408 Works

Data from: Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared compared to small-eared bat species

Jonas Håkansson, Lasse Jakobsen, Anders Hedenström & L. Christoffer Johansson
Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared (Plecotus auritus) and one small-eared (Glossophaga soricina), flying freely...

Data from: Widespread increases in iron concentration in European and North American freshwaters

Caroline Björnerås, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Chris D. Evans, Mark O. Gessner, Hans-Peter Grossart, Külli Kangur, Ilga Kokorite, Pirkko Kortelainen, Hjalmar Laudon, Jouni Lehoranta, Noah Lottig, Don T. Monteith, Peter Nõges, Tiina Nõges, Filip Oulehle, Gunnhild Riise, James A. Rusak, Antti Räike, Janis Sire, Shannon Sterling & Emma Kritzberg
Recent reports of increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters are of concern, given the fundamental role of Fe in biogeochemical processes. Still, little is known about the frequency and geographical distribution of Fe trends, or about the underlying drivers. We analyzed temporal trends of Fe concentrations across 340 water bodies distributed over 10 countries in northern Europe and North America in order to gain a clearer understanding of where, to what extent, and why Fe...

Data from: Genomic sequence capture of haemosporidian parasites: methods and prospects for enhanced study of host-parasite evolution

Lisa N. Barrow, Julie M. Allen, Xi Huang, Staffan Bensch & Christopher C. Witt
Avian malaria and related haemosporidians (Plasmodium, [Para]Haemoproteus, and Leucocytoozoon) represent an exciting multi-host, multi-parasite system in ecology and evolution. Global research in this field accelerated after 1) the publication in 2000 of PCR protocols to sequence a haemosporidian mitochondrial (mtDNA) barcode, and 2) the development in 2009 of an open-access database to document the geographic and host ranges of parasite mtDNA haplotypes. Isolating haemosporidian nuclear DNA from bird hosts, however, has been technically challenging, slowing...

Data from: Competition, seed dispersal, and hunting: what drives germination and seedling survival in an Afrotropical forest?

Ola Olsson, Gabriela Nuñez-Iturri, Henrik G. Smith, Ulf Ottosson & Edu O. Effiom
Disentangling the contributions of different processes that influence plant recruitment, such as competition and seed dispersal, is important given the increased human-mediated changes in tropical forest ecosystems. Previous studies have shown that seedling communities in an Afro-tropical rainforest in Southeastern Nigeria are strongly affected by the loss of important seed dispersing primates, including Cross River gorillas (Gorilla gorilla diehli), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes elioti), and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus). Here we study how germination and survival of...

Data from: Gene expression under thermal stress varies across a geographic range expansion front

Lesley Lancaster, Rachael Dudaniec, Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Erik Svensson, Bengt Hansson, Lesley T. Lancaster, Rachael Y. Dudaniec & Erik I. Svensson
Many ectothermic species are currently expanding their distributions polewards due to anthropogenic global warming. Molecular genetic mechanisms facilitating range expansion under these conditions are largely unknown, but understanding these could help mitigate expanding pests and disease vectors, or help explain why some species fail to track changing climates. Here, using RNA-seq data, we examine genome-wide changes in gene expression under heat and cold stress in the range-expanding damselfly Ischnura elegans in northern Europe. We find...

Data from: The interplay between multiple predators and prey color divergence

Beatriz Willink, Adrián García-Rodríguez, Federico Bolaños & Heike Pröhl
Evolutionary divergence in the coloration of toxic prey is expected when geographic variation in predator composition and behavior favours shifts in prey conspicuousness. A fundamental prediction of predator-driven colour divergence is that the local coloration should experience lower predation risk than novel prey phenotypes. The dorsal coloration of the granular poison frog varies gradually from populations of conspicuous bright red frogs to populations of dull green and relatively cryptic frogs. We conducted experiments with clay...

Data from: Physiology at near-critical temperatures, but not critical limits, varies between two lizard species that partition the thermal environment

Rory S. Telemeco, Eric J. Gangloff, Gerardo A. Cordero, Rebecca L. Polich, Anne M. Bronikowski & Fredric J. Janzen
The mechanisms that mediate the interaction between the thermal environment and species’ ranges are generally uncertain. Thermal environments may directly restrict species when environments exceed tolerance limits (i.e. the fundamental niche). However, thermal environments might also differentially affect relative performance among species prior to fundamental tolerances being met (i.e. the realized niche). We examined stress physiology (plasma glucose and corticosterone), mitochondrial performance, and the muscle metabolome of congeneric lizards that naturally partition the thermal niche,...

Data from: Marine ecosystem connectivity mediated by migrant–resident interactions and the concomitant cross-system flux of lipids

Mikael Van Deurs, Anders Persson, Martin Lindegren, Charlotte Jacobsen, Stefan Neuenfeldt, Christian Jørgensen & P. Anders Nilsson
Accumulating research argues that migrants influence the functioning and productivity of local habitats and ecosystems along migration routes and potentially drive cross-system energy fluxes of considerable magnitude, yet empirical documentation of local ecological effects and descriptions of the underlying mechanisms are surprisingly rare. In this study, we discovered migrant–resident interactions and substantial cross-system lipid transportation in the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea where a resident cod population (predators) was found...

Data from: Maize-dominated landscapes reduce bumble bee colony growth through pollen diversity loss

Annika Louise Hass, Lara Brachmann, Péter Batáry, Yann Clough, Hermann Behling & Teja Tscharntke
1. Bumble bees are important pollinators for a wide range of crops and wild plants. Performance of their colonies depends on pollen and nectar as food resources, but flowering plants are scarce in modern agricultural landscapes. It is well-known that semi-natural habitats can enhance floral resources and bumble bee abundance, but the impact of different crop types and their heterogeneity at the landscape scale remains unclear. 2. We tested the effect of two different crop...

Data from: Cold adaptation drives variability in needle structure and anatomy in Pinus sylvestris L. along a 1,900 km temperate–boreal transect

Artur Jankowski, Tomasz P. Wyka, Roma Żytkowiak, Bengt Nihlgård, Peter B. Reich & Jacek Oleksyn
1. Occupancy of cold habitats by evergreen species requires structural modification of photosynthetic organs for stress resistance and longevity. Such modifications have been described at inter-specific level while intra-specific variation has been underexplored. 2. To identify structural and anatomical traits that may be adaptive in cold environments, we studied intra-specific variability of needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), a wide-ranging tree, along a 1900 km temperate-boreal transect in Europe. 3. Needles from 20 sites...

Data from: Interspecific transfer of parasites following a range-shift in Ficedula flycatchers

William Jones, Katarzyna Kulma, Staffan Bensch, Mariusz Cichoń, Anvar Kerimov, Miloš Krist, Toni Laaksonen, Juan Moreno, Pavel Munclinger, Fred Slater, Eszter Szöllősi, Marcel E. Visser, Anna Qvarnström & Fred M. Slater
Human-induced climate change is expected to cause major biotic changes in species distributions and thereby including escalation of novel host-parasite associations. Closely related host species that come into secondary contact are especially likely to exchange parasites and pathogens. Two competing theories, the Enemy Release Hypothesis, where invading hosts escape their original parasites; and the Novel Weapon Hypothesis, where invading hosts bring new parasites that have detrimental effects on native hosts, have been described to predict...

Data from: Rates and predictors of attrition among children on antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia: a prospective cohort study

Mulatu Biru, Inger Hallström, Pia Lundqvist & Degu Jerene
Introduction: Attrition from antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes is a critical challenge among children receiving care in resource-limited settings. Our objective was to determine the rates and predictors of attrition among children on ART in Ethiopia. Methods: Between December 2014 and September 2016, we conducted a prospective cohort study in eight health facilities in Ethiopia. Eligibility criteria included age 3 months-14 years; being on ART for not more than a month. Outcome was attrition due to...

Data from: Polymorphisms at the innate immune receptor TLR2 are associated with Borrelia infection in a wild rodent population

Barbara Tschirren, Martin Andersson, Kristin Scherman, Helena Westerdahl, Peer R. E. Mittl & Lars Raberg
The discovery of the key role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in initiating innate immune responses and modulating adaptive immunity has revolutionised our understanding of vertebrate defence against pathogens. Yet, despite their central role in pathogen recognition and defence initiation, there is little information on how variation in TLRs influences disease susceptibility in natural populations. Here we assessed the extent of naturally occurring polymorphisms at TLR2 in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and tested for associations...

Data from: Pale and dark morphs of tawny owls show different patterns of telomere dynamics in relation to disease status

Patrik Karell, Staffan Bensch, Kari Ahola & Muhammad Asghar
Parasites are expected to exert long-term costs on host fecundity and longevity. Understanding the consequences of heritable polymorphic variation in disease defence in wild populations is essential in order to predict evolutionary responses to changes in disease risk. Telomeres have been found to shorten faster in malaria-diseased individuals compared with healthy ones with negative effects on longevity and thereby fitness. Here, we study the impact of haemosporidian blood parasites on telomere dynamics in tawny owls,...

Data from: A heterogeneous landscape does not guarantee high crop pollination

Ulrika Samnegård, Peter A. Hambäck, Debissa Lemessa, Sileshi Nemomissa & Kristoffer Hylander
The expansion of pollinator-dependent crops, especially in the developing world, together with reports of worldwide pollinator declines, raises concern of possible yield gaps. Farmers directly reliant on pollination services for food supply often live in regions where our knowledge of pollination services is poor. In a manipulative experiment replicated at 23 sites across an Ethiopian agricultural landscape, we found poor pollination services and severe pollen limitation in a common oil crop. With supplementary pollination, the...

Data from: Genetic differentiation and admixture between sibling allopolyploids in the Dactylorhiza majalis complex

Ovidiu Paun, Francisco Balao, Maria Tannhäuser, Maria Teresa Lorenzo & Mikael Hedrén
Allopolyploidization often happens recurrently, but the evolutionary significance of its iterative nature is not yet fully understood. Of particular interest are the gene flow dynamics and the mechanisms that allow young sibling polyploids to remain distinct while sharing the same ploidy, heritage and overlapping distribution areas. By using eight highly variable nuclear microsatellites, newly reported here, we investigate the patterns of divergence and gene flow between 386 polyploid and 42 diploid individuals, representing the sibling...

Data from: Experimental manipulation suggests effect of polyandry but not mate familiarity on within-pair aggression in the social skink, Liopholis whitii

Thomas Botterill-James, Jacinta Silince, Tobias Uller, David G. Chapple, Michael G. Gardner, Erik Wapstra, Geoffrey M. While & Jacinta Sillince
Long-term monogamy is a key characteristic of family living across animals. The evolutionary maintenance of long-term monogamy has been suggested to be facilitated by increased reproductive coordination as a result of mate familiarity, leading to increased reproductive success. However, such effects can be compromised if females mate outside the pair bond (e.g. female polyandry), introducing conflicts of interest between the male and female. Here, we experimentally test the effects of both mate familiarity and female...

Data from: Bushmeat hunting changes regeneration of African rainforests

Edu O. Effiom, Gabriela Nuñez-Iturri, Henrik G. Smith, Ulf Ottosson, Ola Olsson & G. Nunez-Iturri
To assess ecological consequences of bushmeat hunting in African lowland rainforests, we compared paired sites, with high and low hunting pressure, in three areas of southeastern Nigeria. In hunted sites, populations of important seed dispersers—both small and large primates (including the Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli)—were drastically reduced. Large rodents were more abundant in hunted sites, even though they are hunted. Hunted and protected sites had similar mature tree communities dominated by primate-dispersed species....

Data from: Katatopygia gen. n., a monophyletic branch segregated from Boletina (Diptera, Mycetophilidae)

Svante Martinsson, Jostein Kjærandsen & Jostein Kjaerandsen
The genus Katatopygia gen. n. is proposed for the Boletina erythropyga/punctus-group that was first introduced by Garrett (1924, 1925) and currently comprises eight described species. Molecular studies have strongly indicated that this group forms a monophyletic sister-group to a clade consisting of all other Boletina, Coelosia and Gnoriste, and its monophyly is supported by morphological data as well. The new genus includes the following species: Katatopygia antoma (Garrett, 1924), comb. n., Katatopygia antica (Garrett, 1924),...

Data from: Finding the gap: A brightness-based strategy for guidance in cluttered environments

Emily Baird & Marie Dacke
The ability to move safely between obstacles is critical for animals that fly rapidly through cluttered environments but surprisingly little is known about how they achieve this. Do they reactively avoid obstacles or do they instead fly towards the gaps between them? If they aim towards gaps, what information do they use to detect and fly through them? Here, we aim to answer these questions by presenting orchid bees with different apertures. When negotiating gaps,...

Data from: Selective spore germination on shoots of Homalothecium lutescens, a moss with dwarf males

Frida Rosengren & Nils Cronberg
Spores from three bryophyte species with dwarf males (Homalothecium lutescens, Homalothecium sericeum and Isothecium alopecuroides) were sown on shoots of H. lutescens in vitro. After 10 months, presence and fertility of dwarf plants were scored. Spores of the more distantly related I. alopecuroides were unable to develop into dwarf plants on H. lutescens. Spores of both H. lutescens and H. sericeum developed into dwarf plants. In fact, dwarf plants of H. sericeum were both more...

Data from: Genetic divergence predicts reproductive isolation in damselflies

Rosa Ana Sánchez Guillén, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, Adolfo Cordero Rivera & Maren Wellenreuther
Reproductive isolation is the defining characteristic of a biological species, and a common but often untested prediction is a positive correlation between reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Here we test for this correlation in odonates, an order characterized by strong sexual selection. First, we measure reproductive isolation and genetic divergence in eight damselfly genera (30 species pairs) and test for a positive correlation. Second, we estimate the genetic threshold preventing hybrid formation and empirically test...

Data from: Individual consistency of long-distance migration in a songbird: significant repeatability of autumn route, stopovers and wintering sites but not in timing of migration

Dennis Hasselquist, Teresa Montràs-Janer, Maja Tarka & Bengt Hansson
Through new tracking techniques, data on timing and routes of migration in long-distance migrant birds are accumulating. However, studies of the consistency of migration of the same individuals between years are still rare in small-sized passerine birds. This type of information is important to understand decisions and migration abilities at the individual level, but also for life history theory, for understanding carry over effects between different annual cycle stages and for conservation. We analysed individual...

Data from: Escaping peril: perceived predation risk affects migratory propensity

Kaj Hulthén, Ben B. Chapman, P. Anders Nilsson, Jerker Vinterstare, Lars-Anders Hansson, Christian Skov, Jakob Brodersen, Henrik Baktoft & Christer Brönmark
Although migratory plasticity is increasingly documented, the ecological drivers of plasticity are not well understood. Predation risk can influence migratory dynamics, but whether seasonal migrants can adjust their migratory behaviour according to perceived risk is unknown. We used electronic tags to record the migration of individual roach (Rutilus rutilus), a partially migratory fish, in the wild following exposure to manipulation of direct (predator presence/absence) and indirect (high/low roach density) perceived predation risk in experimental mesocosms....

Data from: Habitat partitioning during character displacement between the sexes

Stephen P. De Lisle, Samuel Paiva & Locke Rowe
Ecological differences between the sexes are often interpreted as evidence of within-species ecological character displacement (ECD), a hypothesis with almost no direct tests. Here we experimentally-test two predictions, that are direct corollaries of ECD between the sexes, in a salamander. First, we find support for the prediction that each sex has a growth rate advantage in the aquatic microhabitat where it is most commonly found. Second, we test the prediction that selection for ECD in...

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