16 Works

Data from: Zinc supplementation inhibits complement activation in age-related macular degeneration

Dzenita Smailhodzic, Freekje Van Asten, Anna M. Blom, Frida C. Mohlin, Anneke I. Den Hollander, Johannes P. H. Van De Ven, Ramon A. C. Van Huet, Joannes M. M. Groenewoud, Yuan Tian, Tos T. J. M. Berendschot, Yara T. E. Lechanteur, Sascha Fauser, Chris De Bruijn, Mohamed R. Daha, Gert Jan Van Der Wilt, Carel B. Hoyng & B. Jeroen Klevering
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world. AMD is a multifactorial disorder but complement-mediated inflammation at the level of the retina plays a pivotal role. Oral zinc supplementation can reduce the progression of AMD but the precise mechanism of this protective effect is as yet unclear. We investigated whether zinc supplementation directly affects the degree of complement activation in AMD and whether there is a relation between serum...

Data from: Sex differences in developmental plasticity and canalization shape population divergence in mate preferences

Erik I. Svensson, Anna Runemark, Machteld N. Verzijden & Maren Wellenreuther
Sexual selection of high-quality mates can conflict with species recognition if traits that govern intraspecific mate preferences also influence interspecific recognition. This conflict might be resolved by developmental plasticity and learned mate preferences, which could drive preference divergence in populations that differ in local species composition. We integrate field and laboratory experiments on two calopterygid damselfly species with population genetic data to investigate how sex differences in developmental plasticity affect population divergence in the face...

Data from: Indirect genetic effects from competition in the clonal herb Sedum album (Crassulaceae)

Stefan Andersson
Recent years have seen increasing interest in indirect genetic effects, i.e. influences on the phenotype that depend on the genotype of other conspecific individuals; however, the empirical evidence for such effects is still limited, especially in wild plant species. The present study of the clonal herb Sedum album assessed direct and indirect genetic effects on performance-related traits in a 4-year experiment with clonally replicated genotypes, grown in pairs and differing in anthocyanin pigmentation to allow...

Data from: Does relaxed predation drive phenotypic divergence among insular populations?

Anna Runemark, Mikkel Brydegaard & Erik I. Svensson
The evolution of striking phenotypes on islands is a well-known phenomenon, and there has been a long-standing debate on the patterns of body size evolution on islands. The ecological causes driving divergence in insular populations are, however, poorly understood. Reduced predator fauna is expected to lower escape propensity, increase body size and relax selection for crypsis in small-bodied, insular prey species. Here, we investigated if escape behaviour, body size and dorsal coloration have diverged as...

Data from: The evolutionary stability of cross-sex, cross-trait genetic covariances

Thomas P. Gosden & Stephen F. Chenoweth
Although knowledge of the selective agents behind the evolution of sexual dimorphism has advanced considerably in recent years, we still lack a clear understanding of the evolutionary durability of cross-sex genetic covariances that often constrain its evolution. We tested the relative stability of cross-sex genetic covariances for a suite of homologous contact pheromones of the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, along a latitudinal gradient that these traits have diverged in mean. Using a Bayesian framework, which...

Data from: Efficiency of lift production in flapping and gliding flight of swifts

Per Henningsson, Anders Hedenström & Richard J. Bomphrey
Many flying animals use both flapping and gliding flight as part of their routine behaviour. These two kinematic patterns impose conflicting requirements on wing design for aerodynamic efficiency and, in the absence of extreme morphing, wings cannot be optimised for both flight modes. In gliding flight, the wing experiences uniform incident flow and the optimal shape is a high aspect ratio wing with an elliptical planform. In flapping flight, on the other hand, the wing...

Data from: Are ant supercolonies crucibles of a new major transition in evolution?

Patrick Kennedy, Tobias Uller & Heikki Helanterä
The biological hierarchy of genes, cells, organisms and societies is a fundamental reality in the living world. This hierarchy of entities did not arise ex nihilo at the origin of life, but rather has been serially generated by a succession of critical events known as ‘evolutionary transitions in individuality’ (ETIs). Given the sequential nature of ETIs, it is natural to look for candidates to form the next hierarchical tier. We analyse claims that these candidates...

Data from: Does inbreeding affect gene expression in birds?

Bengt Hansson, Sara Naurin & Dennis Hasselquist
Inbreeding increases homozygosity, exposes genome-wide recessive deleterious alleles and often reduces fitness. The physiological and reproductive consequences of inbreeding may be manifested already during gene regulation, but the degree to which inbreeding influences gene expression is unknown in most organisms, including in birds. To evaluate the pattern of inbreeding-affected gene expression over the genome and in relation to sex, we performed a transcriptome-wide gene expression (10 695 genes) study of brain tissue of 10-day-old inbred...

Data from: Selection on outlier loci and their association with adaptive phenotypes in Littorina saxatilis contact zones

Johan Hollander, Juan Galindo & Roger K. Butlin
A fundamental issue in speciation research is to evaluate phenotypic variation and the genomics driving the evolution of reproductive isolation between sister taxa. Above all, hybrid zones are excellent study systems for researchers to examine the association of genetic differentiation, phenotypic variation and the strength of selection. We investigated two contact zones in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis and utilized landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis together with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess phenotypic...

Data from: The interplay between local ecology, divergent selection and genetic drift in population divergence of a sexually antagonistic female trait

Kristina Karlsson Green, Erik I. Svensson, Johannes Bergsten, Roger Härdling & Bengt Hansson
Genetically polymorphic species offer the possibility to study maintenance of genetic variation and the potential role for genetic drift in population divergence. Indirect inference of the selection regimes operating on polymorphic traits can be achieved by comparing population divergence in neutral genetic markers with population divergence in trait frequencies. Such an approach could further be combined with ecological data to better understand agents of selection. Here, we infer the selective regimes acting on a polymorphic...

Data from: Evidence of concurrent local adaptation and high phenotypic plasticity in a polar microeukaryote

Karin Rengefors, Ramiro Logares, Johanna Laybourn-Parry & Rebecca J. Gast
Here we investigated whether there is evidence of local adaptation in strains of an ancestrally marine dinoflagellate to the lacustrine environment they now inhabit (optimal genotypes) and/or if they have evolved phenotypic plasticity (a range of phenotypes). Eleven strains of Polarella glacialis were isolated and cultured from three different environments: the polar seas, a hyposaline and a hypersaline Antarctic lake. Local adaptation was tested by comparing growth rates of lacustrine and marine strains at their...

Data from: Eyeless Mexican cavefish save energy by eliminating the circadian rhythm in metabolism

Damian Moran, Rowan Softley & Eric J. Warrant
The eyed surface form and eyeless cave form of the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus experience stark differences in the daily periodicities of light, food and predation, factors which are likely to have a profound influence on metabolism. We measured the metabolic rate of Pachón cave and surface fish at a fixed swimming speed under light/dark and constant dark photoperiods. In constant darkness surface forms exhibited a circadian rhythm in metabolism with an increase in oxygen...

Data from: The interplay between multiple predators and prey color divergence

Beatriz Willink, Adrián García-Rodríguez, Federico Bolaños & Heike Pröhl
Evolutionary divergence in the coloration of toxic prey is expected when geographic variation in predator composition and behavior favours shifts in prey conspicuousness. A fundamental prediction of predator-driven colour divergence is that the local coloration should experience lower predation risk than novel prey phenotypes. The dorsal coloration of the granular poison frog varies gradually from populations of conspicuous bright red frogs to populations of dull green and relatively cryptic frogs. We conducted experiments with clay...

Data from: The potential for arms race and Red Queen coevolution in a protist host-parasite system

Lars Råberg, Elisabet Alacid, Esther Garces & Rosa Figueroa
The dynamics and consequences of host–parasite coevolution depend on the nature of host genotype-by-parasite genotype interactions (G × G) for host and parasite fitness. G × G with crossing reaction norms can yield cyclic dynamics of allele frequencies (“Red Queen” dynamics) while G × G where the variance among host genotypes differs between parasite genotypes results in selective sweeps (“arms race” dynamics). Here, we investigate the relative potential for arms race and Red Queen coevolution...

Data from: Importance of boreal rivers in providing iron to marine waters

Emma S. Kritzberg, Ana Bedmar Villanueva, Marco Jung & Heather E. Reader
This study reports increasing iron concentrations in rivers draining into the Baltic Sea. Given the decisive role of iron to the structure and biogeochemical function of aquatic ecosystems, this trend is likely one with far reaching consequences to the receiving system. What those consequences may be depends on the fate of the iron in estuarine mixing. We here assess the stability of riverine iron by mixing water from seven boreal rivers with artificial sea salts....

Data from: A quantitative review of MHC-based mating preference: the role of diversity and dissimilarity

T. Kamiya, K. O'Dwyer, H. Westerdahl, A. Senior & S. Nakagawa
Sexual selection hypotheses stipulate that the major histocompatibility complex genes (MHC) constitute a key molecular underpinning for mate choice in vertebrates. The last four decades saw growing empirical literature on the role of MHC diversity and dissimilarity in mate choice for a wide range of vertebrate animals, but with mixed support for its significance in natural populations. Using formal phylogenetic meta-analysis and meta-regression techniques, we quantitatively review the existing literature on MHC-dependent mating preferences in...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    16

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    16

Affiliations

  • Lund University
    16
  • University of Helsinki
    2
  • Spanish Institute of Oceanography
    1
  • University of Cologne
    1
  • University of Queensland
    1
  • University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover
    1
  • University of Otago
    1
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    1
  • Institute of Marine Science
    1
  • University of Costa Rica
    1