hans Ellegren
Climate change influences population demography by altering patterns of gene flow and reproductive isolation. Direct mutation rates offer the possibility for accurate dating on the within-species level but are currently only available for a handful of vertebrate species. Here, we use the first directly estimated mutation rate in birds to study the evolutionary history of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Using a combination of demographic inference and environmental niche modelling, we show that all major population...

A highly invasive malaria parasite has expanded its range to non-migratory birds in North America

Angela Theodosopoulos, Kathryn Grabenstein, Staffan Bensch & Scott Taylor
Parasite range expansions are a direct consequence of globalization and are an increasing threat to biodiversity. Here we report a recent range expansion of the SGS1 strain of a highly invasive parasite, Plasmodium relictum, to two non-migratory passerines in North America. Plasmodium relictum is considered one of the world’s most invasive parasites and causes the disease avian malaria: this is the first reported case of SGS1 in wild birds of Western North America and wild...

Hybrids between Rubus idaeus and Rubus Sect. Corylifolii and their relation to R. pruinosus and R. rosanthus

Ulf Ryde, Melanie Montes, Mingyue Zhou, Tore Mattsson, Tomas Burén & Mikael Hedrén
We have studied hybrids between Rubus idaeus and various members of R. Sect. Corylifolii, primarily in Sweden. With the help of DNA-ploidy level determinations using flow cytometry and microsatellite DNA analysis of over 500 samples, we show that the material can be divided into four stable apomictic species (belonging to Subsect. Subidaei) and a large number of primary hybrids. Stable species can be recognised by a distribution that is distinct from the Corylifolii parent, a...

Comparing the clinical utility and diagnostic performance of cerebrospinal fluid P-tau181, P-tau217 and P-tau231 assays

Antoine Leuzy, Shorena Janelidze, Niklas Mattsson-Carlgren, Sebastian Palmqvist, Dirk Jacobs, Claudia Cicognola, Erik Stomrud, Oskar Hansson, Eugeen Vanmechelen & Jeffrey Dage
Background and Objectives: Phosphorylated tau (P-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is considered an important biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and has been incorporated in recent diagnostic criteria. Several variants exist, including P-tau at threonines 181 (P-tau181), 217 (P-tau217) and 231 (P-tau231). However, no studies have compared their diagnostic performance or association to amyloid-β (Aβ) and Tau positron emission tomography (PET). Understanding which P-tau variant to use remains an important yet answered question. We aimed to...

Data for: Predation risk and the evolution of a vertebrate stress response: parallel evolution of stress reactivity and sexual dimorphism

Jerker Vinterstare, Gustaf MO Ekelund Ugge, Kaj Hulthén, Alexander Hegg, Christer Brönmark, P Anders Nilsson, U Ronja Zellmer, Marcus Lee, Varpu Pärssinen, Yongcui Sha, Caroline Björnerås, Huan Zhang, Raphael Gollnisch, Simon David Herzog, Lars-Anders Hansson, Martin Škerlep, Nan Hu, Emma Johansson & R Brian Langerhans
Predation risk is often invoked to explain variation in stress responses. Yet, the answers to several key questions remain elusive, including: 1) how predation risk influences the evolution of stress phenotypes, 2) the relative importance of environmental versus genetic factors in stress reactivity, and 3) sexual dimorphism in stress physiology. To address these questions, we explored variation in stress reactivity (ventilation frequency) in a post-Pleistocene radiation of live-bearing fish, where Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabit...

Flight altitude dynamics of migrating European nightjars across regions and seasons

Gabriel Norevik, Susanne Åkesson, Arne Andersson, Johan Bäckman & Anders Hedenström
Avian migrants may fly at a range of altitudes, but usually concentrate near strata where a combination of flight conditions is favourable. The aerial environment can have a large impact on the performance of the migrant and is usually highly dynamic, making it beneficial for the bird to regularly check the flight conditions at alternative altitudes. We recorded the migrations between northern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa of European nightjars Caprimulgus europaeus to explore their altitudinal...

Quantifying the effects of species traits on predation risk in nature: a comparative study of butterfly wing damage

Freerk Molleman, Juhan Javoiš, Robert Davis, Melissa Whitaker, Toomas Tammaru, Andreas Prinzing, Erki Õunap, Niklas Wahlberg, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Ants Kaasik & James Carey
1) Evading predators is a fundamental aspect of the ecology and evolution of all prey animals. In studying the influence of prey traits on predation risk, previous researchers have shown that crypsis reduces attack rates on resting prey, predation risk increases with increased prey activity, and rapid locomotion reduces attack rates and increases chances of surviving predator attacks. However, evidence for these conclusions is nearly always based on observations of selected species under artificial conditions....

Data from: Temperature drives pre-reproductive selection and shapes the biogeography of a female polymorphism

Erik I. Svensson, Beatriz Willink, M. Catherine Duryea & Lesley Lancaster
Conflicts of interests between males and females over reproduction is a universal feature of sexually reproducing organisms and has driven the evolution of intersexual mimicry, mating behaviors and reproductive polymorphisms. Here we show how temperature drives pre-reproductive selection in a female colour polymorphic insect that is subject to strong sexual conflict. This species has three female colour morphs, one of which is a male mimic. This polymorphism is maintained by frequency-dependent sexual conflict caused by...

Nocturnal bees feed on diurnal leftovers and pay the price of day–night lifestyle transition

Hema Somanathan, Shivani Krishna, Elsa Mini Jos, Vishwas Gowda, Almut Kelber & Renee Borges
Bees exemplify flights under bright sunlight. A few species across bee families have evolved nocturnality, displaying remarkable adaptations to overcome limitations of their daylight-suited apposition eyes. Phase inversion to nocturnality in a minority of bees that co-exist with diurnal bees provide a unique opportunity to study ecological benefits that mediate total temporal niche shifts. While floral traits and sensory modalities associated with the evolution of classical nocturnal pollination syndromes, e.g. by bats and moths, are...

Artificial light at night, in interaction with spring temperature, modulates timing of reproduction in a passerine bird

Davide M. Dominoni, Johan Kjellberg Jensen, Maaike De Jong, Marcel E. Visser & Kamiel Spoelstra
The ecological impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on phenological events such as reproductive timing is increasingly recognized. In birds, previous experiments under controlled conditions showed that ALAN strongly advances gonadal growth, but effects on egg-laying date are less clear. In particular, effects of ALAN on timing of egg-laying are found to be year-dependent, suggesting an interaction with climatic conditions such as spring temperature, which is known have strong effects on the phenology of...

Coevolution, diversification, and alternative states in two-trophic communities

Tobin Northfield, Jörgen Ripa, Lucas Nell & Anthony Ives
Single-trait eco-evolutionary models of arms races between consumers and their resource species often show inhibition rather than promotion of community diversification. In contrast, modeling arms races involving multiple traits, we found that arms races can promote diversification when trade-off costs among traits make simultaneous investment in multiple traits either more beneficial or more costly. Coevolution between resource and consumer species generates an adaptive landscape for each, with the configuration giving predictable suites of consumer and...

Caught in a bottleneck: habitat loss for woolly mammoths in central North America and the ice-free corridor during the last deglaciation

Yue Wang, Chris Widga, Russell Graham, Jenny McGuire, Warren Porter, David Wårlind & John Williams
The dataset is to describe the habitat structure and bioenergetic characteristics of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) in North America during the last deglaciation between 15 and 10 ka. The habitat structure includes fractional woody cover (FWC) and net primary productivity (NPP) for 20 plant functional types (PFTs). NPP is based on the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (LPJG). FWC is based on LPJ-GUESS and fossil pollen records in the Neotoma Paleoecology Database. The bioenergetic characteristics of...

Butterflies fly using efficient propulsive clap mechanism owing to flexible wings

Christoffer Johansson & Per Henningsson
Butterflies look like no other flying animal, with unusually short, broad and large wings relative to their body size. Previous studies have suggested butterflies use several unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms to boost force production with upstroke wing clap being a prominent feature. When the wings clap together at the end of upstroke the air between the wings is pressed out, creating a jet, pushing the animal in the opposite direction. Although viewed, for the last 50...

Invertebrate pests, natural enemies, pollinators, pest damage and yields associated with different understorey treatments in an agroforestry system, Nottinghamshire, UK, 2020

T. Staton, R.J. Walters, J. Smith, T.D. Breeze & R.D. Girling
This resource comprises abundance data for invertebrates, pest damage to apples, and yields from an agroforestry system subject to two different understorey management treatments, comprising an unmown flowering understorey and a mown understorey. The data was collected from an intercropped apple-arable agroforestry site in Screveton, Nottinghamshire, UK, from five experimental blocks, each block split between the two understorey management treatments. The data was collected between April and September 2020. Data was collected using (i) pitfall...

Algal growth, bumblebee colony and individual development, bee behavior and yield of oilseed rape under a trophic cascade and extreme weather

Björn Klatt, Bethany Pudifoot, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Henrik Smith & Christian Alsterberg
Trophic cascades in the aquatic environment constitute important mechanisms for improving water quality. However, how the presence or non-presence of these trophic cascades may affect interactions across the aquatic-terrestrial interface remains poorly investigated. Pollinators such as bees may be especially vulnerable to changes in water resource quality induced by trophic cascades. Understanding how aquatic trophic cascades affect bees and pollination becomes even more pressing under ongoing climate change due to increased physiological demands for water...

Data from: Vicariance divergence and gene flow among islet populations of an endemic lizard

Anna Runemark, Jody Hey, Bengt Hansson & Erik I. Svensson
Allopatry and allopatric speciation can arise through two different mechanisms: vicariance or colonization through dispersal. Distinguishing between these different allopatric mechanisms is difficult and one of the major challenges in biogeographical research. Here, we address whether allopatric isolation in an endemic island lizard is the result of vicariance or dispersal. We estimated the amount and direction of gene flow during the divergence of isolated islet populations and subspecies of the endemic Skyros wall lizard Podarcis...

Data from: Stable epigenetic effects impact adaptation in allopolyploid orchids (Dactylorhiza: Orchidaceae)

Ovidiu Paun, Richard M. Bateman, Michael F. Fay, Mikael Hedrén, Laure Civeyrel & Mark W. Chase
Epigenetic information includes heritable signals that modulate gene expression but are not encoded in the primary nucleotide sequence. We have studied natural epigenetic variation in three allotetraploid sibling orchid species that differ radically in geography/ecology. The epigenetic variation released by genome doubling has been restructured in species-specific patterns that reflect their recent evolutionary history, and have an impact on their ecology and evolution, hundreds of generations after their formation. Epigenome scans pinpointed epiloci under divergent...

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