462 Works

Data from: Brain myo-inositol as a potential marker of amyloid-related pathology: a longitudinal study.

Olga Voevodskaya, Konstantinos Poulakis, Pia Sundgren, Danielle Van Westen, Sebastian Palmqvist, Lars Olof Wahlund, Erik Stomrud, Oskar Hansson & Eric Westman
Objective: To investigate the association between longitudinal changes in proton magnetic spectroscopy (MRS) metabolites and amyloid pathology in non-demented individuals; to explore the relationship between MRS and cognitive decline. Methods: In this longitudinal multiple time point study (a subset of the Swedish BioFINDER) we included cognitively healthy participants, individuals with subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRS was acquired serially in 294 participants (670 individual spectra) from the posterior cingulate/precuneus. Using mixed-effects models,...

Metadata for a survey investigating motivations for meat-free diets in Sweden

Luisa F. Suárez Rozo & Kimberly Nicholas
The health and environmental impacts of meat-based diets are increasingly recognized as sustainability issues, but the motivations behind behaviour change driving vegetarian diets have generally been studied via a limited set of motivations and are therefore poorly understood. To examine such motivations, we designed a survey measuring 20 different possible motivations, using 77 statements drawn from the existing Food Choice Questionnaire as well as diverse literature on environmental protection, animal welfare, social norms, and pro-environmental...

Data from: Age-dependent effects of predation risk on night-time hypothermia in two wintering passerine species

Fredrik Andreasson, Andreas Nord & Jan-Åke Nilsson
Small animals that winter at northern latitudes need to maximize energy intake and minimize energy loss. Many passerine birds use night-time hypothermia to conserve energy. A potential cost of night-time hypothermia with much theoretical (but little empirical) support is increased risk of night-time predation, due to reduced vigilance and lower escape speed in hypothermic birds. This idea has never been tested in the wild. We, therefore, increased perceived predation risk in great tits (Parus major)...

Data from: Assessing reliance on vector navigation in the long-distance oceanic migrations of green sea turtles

Giulia Cerritelli, Giuseppe Bianco, Giacomo Santini, Annette C. Broderick, Brendan J. Godley, Graeme C. Hays, Paolo Luschi & Susanne Åkesson
Vector navigation, i.e. maintaining a constant heading for a given amount of time, is hypothesized to provide a viable basis for the navigational feats of a number of long-distance animal migrants. Since animals following this strategy are subject to drift by wind or by ocean current, performing long migrations relying on vector navigation is particularly challenging. We tested whether vector navigation could be involved in the migrations of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) that migrate between...

Data from: Non‐breeding flight activity in pallid swifts Apus pallidus

Anders Hedenström, Gabriel Norevik, Giovanni Boano, Arne Andersson, Johan Bäckman & Susanne Akesson
Flight activity recorders have recently confirmed that alpine and common swifts spend the majority of their non‐breeding period on the wing, which may last 6‐10 months. Here we test the hypothesis that the closely related pallid swift, a species with a breeding distribution around the Mediterranean, lead a similar aerial life‐style during its migration and wintering periods. The pallid swift usually lays two clutches in one season and therefore spends more time in the breeding...

Data from: A mimicked bacterial infection prolongs stopover duration in songbirds – but more pronounced in short- than long-distance migrants

Arne Hegemann, Pablo Alcalde Abril, Sissel Sjöberg, Rachel Muheim, Thomas Alerstam, Jan-Åke Nilsson & Dennis Hasselquist
1) Migration usually consists of intermittent travel and stopovers, the latter being crucially important for individuals to recover and refuel to successfully complete migration. Quantifying how sickness behaviours influence stopovers is crucial for our understanding of migration ecology and how diseases spread. However, little is known about infections in songbirds, which constitute the majority of avian migrants. 2) We experimentally immune-challenged autumn migrating passerines (both short- and long-distance migrating species) with a simulated bacterial infection....

Data from: Multiple independent origins of intermediate species between Sorbus aucuparia and S. hybrida (Rosaceae) in the Baltic region

Joel Levin, Michael F. Fay, Jaume Pellicer & Mikael Hedrén
Populations intermediate between the diploid and sexual Sorbus aucuparia and the tetraploid and facultative apomictic Sorbus hybrida are scattered in coastal regions of southern Scandinavia. Our aims were to investigate whether these populations were of local and independent origins, whether they were morphologically and molecularly distinct from each other and whether they could give rise to constant offspring by apomixis. Six intermediate populations from the Baltic Sea basin were studied for variation at nuclear and...

Data from: Early post-embryonic development in Ellipsostrenua (Trilobita, Cambrian, Sweden) and the developmental patterns in Ellipsocephaloidea

Lukáš Laibl, Peter Cederström & Per Ahlberg
This study documents the early post-embryonic developmental stages (protaspides and early meraspides) of the Cambrian trilobite Ellipsostrenua granulosa (Ahlberg, 1984) from the Gärdsjön Formation of Jämtland, Sweden. The early protaspid stage is characterized by a circular outline of the exoskeleton, two pairs of fixigenal spines, a short preglabellar field, a genal swelling, and prominent bacullae. The late protaspid stage differs only in having the trunk portion discernible. Early meraspid cranidia are sub-rectangular with prominent palpebral...

Data from: An aposematic colour-polymorphic moth seen through the eyes of conspecifics and predators - sensitivity and colour discrimination in a tiger moth

Miriam J. Henze, Olle Lind, Johanna Mappes, Bibiana Rojas & Almut Kelber
1. Although predation is commonly thought to exert the strongest selective pressure on colouration in aposematic species, sexual selection may also influence colouration. Specifically, polymorphism in aposematic species cannot be explained by natural selection alone. 2. Males of the aposematic wood tiger moth (Arctia plantaginis) are polymorphic for hindwing colouration throughout most of their range. In Scandinavia, they display either white or yellow hindwings. Female hindwing colouration varies continuously from bright orange to red. Redder...

Data from: CSF biomarkers of neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular dysfunction in early Alzheimer's disease

Shorena Janelidze, Niklas Mattsson, Erik Stomrud, Olof Lindberg, Sebastian Palmqvist, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow & Oskar Hansson
Objective: To measure cerebrospinal (CSF) levels of biomarkers reflecting microglia and astrocytes activation, neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular changes and study their associations with the core biomarkers of AD pathology (amyloid &[beta] (A&[beta]) and tau), structural imaging correlates and clinical disease progression over time. Methods: The study included cognitively unimpaired elderly (n=508), patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n=256), and AD dementia (n=57) from the longitudinal Swedish BioFINDER cohort. CSF samples were analyzed for YKL-40, IL-6, IL-7,...

Data from: Dressed to impress: breeding plumage as a reliable signal of innate immunity

Sara Pardal, Jose A. Alves, Paulo G. Mota & Jaime A. Ramos
Animal signals involved in sexual selection are often indicators of individual quality. The assumption that sexual characters such as breeding plumage may indicate immune state has rarely been tested in free-living migratory birds, particularly in relation to innate immunity. If sexual characters indeed reflect immune condition, then these could be used to evaluate individual quality. Melanin is a common pigment used in animal communication that mitigates the effects of oxidative stress and has positive effects...

Data from: The relation between oilseed rape and pollination of later flowering plants varies across plant species and landscape contexts

Lina Herbertsson, & Henrik G. Smith
Increasing cultivation of oilseed rape may have consequences for pollinators and wild plant pollination. By providing pollinating insects with pollen and nectar, oilseed rape benefits short-tongued, generalist insect species. Long-tongued bumble bee species, specialized to other flower types, may instead be negatively affected by increased competition from the generalists (e.g. due to nectar-robbing of long-tubed flowers) after oilseed rape has ceased flowering. We expected that the increased abundance of short-tongued pollinators and reduced abundance of...

Data from: Age of enlightenment: long-term effects of outdoor aesthetic lights on bats in churches

Jens Rydell, Johan Eklöf & Sonia Sanchez Navarro
We surveyed 110 country churches in south-western Sweden for presence of brown long-eared bats Plecotus auritus in summer 2016 by visual inspection and/or evening emergence counts. Each church was also classified according to the presence and amount of aesthetic directional lights (flood-lights) aimed on its walls and tower from the outside. Sixty-one of the churches had previously been surveyed by one of us (J.R.) between 1980 and 1990, before lights were installed on Swedish churches,...

Data from: Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system

Barbara Lukasch, Helena Westerdahl, Maria Strandh, Hans Winkler, Yoshan Moodley, Felix Knauer & Herbert Hoi
Background: A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence...

Data from: What controls variation in carbon use efficiency among Amazonian tropical forests?

Christopher E. Doughty, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Nicolas Raab, Cecile A. J. Girardin, Filio Farfan-Amezquita, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E. Silva-Espejo, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Antonio C. L. Da Costa, Wanderley Rocha, David Galbraith, Patrick Meir, Dan B. Metcalfe, Yadvinder Malhi & Walter Huaraca-Huasco
Why do some forests produce biomass more efficiently than others? Variations in Carbon Use Efficiency (CUE: total Net Primary Production (NPP)/ Gross Primary Production (GPP)) may be due to changes in wood residence time (Biomass/NPPwood), temperature, or soil nutrient status. We tested these hypotheses in 14, one ha plots across Amazonian and Andean forests where we measured most key components of net primary production (NPP: wood, fine roots, and leaves) and autotrophic respiration (Ra; wood,...

Data from: Selective disappearance of great tits with short telomeres in urban areas

Pablo Salmón, Johan F. Nilsson, Hannah Watson, Staffan Bensch & Caroline Isaksson
Urban environments pose novel challenges, as well as opportunities, for urban-dwelling wildlife. Although differences have been reported in several phenotypic traits (e.g. morphology, physiology and behaviour) between urban and rural populations, it is poorly understood whether this affects individual fitness. Telomere dynamics are posited as one possible mechanism underlying senescence and mortality. It was recently shown that telomere shortening is accelerated when growing up in an urban, compared with a rural, environment. However, the implications...

Data from: Dissolved organic carbon in streams within a subarctic catchment analysed using a GIS/remote sensing approach

Pearl Mzobe, Martin Berggren, Petter Pilesjö, Erik Lundin, David Olefeldt, Nigel T. Roulet & Andreas Persson
Climate change projections show that temperature and precipitation increases can alter the exchange of greenhouse gases between the atmosphere and high latitude landscapes, including their freshwaters. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays an important role in greenhouse gas emissions, but the impact of catchment productivity on DOC release to subarctic waters remains poorly known, especially at regional scales. We test the hypothesis that increased terrestrial productivity, as indicated by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), generates...

Data from: Organic management in apple orchards: higher impacts on biological control than on pollination

Mario Porcel, Georg K.S. Andersson, Joakim Pålsson, Marco Tasin & Georg K. S. Andersson
1. Intensive agricultural management negatively affects both natural enemies of pests and pollinators. Such management also has the potential to adversely affect the ecosystem services that these communities confer. Organic management has been proposed as an alternative method to mitigate such problems by restoring the services provided by arthropod communities. 2. We evaluated the effect of organic management on two ecosystem services provided by arthropods in apple orchards: pollination and biological control. We used relative...

Data from: Comparison of spleen transcriptomes of two wild rodent species reveals differences in the immune response against Borrelia afzelii

Xiuqin Zhong, Max Lundberg & Lars Råberg
Different host species often differ considerably in susceptibility to a given pathogen, but the causes of such differences are rarely known. The natural hosts of the tick-transmitted bacterium Borrelia afzelii, which is one of causative agents of Lyme borreliosis in humans, include a variety of small mammals like voles and mice. Previous studies have shown that B. afzelii-infected bank voles (Myodes glareolus) have about ten times higher bacterial load than infected yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis),...

Balancing selection in Pattern Recognition Receptor signalling pathways is associated with gene function and pleiotropy in a wild rodent

Lars Råberg, Max Lundberg, Xiuqin Zhong, Anna Konrad & Remi-André Olsen
Pathogen-mediated balancing selection is commonly considered to play an important role in the maintenance of genetic diversity, in particular in immune genes. However, there has not been any systematic analysis of what factors influence which immune genes are the targets of such selection. To address this, we here focus on Pattern Recognition Receptor (PRR) signalling pathways, which play a key role in innate immunity. We used whole-genome resequencing data from a population of bank voles...

A study of tactical and sexual dimorphism in cognition with insights for sexual conflict

Hannah Griebling, Oscar Rios-Cardenas, Jessica Abbott & Molly Morris
The sexes may have different optima in cognitive traits due to differences in life history strategies and the expense of investing in metabolically costly brain tissue. However, given genetic correlations, each sex could be constrained from reaching its cognitive optimum due to intralocus sexual conflict. We compared learning performance of two male alternative reproductive tactics and females from known genotypes (both sire and dam) in the livebearing fish Xiphophorus multilineatus. We predicted that females’ learning...

Effects of back‐mounted biologgers on condition, diving and flight performance in a breeding seabird

Tom J. Evans, Rebecca C. Young, Hannah Watson, Olof Olsson & Susanne Åkesson
Biologging devices are providing detailed insights into the behaviour and movement of animals in their natural environments. It is usually assumed that this method of gathering data does not impact on the behaviour observed. However, potential negative effects on birds have rarely been investigated before field‐based studies are initiated. Seabirds which both fly and use pursuit diving may be particularly sensitive to increases in drag and load resulting from carrying biologging devices. We studied chick‐rearing...

Nocturnal bees feed on diurnal leftovers and pay the price of day–night lifestyle transition

Hema Somanathan, Shivani Krishna, Elsa Mini Jos, Vishwas Gowda, Almut Kelber & Renee Borges
Bees exemplify flights under bright sunlight. A few species across bee families have evolved nocturnality, displaying remarkable adaptations to overcome limitations of their daylight-suited apposition eyes. Phase inversion to nocturnality in a minority of bees that co-exist with diurnal bees provide a unique opportunity to study ecological benefits that mediate total temporal niche shifts. While floral traits and sensory modalities associated with the evolution of classical nocturnal pollination syndromes, e.g. by bats and moths, are...

Drought legacy affects microbial community trait distributions related to moisture along a savannah grassland precipitation gradient

Ainara Leizeaga, Lettice C. Hicks, Lokeshwaran Manoharan, Christine V. Hawkes & Johannes Rousk
Ecosystem models commonly use stable-state assumptions to predict responses of soil microbial functions to environmental change. However, past climatic conditions can shape microbial functional responses resulting in a “legacy effect”. For instance, exposure to drier conditions in the field may shape how soil microbial communities respond to subsequent drought and drying and rewetting events. We investigated microbial tolerance to low moisture levels (“resistance”) and ability to recover after a drying and rewetting (DRW) perturbation (“resilience”)...

Imaging of the vulnerable carotid plaque: role of imaging techniques and a research agenda

Iacopo Fabiani, Carlo Palombo, Davide Caramella, Jan Nilsson & Raffaele De Caterina
Objectives: Atherothrombosis in the carotid arteries is a main cause of ischemic stroke, and may depend on plaque propensity to complicate with rupture or erosion, in turn related to qualitative features amenable to in vivo imaging. This would provide an opportunity for risk stratification and – potentially – local treatment of more “vulnerable” plaques. We here review current information on this topic. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature for concepts derived from pathophysiological, histopathological and...

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