481 Works

Data from: Dressed to impress: breeding plumage as a reliable signal of innate immunity

Sara Pardal, Jose A. Alves, Paulo G. Mota & Jaime A. Ramos
Animal signals involved in sexual selection are often indicators of individual quality. The assumption that sexual characters such as breeding plumage may indicate immune state has rarely been tested in free-living migratory birds, particularly in relation to innate immunity. If sexual characters indeed reflect immune condition, then these could be used to evaluate individual quality. Melanin is a common pigment used in animal communication that mitigates the effects of oxidative stress and has positive effects...

Data from: Organic management in apple orchards: higher impacts on biological control than on pollination

Mario Porcel, Georg K.S. Andersson, Joakim Pålsson, Marco Tasin & Georg K. S. Andersson
1. Intensive agricultural management negatively affects both natural enemies of pests and pollinators. Such management also has the potential to adversely affect the ecosystem services that these communities confer. Organic management has been proposed as an alternative method to mitigate such problems by restoring the services provided by arthropod communities. 2. We evaluated the effect of organic management on two ecosystem services provided by arthropods in apple orchards: pollination and biological control. We used relative...

Data from: A mimicked bacterial infection prolongs stopover duration in songbirds – but more pronounced in short- than long-distance migrants

Arne Hegemann, Pablo Alcalde Abril, Sissel Sjöberg, Rachel Muheim, Thomas Alerstam, Jan-Åke Nilsson & Dennis Hasselquist
1) Migration usually consists of intermittent travel and stopovers, the latter being crucially important for individuals to recover and refuel to successfully complete migration. Quantifying how sickness behaviours influence stopovers is crucial for our understanding of migration ecology and how diseases spread. However, little is known about infections in songbirds, which constitute the majority of avian migrants. 2) We experimentally immune-challenged autumn migrating passerines (both short- and long-distance migrating species) with a simulated bacterial infection....

Data from: Age-dependent effects of predation risk on night-time hypothermia in two wintering passerine species

Fredrik Andreasson, Andreas Nord & Jan-Åke Nilsson
Small animals that winter at northern latitudes need to maximize energy intake and minimize energy loss. Many passerine birds use night-time hypothermia to conserve energy. A potential cost of night-time hypothermia with much theoretical (but little empirical) support is increased risk of night-time predation, due to reduced vigilance and lower escape speed in hypothermic birds. This idea has never been tested in the wild. We, therefore, increased perceived predation risk in great tits (Parus major)...

Metadata for a survey investigating motivations for meat-free diets in Sweden

Luisa F. Suárez Rozo & Kimberly Nicholas
The health and environmental impacts of meat-based diets are increasingly recognized as sustainability issues, but the motivations behind behaviour change driving vegetarian diets have generally been studied via a limited set of motivations and are therefore poorly understood. To examine such motivations, we designed a survey measuring 20 different possible motivations, using 77 statements drawn from the existing Food Choice Questionnaire as well as diverse literature on environmental protection, animal welfare, social norms, and pro-environmental...

Data from: Non‐breeding flight activity in pallid swifts Apus pallidus

Anders Hedenström, Gabriel Norevik, Giovanni Boano, Arne Andersson, Johan Bäckman & Susanne Akesson
Flight activity recorders have recently confirmed that alpine and common swifts spend the majority of their non‐breeding period on the wing, which may last 6‐10 months. Here we test the hypothesis that the closely related pallid swift, a species with a breeding distribution around the Mediterranean, lead a similar aerial life‐style during its migration and wintering periods. The pallid swift usually lays two clutches in one season and therefore spends more time in the breeding...

Data from: Sexual conflict and intrasexual polymorphism promote assortative mating and halts population differentiation

Lars L. Iversen, Erik I. Svensson, Søren T. Christensen, Johannes Bergsten & Kaj Sand-Jensen
Sexual conflict is thought to be an important evolutionary force in driving phenotypic diversification, population divergence and speciation. However, empirical evidence is inconsistent with the generality of sexual conflict as enhancing population divergence. Here we demonstrate an alternative evolutionary outcome in which sexual conflict plays a conservative role in maintaining male and female polymorphisms locally, rather than promoting population divergence. In diving beetles, female polymorphisms have evolved in response to male mating harassment and sexual...

Data from: Carbon use efficiency of mycorrhizal fungal mycelium increases during the growing season but decreases with forest age across a Pinus sylvestris chronosequence

Andreas Hagenbo, David Hadden, Karina E. Clemmensen, Achim Grelle, Stefano Manzoni, Meelis Mölder, Alf Ekblad & Petra Fransson
1. In boreal forest soils, mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi is pivotal for regulating soil carbon (C) cycling and storage. The carbon use efficiency (CUE), a key parameter in C cycling models, can inform on the partitioning of C between microbial biomass, and potential soil storage, and respiration. Here we test the dependency of mycorrhizal mycelial CUE on stand age and seasonality in managed boreal forest stands. 2. Based on mycelial production and respiration estimates, derived...

Innate preference hierarchies coupled with adult experience, rather than larval imprinting or transgenerational acclimation, determine host plant use in Pieris rapae

Hampus Petrén, Gabriele Gloder, Diana Posledovich, Christer Wiklund & Magne Friberg
The evolution of host range drives diversification in phytophagous insects, and understanding the female oviposition choices is pivotal for understanding host specialization. One controversial mechanism for female host choice is Hopkins’ host selection principle, where females are predicted to increase their preference for the host species they were feeding upon as larvae. A recent hypothesis posits that such larval imprinting is especially adaptive in combination with anticipatory transgenerational acclimation, so that females both allocate and...

A study of tactical and sexual dimorphism in cognition with insights for sexual conflict

Hannah Griebling, Oscar Rios-Cardenas, Jessica Abbott & Molly Morris
The sexes may have different optima in cognitive traits due to differences in life history strategies and the expense of investing in metabolically costly brain tissue. However, given genetic correlations, each sex could be constrained from reaching its cognitive optimum due to intralocus sexual conflict. We compared learning performance of two male alternative reproductive tactics and females from known genotypes (both sire and dam) in the livebearing fish Xiphophorus multilineatus. We predicted that females’ learning...

Drought legacy affects microbial community trait distributions related to moisture along a savannah grassland precipitation gradient

Ainara Leizeaga, Lettice C. Hicks, Lokeshwaran Manoharan, Christine V. Hawkes & Johannes Rousk
Ecosystem models commonly use stable-state assumptions to predict responses of soil microbial functions to environmental change. However, past climatic conditions can shape microbial functional responses resulting in a “legacy effect”. For instance, exposure to drier conditions in the field may shape how soil microbial communities respond to subsequent drought and drying and rewetting events. We investigated microbial tolerance to low moisture levels (“resistance”) and ability to recover after a drying and rewetting (DRW) perturbation (“resilience”)...

Effects of back‐mounted biologgers on condition, diving and flight performance in a breeding seabird

Tom J. Evans, Rebecca C. Young, Hannah Watson, Olof Olsson & Susanne Åkesson
Biologging devices are providing detailed insights into the behaviour and movement of animals in their natural environments. It is usually assumed that this method of gathering data does not impact on the behaviour observed. However, potential negative effects on birds have rarely been investigated before field‐based studies are initiated. Seabirds which both fly and use pursuit diving may be particularly sensitive to increases in drag and load resulting from carrying biologging devices. We studied chick‐rearing...

Nocturnal bees feed on diurnal leftovers and pay the price of day–night lifestyle transition

Hema Somanathan, Shivani Krishna, Elsa Mini Jos, Vishwas Gowda, Almut Kelber & Renee Borges
Bees exemplify flights under bright sunlight. A few species across bee families have evolved nocturnality, displaying remarkable adaptations to overcome limitations of their daylight-suited apposition eyes. Phase inversion to nocturnality in a minority of bees that co-exist with diurnal bees provide a unique opportunity to study ecological benefits that mediate total temporal niche shifts. While floral traits and sensory modalities associated with the evolution of classical nocturnal pollination syndromes, e.g. by bats and moths, are...

Herbivores reduce seedling recruitment in alpine plant communities

Øystein H. Opedal, Kristin Nystuen, Dagmar Hagen, Håkon Holien, Mia Sørensen, Simone Lang, Sigrid Lindmo, G. RIchard Strimbeck & Bente Graae
Through changes in climate and other environmental factors, alpine tundra ecosystems are subject to increased cover of erect shrubs, reduced predictability of rodent dynamics, and changes in wild and domesticated herbivore densities. To predict the dynamics of these ecosystems, we need to understand how these simultaneous changes affect alpine vegetation. In the long term, vegetation dynamics may depend critically on seedling recruitment. To study drivers of alpine plant seedling recruitment, we set up a field...

Data and code from: The evolution of developmental thresholds and reaction norms for age and size at maturity

Viktor Nilsson & Locke Rowe
Developing organisms typically mature earlier and at larger sizes in favorable growth conditions, while in rarer cases maturity is delayed. The rarer reaction norm is easily accommodated by general life history models, whereas the common pattern is not. Theory suggests that a solution to this paradox lies in the existence of developmental thresholds that define the minimum size at which maturation or metamorphosis can commence, and in the evolution of these threshold sizes in response...

Results of CNN-based pollen analysis

Ola Olsson, Melanie Karlsson, Anna S. Persson, Henrik G. Smith, Vidula Varadarajan, Johanna Yourstone & Martin Stjernman
Several datasets representing cross-validation of convoluted neural network (CNN) classification of pollen images. In each data file, one variable represents the pollen species (or pollen type when pollen are not identified to species level, but to a group of morphologically similar species represented by a type), and one the model predicted species. The remaining variables are the model likelihoods of the individual pollen grain belonging to a particular species. The maximum of these likelihoods will...

Don’t judge a lizard by its colour: no evidence for differential socio-sexual behaviour and space use in the colour morphs of the European common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis)

Javier Abalos, Guillem Pérez I De Lanuza, Alicia Bartolomé, Océane Liehrmann, Hanna Laakkonen, Fabien Aubret, Tobias Uller, Pau Carazo & Enrique Font
Explaining the evolutionary origin and maintenance of colour polymorphisms is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Such polymorphisms are commonly thought to reflect the existence of alternative behavioural or life-history strategies under negative frequency-dependent selection. The European common wall lizard Podarcis muralis exhibits a striking ventral colour polymorphism that has been intensely studied and is often assumed to reflect alternative reproductive strategies, similar to the iconic “rock-paper-scissors” system described in the North American lizard Uta...

Invertebrate pests, natural enemies, pollinators, pest damage and yields associated with different understorey treatments in an agroforestry system, Nottinghamshire, UK, 2020

T. Staton, R.J. Walters, J. Smith, T.D. Breeze & R.D. Girling
This resource comprises abundance data for invertebrates, pest damage to apples, and yields from an agroforestry system subject to two different understorey management treatments, comprising an unmown flowering understorey and a mown understorey. The data was collected from an intercropped apple-arable agroforestry site in Screveton, Nottinghamshire, UK, from five experimental blocks, each block split between the two understorey management treatments. The data was collected between April and September 2020. Data was collected using (i) pitfall...

The search for sexually antagonistic genes: practical insights from studies of local adaptation and statistical genomics

Filip Ruzicka, Ludovic Dutoit, Peter Czuppon, Crispin Y. Jordan, Xiang‐Yi Li, Colin Olito, Homa Papoli Yazdi, Tim Connallon, Erik Svensson & Anna Runemark
Sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation—in which alleles favored in one sex are disfavored in the other—is predicted to be common and has been documented in several animal and plant populations, yet we currently know little about its pervasiveness among species or its population genetic basis. Recent applications of genomics in studies of SA genetic variation have highlighted considerable methodological challenges to the identification and characterization of SA genes, raising questions about the feasibility of genomic...

Elevated temperature increases genome-wide selection on de novo mutations

David Berger, Josefine Stångberg, Julian Baur & Richard Walters
Adaptation in new environments depends on the amount of genetic variation available for evolution, and the efficacy by which natural selection discriminates among this variation. However, whether some ecological factors reveal more genetic variation, or impose stronger selection pressures than others, is typically not known. Here, we apply enzyme kinetic theory to show that rising global temperatures are predicted to intensify natural selection throughout the genome by increasing the effects of DNA sequence variation on...

Male incubation feeding and fleas

Juan Manuel Peralta-Sánchez & Jan-Åke Nilsson
Parasites exert a strong selection pressure on their hosts as manifested in behavioural antiparasite traits to reduce negative impacts on fitness. The numerous nest-dwelling ecto-parasites residing in avian nests make altricial birds excellent model-systems for investigating the relationship between parasites and their hosts. Here, we experimentally increased natural levels of hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) in blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nests during incubation, and tested their effects on parental incubation behaviours and reproductive performance. Our experimental...

Butterflies fly using efficient propulsive clap mechanism owing to flexible wings

Christoffer Johansson & Per Henningsson
Butterflies look like no other flying animal, with unusually short, broad and large wings relative to their body size. Previous studies have suggested butterflies use several unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms to boost force production with upstroke wing clap being a prominent feature. When the wings clap together at the end of upstroke the air between the wings is pressed out, creating a jet, pushing the animal in the opposite direction. Although viewed, for the last 50...

Data from: Evaluating predictive performance of statistical models explaining wild bee abundance in a mass-flowering crop

Maria Blasi Romero, Ignasi Bartomeus, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Sandra A.M. Lindström, Peter Olsson, Chiara Polce, Simon G. Potts, , Jeroen Scheper, Henrik G. Smith, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Yann Clough
Wild bee populations are threatened by current agricultural practices in many parts of the world, which may put pollination services and crop yields at risk. Loss of pollination services can potentially be predicted by models that link bee abundances with landscape-scale land-use, but there is little knowledge on the degree to which these statistical models are transferable across time and space. This study assesses the transferability of models for wild bee abundance in a mass-flowering...

Coevolution, diversification, and alternative states in two-trophic communities

Tobin Northfield, Jörgen Ripa, Lucas Nell & Anthony Ives
Single-trait eco-evolutionary models of arms races between consumers and their resource species often show inhibition rather than promotion of community diversification. In contrast, modeling arms races involving multiple traits, we found that arms races can promote diversification when trade-off costs among traits make simultaneous investment in multiple traits either more beneficial or more costly. Coevolution between resource and consumer species generates an adaptive landscape for each, with the configuration giving predictable suites of consumer and...

Caught in a bottleneck: Habitat loss for woolly mammoths in central North America and the ice-free corridor during the last deglaciation

Yue Wang, Chris Widga, Russell Graham, Jenny McGuire, Warren Porter, David Wårlind & John Williams
The dataset is to describe the habitat structure and bioenergetic characteristics of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) in North America during the last deglaciation between 15 and 10 ka. The habitat structure includes fractional woody cover (FWC) and net primary productivity (NPP) for 20 plant functional types (PFTs). NPP is based on the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS (LPJG). FWC is based on LPJ-GUESS and fossil pollen records in the Neotoma Paleoecology Database. The bioenergetic characteristics of...

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