408 Works

Data from: Bridge under troubled water: turbulence and niche partitioning in fish foraging

Zeynep Pekcan-Hekim, Noora Hellén, Laura Härkönen, Per Anders Nilsson, Leena Nurminen & Jukka Horppila
The coexistence of competing species relies on niche partitioning. Competitive exclusion is likely inevitable at high niche overlap, but such divide between competitors may be bridged if environmental circumstances displace competitor niches to enhance partitioning. Foraging-niche dimension can be influenced by environmental characteristics, and if competitors react differently to such conditions, coexistence can be facilitated. We here experimentally approach the partitioning effects of environmental conditions by evaluating the influence of water turbulence on foraging-niche responses...

Data from: A rare study from the wintering grounds provides insight into the costs of malaria infection for migratory birds

Marjorie C. Sorensen, Muhammad Asghar, Staffan Bensch, Graham D. Fairhurst, Susanne Jenni-Eiermann & Claire N. Spottiswoode
Malaria parasites can have strong effects on the population dynamics and evolution of migratory bird species. In many species, parasite transmission occurs on the wintering grounds, but studies to determine the consequences of infection have taken place during the breeding season, when malaria parasites circulate at chronic levels. We examined the predictors of malarial infections for great reed warblers during the northern winter in Africa, where active parasite transmission is thought to occur and naïve...

Trust in researchers and researchers’ statements in large carnivore conservation

Kristin Mathiesen, Magnus Barmoen, Kim Magnus Bærum & Maria Johansson
Human-wildlife interactions occur when humans and wildlife overlap in the same landscapes. Due to the growing human population, the number of interactions will continue to increase, and in some cases, develop further into social conflicts. Conflicts may occur between people disagreeing about wildlife conservation or arguing over which wildlife management measures should be taken. Social conflicts between humans are based on different attitudes, values and land-use aspirations. The success of solving these social conflicts strongly...

Repeated sex chromosome evolution in vertebrates supported by expanded avian sex chromosomes

Hanna Sigeman, Bengt Hansson, Suvi Ponnikas, Pallavi Chauhan, Elisa Dierickx & M. De L. Brooke
Sex chromosomes have evolved from the same autosomes multiple times across vertebrates, suggesting that selection for recombination suppression has acted repeatedly and independently on certain genetic backgrounds. Here, we perform comparative genomics of a bird clade (larks and their sister lineage; Alaudidae and Panuridae) where multiple sex chromosome–autosome fusions appear to have formed expanded sex chromosomes. We detected the largest known avian sex chromosome (195.3 Mbp) and show that it originates from fusions between parts...

Data from: Co-introduction of native mycorrhizal fungi and plant seeds accelerates restoration of post-mining landscapes

Tanel Vahter, C. Bueno, John Davison, Koit Herodes, Inga Hiiesalu, Liis Kasari-Toussaint, Jane Oja, Pal Olsson, Siim Sepp, Martin Zobel, Martti Vasar & Maarja Öpik
1. Grasslands are among the most threatened terrestrial biomes, and habitat conservation alone will be insufficient to meet biodiversity goals. While restoration of indigenous grasslands is a priority, conflict with economic objectives means that incorporation of alternative habitats is necessary to offset grassland loss. With up to 800,000 km² of land affected by mining globally, there is an opportunity to create additional grassland habitat in post-mining landscapes. 2. We aimed to assess whether co-introduction of...

Derivation and utility of an Aβ-PET pathology accumulation index to estimate Aβ load

Antoine Leuzy, Johan Lilja, Christopher Buckley, Rik Ossenkoppele, Sebastian Palmqvist, Mark Battle, Gill Farrar, Dietmar Thal, Shorena Janelidze, Erik Stomrud, Olof Strandberg, Ruben Smith & Oskar Hansson
Abstract Objective: To evaluate a novel Aβ-PET based quantitative measure (Aβ accumulation index [Aβ-index]), including the assessment of its ability to discriminate between subjects based on Aβ-status using visual-read, CSF Aβ42/Aβ40 and post-mortem neuritic-plaque burden as standards of truth. Methods: 1121 subjects (with and without cognitive impairment) scanned with Aβ-PET: Swedish BioFINDER, n=392, [18F]flutemetamol; ADNI, n=692, [18F]florbetapir; a phase-3 end-of-life study, n=100, [18F]flutemetamol). The relationships between Aβ-index and standardized uptake values ratios (SUVR) from Aβ-PET...

Metabolic rate, context-dependent selection, and the competition-colonization trade-off

Amanda Pettersen, Matthew Hall, Craig White & Dustin Marshall
Metabolism is linked with the pace‐of‐life, co‐varying with survival, growth, and reproduction. Metabolic rates should therefore be under strong selection and, if heritable, become less variable over time. Yet intraspecific variation in metabolic rates is ubiquitous, even after accounting for body mass and temperature. Theory predicts variable selection maintains trait variation, but field estimates of how selection on metabolism varies are rare. We use a model marine invertebrate to estimate selection on metabolic rates in...

Selection on phenotypic plasticity favors thermal canalization

Erik Svensson, Miguel Gomez-Llano & John Waller
Climate change affects organisms worldwide with profound ecological and evolutionary consequences, often increasing population extinction risk. Climatic factors can increase the strength, variability or direction of natural selection on phenotypic traits, potentially driving adaptive evolution. Phenotypic plasticity in relation to temperature can allow organisms to maintain fitness in response to increasing temperatures, thereby “buying time” for subsequent genetic adaptation and promoting evolutionary rescue. Although many studies have shown that organisms respond plastically to increasing temperatures,...

The integrin-mediated adhesive complex in the ancestor of animals, fungi, and amoebae

Matthew Brown, Seungho Kang, Alexander K. Tice, Courtney W. Stairs, Robert E. Jones, Daniel J.G. Lahr & Matthew W. Brown
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that activate signal transduction pathways upon extracellular matrix binding. The integrin-mediated adhesive complex (IMAC) mediates various cell physiological processes. Although the IMAC was thought to be specific to animals, in the past ten years these complexes were discovered in other lineages of Obazoa, the group containing animals, fungi, and several microbial eukaryotes. Very recently, many genomes and transcriptomes from Amoebozoa (the eukaryotic supergroup sister to Obazoa), other obazoans, and orphan protist...

Using ecological context to interpret spatiotemporal variation in natural selection

Elena Albertsen, Elena Albertsen, Øystein Opedal, Geir Bolstad, Rocio Barrales, Thomas Hansen, Christophe Pelabon & W. Scott Armbruster
Spatiotemporal variation in natural selection is expected, but difficult to estimate. Pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits provides a good system for understanding and linking variation in selection to differences in ecological context. We studied pollinator-mediated selection in five populations of Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) in Costa Rica and Mexico. Using a nonlinear path-analytical approach, we assessed several functional components of selection, and linked variation in pollinator-mediated selection across time and space to variation in pollinator assemblages....

Data from: Axl-regulating tumor suppressor miR-34a increased in ccRCC but not correlating with Axl mRNA or Axl protein levels

Helena K. M. Fritz, Anna Gustafsson, Börje Ljungberg, Yvonne Ceder, Håkan Axelson, Björn Dahlbäck & Helena K. Fritz
Background: High expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is associated with poor prognosis in patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), the most common malignancy of the kidney. The miR-34a has been shown to directly regulate Axl in cancer cells. The miR-34a is a mediator of p53-dependent tumor suppression, and low expression of miR-34a has been associated with worse prognosis in several cancers. Our aim was to elucidate whether miR-34a or the other members of...

Data from: Fixational eye movements predict visual sensitivity

Chris Scholes, Paul V. McGraw, Marcus Nyström & Neil W. Roach
During steady fixation, observers make small fixational saccades at a rate of around 1-2 per second. Presentation of a visual stimulus triggers a biphasic modulation in fixational saccade rate – an initial inhibition followed by a period of elevated rate and a subsequent return to baseline. Here we show that, during passive viewing, this rate signature is highly sensitive to small changes in stimulus contrast. By training a linear support vector machine to classify trials...

Data from: Eyeless Mexican cavefish save energy by eliminating the circadian rhythm in metabolism

Damian Moran, Rowan Softley & Eric J. Warrant
The eyed surface form and eyeless cave form of the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus experience stark differences in the daily periodicities of light, food and predation, factors which are likely to have a profound influence on metabolism. We measured the metabolic rate of Pachón cave and surface fish at a fixed swimming speed under light/dark and constant dark photoperiods. In constant darkness surface forms exhibited a circadian rhythm in metabolism with an increase in oxygen...

Data from: Pollination treatment affects fruit set and modifies marketable and storable fruit quality of commercial apples

Ulrika Samnegård, Peter Hambäck & Henrik Smith
Insect-mediated pollination increases yields of many crop species and some evidence suggests that it also influences crop quality. However, the mechanistic linkages between insect-mediated pollination and crop quality are poorly known. In this study, we explored how different pollination treatments affected fruit set, dry matter content (DMC), mineral content and storability of apples. Apple flowers supplementary pollinated with compatible pollen resulted in higher initial fruit set rates, higher fruit DMC and a tendency for lower...

Data from: Phylogenetic conservatism in plant phenology

T. Jonathan Davies, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Nicolas Salamin, Jenica M. Allen, Toby R. Ault, Julio L. Betancourt, Kjell Bolmgren, Elsa E. Cleland, Benjamin I. Cook, Theresa M. Crimmins, Susan J. Mazer, Gregory J. McCabe, Stephanie Pau, Jim Regetz, Mark D. Schwartz & Steven E. Travers
Phenological events – defined points in the life cycle of a plant or animal – have been regarded as highly plastic traits, reflecting flexible responses to various environmental cues. The ability of a species to track, via shifts in phenological events, the abiotic environment through time might dictate its vulnerability to future climate change. Understanding the predictors and drivers of phenological change is therefore critical. Here, we evaluated evidence for phylogenetic conservatism – the tendency...

Data from: Resting metabolic rate in migratory and non-migratory geese following range expansion; go south, go low

Götz Eichhorn, Manfred R. Enstipp, Jean-Yves Georges, Dennis Hasselquist & Bart A. Nolet
While many species suffer from human activities, some like geese benefit and may show range expansions. In some cases geese (partially) gave up migration and started breeding at wintering and stopover grounds. Range expansion may be facilitated and accompanied by physiological changes, especially when associated with changes in migratory behaviour. Interspecific comparisons found that migratory tendency is associated with a higher basal or resting metabolic rate (RMR). We compared RMR of individuals belonging to a...

Habitat geometry in artificial microstructure affects bacterial and fungal growth, interactions, and substrate degradation 2nd part

Carlos Arellano-Caicedo
Microhabitat conditions determine the magnitude and speed of microbial processes but have been challenging to investigate. In this study we used microfluidic devices to determine the effect of the spatial distortion of a pore space on fungal and bacterial growth, interactions, and substrate degradation. The devices contained channels differing in bending angles and order. Sharper angles reduced fungal and bacterial biomass, especially when angles were repeated in the same direction. Substrate degradation was only decreased...

Data from: Variation in predation regime drives sex-specific differences in mosquitofish foraging behaviour

Varpu Pärssinen, Kaj Hulthén, Christer Brönmark, Gustaf Ekelund Ugge, Raphael Gollnisch, Simon David Herzog, Nan Hu, Marcus Lee, Yongcui Sha, Martin Škerlep, Jerker Vinterstare, R. Brian Langerhans, P. Anders Nilsson, Caroline Björnerås, Lars-Anders Hansson, Emma Johansson, Karin Rengefors & Huan Zhang
Predation is a well-studied driver of ecological selection on prey traits, which frequently drives divergence in anti-predator performance across environments that vary in predation risk. However, predation also alters prey mortality regimes, where low predation risk often results in higher prey densities and consequently higher intensities of intraspecific resource competition. In addition, predation risk alters the foraging context, as acquiring food can be risky in the presence of predators. Thus, different predation regimes can drive...

Raw data for: Rhinarium cooling and sensitivity to thermal radiation in domestic dogs

Ronald Kröger, Chelsey Luce & Dennis Kröger
The rhinarium of a dog seems to be cold for sensitivity to weak thermal radiation, such as body heat radiation. However, according to De Cock Buning [1], the temperature of the sensor should not matter for the detection of radiating heat. We investigated the relevance of detector temperature for the amount of transferred thermal energy and the contrast in the thermal image by computer modelling, which showed that the detector has to be colder than...

Scavenging beetles control the temporal response of soil communities to carrion decomposition

Tancredi Caruso, Marco Ilardi, Sheena Cotter, Edith Hammer & Gillian Riddell
1. Carrion is a frequent but overlooked source of nutrients to the soil. The decomposition of carrion is accelerated by invertebrate scavengers but the impact of the scavengers on below-ground biota and its functions is scarcely known. 2. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides on the soil community of a temperate broadleaved forest. We assembled microcosms from soil collected from an oak woodland and treated them...

Data for: Anti-predator phenotype in crucian carp altered by a psychoactive drug

Jerker Vinterstare
Predator-inducible defences constitute a widespread form of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, and such defences have recently been suggested linked with the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system is a target of endocrine disruptors, such as psychoactive pharmaceuticals, which are common aquatic contaminants. We hypothesized that exposure to an antidepressant pollutant, fluoxetine, influences the physiological stress response in our model species, crucian carp, affecting its behavioural and morphological responses to predation threat. We examined short- and long-term effects...

Latitudinal clines in sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism, and sex-specific genetic dispersal during a poleward range expansion

Rachael Dudaniec, Alexander Carey, Erik Svensson, Bengt Hansson, Chuan Ji Yong & Lesley Lancaster
Range expansions can be shaped by sex differences in behaviours and other phenotypic traits affecting dispersal and reproduction. Here, we investigate sex differences in morphology, behaviour and genomic population differentiation along a climate-mediated range expansion in the common bluetail damselfly Ischnura elegans in northern Europe. We sampled 65 sites along a 583 km gradient spanning the I. elegans range in Sweden and quantified latitudinal gradients in site relative abundance, sex ratio and sex-specific shifts in...

Wild bees and hoverflies respond differently to urbanisation, human population density and urban form

Anna Persson, Johan Ekroos, Peter Olsson & Henrik Smith
While urbanisation contributes to global biodiversity declines, flower-rich urban habitats may provide beneficial pollinator habitats. We investigated the potential of urban residential areas to contribute to pollinator diversity by analysing wild bee and hoverfly species richness and composition of species assemblages of summer-active species, sampled in 53 gardens across urban and rural landscapes of Malmö, the regional capital of Sweden’s southernmost county. Species richness differed between urban and rural gardens, and between four urban residential...

Fitness cost from fluctuating ultraviolet radiation in Daphnia magna

Franca Stábile, Christer Brőnmark, Lars-Anders Hansson & Marcus Lee
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important environmental threat for organisms in aquatic systems, but its temporally variable nature makes the understanding of its effects ambiguous. The aim of our study was to assess potential fitness costs associated with fluctuating UVR in the aquatic zooplankter Daphnia magna. We investigated individual survival, reproduction and behaviour when exposed to different UVR treatments. Individuals exposed to fluctuating UVR, resembling natural variations in cloud cover, had the lowest fitness...

Data from: Wintering bird communities are tracking climate change faster than breeding communities

Aleksi Lehikoinen, Åke Lindström, Andrea Santangeli, Päivi Sirkiä, Lluis Brotons, Vincent Devictor, Jaanus Elts, Ruud P. B. Fobben, Henning Heldbjerg, Sergi Herrando, Marc Herremans, Marie-Anne R. Hudson, Frederic Jiguet, Alison Johnston, Romain Lorrilliere, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Nicole L. Michel, Charlotte M. Moshøj, Renno Nellis, Jean-Yves Paquet, Adam C. Smith, Tibor Szep & Chris Van Turnhout
1. Global climate change is driving species’ distributions towards the poles and mountain tops during both non-breeding and breeding seasons, leading to changes in the composition of natural communities. However, the degree of season differences in climate-driven community shifts has not been thoroughly investigated at large spatial scales. 2. We compared the rates of change in the community composition during both winter (non-breeding season) and summer (breeding) and their relation to temperature changes. 3. Based...

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  • Lund University
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Oxford
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  • University of Oslo
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  • University of Exeter
  • University of Tartu
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Stockholm University