35 Works

Data from: Above and belowground responses of four tundra plant functional types to deep soil heating and surface soil fertilization

Peng Wang, Juul Limpens, Liesje Mommer, Jasper Van Ruijven, Ake L. Nauta, Frank Berendse, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub, Daan Blok, Trofim C. Maximov, Monique M. P. D. Heijmans & Monique M.P.D. Heijmans
1.Climate warming is faster in the Arctic than the global average. Nutrient availability in the tundra soil is expected to increase by climate warming through 1) accelerated nutrient mobilization in the surface soil layers, and 2) increased thawing depths during the growing season which increases accessibility of nutrients in the deeper soil layers. Both processes may initiate shifts in tundra vegetation composition. It is important to understand the effects of these two processes on tundra...

Data from: Loss of genetic diversity and increased embryonic mortality in non-native lizard populations

Sozos N. Michaelides, Geoffrey M. While, Natalia Zajac, Fabien Aubret, Brittny Calsbeek, Roberto Sacchi, Marco A. L. Zuffi & Tobias Uller
Many populations are small and isolated with limited genetic variation and high risk of mating with close relatives. Inbreeding depression is suspected to contribute to extinction of wild populations, but the historical and demographic factors that contribute to reduced population viability are often difficult to tease apart. Replicated introduction events in non-native species can offer insights into this problem because they allow us to study how genetic variation and inbreeding depression are affected by demographic...

Data from: Habitat structure influences parent-offspring association in a social lizard

Thomas Botterill-James, Ben Halliwell, Emily Cooper-Scott, Tobias Uller, Erik Wapstra & Geoffrey M. While
Parental care emerges as a result of an increase in the extent of interaction between parents and their offspring. These interactions can provide the foundation for the evolution of a range of complex parental behaviors. Therefore, fundamental to understanding the evolution of parental care is an understanding of the factors that promote this initial increase in parent-offspring association. Here, we used large outdoor enclosures to test how the spatial structure of high-quality habitat affects the...

Data from: How ants, birds and bats affect crop yield along shade gradients in tropical cacao agroforestry

Pierre Gras, Teja Tscharntke, Bea Maas, Aiyen Tjoa, Awal Hafsah & Yann Clough
Tropical agroforests are diverse systems where several predator groups shape animal communities and plant–arthropod interactions. Ants, birds and bats in particular can reduce herbivore numbers and thereby increase crop yield. However, the relative importance of these groups, whether they interact, and how this interaction is affected by management and landscape context, is poorly understood. We jointly manipulated access of ants, birds and bats in Indonesian smallholder cacao agroforestry across gradients of shade and distance to...

Data from: A heterogeneous landscape does not guarantee high crop pollination

Ulrika Samnegård, Peter A. Hambäck, Debissa Lemessa, Sileshi Nemomissa & Kristoffer Hylander
The expansion of pollinator-dependent crops, especially in the developing world, together with reports of worldwide pollinator declines, raises concern of possible yield gaps. Farmers directly reliant on pollination services for food supply often live in regions where our knowledge of pollination services is poor. In a manipulative experiment replicated at 23 sites across an Ethiopian agricultural landscape, we found poor pollination services and severe pollen limitation in a common oil crop. With supplementary pollination, the...

Data from: What you need is what you eat? Prey selection by the bat Myotis daubentonii

Eero J. Vesterinen, Lasse Ruokolainen, Niklas Wahlberg, Carlos Peña, Tomas Roslin, Veronika N. Laine, Ville Vasko, Ilari E. Sääksjärvi, Kai Norrdahl & Thomas M. Lilley
Optimal foraging theory predicts that predators are selective when faced with abundant prey, but become less picky when prey gets sparse. Insectivorous bats in temperate regions are faced with the challenge of building up fat reserves vital for hibernation during a period of decreasing arthropod abundances. According to optimal foraging theory, prehibernating bats should adopt a less selective feeding behaviour – yet empirical studies have revealed many apparently generalized species to be composed of specialist...

Data from: Finding the gap: A brightness-based strategy for guidance in cluttered environments

Emily Baird & Marie Dacke
The ability to move safely between obstacles is critical for animals that fly rapidly through cluttered environments but surprisingly little is known about how they achieve this. Do they reactively avoid obstacles or do they instead fly towards the gaps between them? If they aim towards gaps, what information do they use to detect and fly through them? Here, we aim to answer these questions by presenting orchid bees with different apertures. When negotiating gaps,...

Data from: A rare study from the wintering grounds provides insight into the costs of malaria infection for migratory birds

Marjorie C. Sorensen, Muhammad Asghar, Staffan Bensch, Graham D. Fairhurst, Susanne Jenni-Eiermann & Claire N. Spottiswoode
Malaria parasites can have strong effects on the population dynamics and evolution of migratory bird species. In many species, parasite transmission occurs on the wintering grounds, but studies to determine the consequences of infection have taken place during the breeding season, when malaria parasites circulate at chronic levels. We examined the predictors of malarial infections for great reed warblers during the northern winter in Africa, where active parasite transmission is thought to occur and naïve...

Data from: Gene expression under thermal stress varies across a geographic range expansion front

Lesley Lancaster, Rachael Dudaniec, Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Erik Svensson, Bengt Hansson, Lesley T. Lancaster, Rachael Y. Dudaniec & Erik I. Svensson
Many ectothermic species are currently expanding their distributions polewards due to anthropogenic global warming. Molecular genetic mechanisms facilitating range expansion under these conditions are largely unknown, but understanding these could help mitigate expanding pests and disease vectors, or help explain why some species fail to track changing climates. Here, using RNA-seq data, we examine genome-wide changes in gene expression under heat and cold stress in the range-expanding damselfly Ischnura elegans in northern Europe. We find...

Data from: Bridge under troubled water: turbulence and niche partitioning in fish foraging

Zeynep Pekcan-Hekim, Noora Hellén, Laura Härkönen, Per Anders Nilsson, Leena Nurminen & Jukka Horppila
The coexistence of competing species relies on niche partitioning. Competitive exclusion is likely inevitable at high niche overlap, but such divide between competitors may be bridged if environmental circumstances displace competitor niches to enhance partitioning. Foraging-niche dimension can be influenced by environmental characteristics, and if competitors react differently to such conditions, coexistence can be facilitated. We here experimentally approach the partitioning effects of environmental conditions by evaluating the influence of water turbulence on foraging-niche responses...

Data from: Individual consistency of long-distance migration in a songbird: significant repeatability of autumn route, stopovers and wintering sites but not in timing of migration

Dennis Hasselquist, Teresa Montràs-Janer, Maja Tarka & Bengt Hansson
Through new tracking techniques, data on timing and routes of migration in long-distance migrant birds are accumulating. However, studies of the consistency of migration of the same individuals between years are still rare in small-sized passerine birds. This type of information is important to understand decisions and migration abilities at the individual level, but also for life history theory, for understanding carry over effects between different annual cycle stages and for conservation. We analysed individual...

Data from: Variation in laying date in relation to spring temperature in three species of tits (Paridae) and pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca in southernmost Sweden

Hans Källander, Dennis Hasselquist, Anders Hedenström, Andreas Nord, Henrik G. Smith & Jan-Åke Nilsson
This study documents the advancement of laying dates in three species of tits (Paridae) in southernmost Sweden during recent decades, and the absence of a similar response in the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca. It is based on several different nestbox studies; the oldest one starting in 1969. During 1969 to 2012, mean spring temperatures in the study area increased by between 0.06 and 0.08°C per year, depending on the period considered. Great tits Parus major,...

Data from: Antagonistic natural and sexual selection on wing shape in a scrambling damselfly

David Outomuro, Linus Söderquist, Viktor Nilsson-Örtman, María Cortázar-Chinarro, Cecilia Lundgren & Frank Johansson
Wings are a key trait underlying the evolutionary success of birds, bats, and insects. For over a century, researchers have studied the form and function of wings to understand the determinants of flight performance. However, to understand the evolution of flight, we must comprehend not only how morphology affects performance, but also how morphology and performance affect fitness. Natural and sexual selection can either reinforce or oppose each other, but their role in flight evolution...

Data from: Experimental evidence that honeybees depress wild insect densities in a flowering crop

Sandra A.M. Lindström, Lina Herbertsson, , Riccardo Bommarco & Henrik G. Smith
While addition of managed honeybees (Apis mellifera) improves pollination of many entomophilous crops, it is unknown if it simultaneously suppresses the densities of wild insects through competition. To investigate this, we added 624 honeybee hives to 23 fields of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) over 2 years and made sure that the areas around 21 other fields were free from honeybee hives. We demonstrate that honeybee addition depresses the densities of wild insects (bumblebees, solitary...

Data from: Linking intra- and interspecific assortative mating: consequences for asymmetric sexual isolation

Erik I. Svensson, Anna Nordén, John T. Waller & Anna Runemark
Assortative mating is of interest because of its role in speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. However, we know little about how within-species assortment is related to interspecific sexual isolation. Most previous studies of assortative mating have focused on a single trait in males and females, rather than utilizing multivariate trait information. Here we investigate how intraspecific assortative mating relates to sexual isolation in two sympatric and congeneric damselfly species (genus Calopteryx). We connect...

Data from: Effects of protein malnutrition on tolerance to helminth infection

Dagmar Clough, Olena Prykhodko & Lars Råberg
Infection tolerance is the ability of a host to limit the health effects of a given parasite load. A few recent studies have demonstrated genetic variation for tolerance, but little is known about how environmental factors affect tolerance. Here, we used the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in laboratory mice to test for effects of protein malnutrition on tolerance. We performed an experiment where two different mouse strains (CBA and BALB/c) were fed either adequate-protein food...

Data from: Mass-flowering crops dilute pollinator abundance in agricultural landscapes across Europe

Andrea Holzschuh, Matteo Dainese, Juan P. González-Varo, Sonja Mudri-Stojnić, Verena Riedinger, , Jeroen Scheper, Jennifer B. Wickens, Victoria J. Wickens, Riccardo Bommarco, David Kleijn, Simon G. Potts, Stuart P.M. Roberts, Henrik G. Smith, Montserrat Vilà, Ante Vujić, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter & Stuart P. M. Roberts
Mass-flowering crops (MFCs) are increasingly cultivated and might influence pollinator communities in MFC fields and nearby semi-natural habitats (SNHs). Across six European regions and 2 years, we assessed how landscape-scale cover of MFCs affected pollinator densities in 408 MFC fields and adjacent SNHs. In MFC fields, densities of bumblebees, solitary bees, managed honeybees and hoverflies were negatively related to the cover of MFCs in the landscape. In SNHs, densities of bumblebees declined with increasing cover...

Data from: MHC-I provides both quantitative resistance and susceptibility to blood parasites in blue tits in the wild

Juan Rivero-De Aguilar, Helena Westerdahl, Josue Martínez-De La Puente, Gustavo Tomas, Javier Martínez & Santiago Merino
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are central for the adaptive immune response against parasites. Here, we investigated potential associations among MHC-I alleles and blood parasite infections in a natural breeding population of a passerine bird, the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, in central Spain. We screened both infection status (presence/absence of infection) and infection intensity to the pathogenic blood parasites Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon. Three MHC-I alleles (UA104, UA108 and UA117) were associated with higher or lower...

Data from: The evolution of highly variable immunity genes across a passerine bird radiation.

Emily O'Connor, Maria Strandh, Dennis Hasselquist, Jan-Åke Nilsson & Helena Westerdahl
To survive, individuals must be able to recognize and eliminate pathogens. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play an essential role in this process in vertebrates as their diversity affects the repertoire of pathogens that can be recognized by the immune system. Emerging evidence suggests that birds within the parvorder Passerida possess an exceptionally high number of MHC genes. However, this has yet to be directly investigated using a consistent framework, and the...

Data from: Intraguild predation leads to cascading effects on habitat choice, behaviour and reproductive performance

Anna-Katharina Mueller, Nayden Chakarov, Hanna Heseker & Oliver Krüger
Intraguild predation (IGP) is a commonly recognized mechanism influencing the community structure of predators, but the complex interactions are notoriously difficult to disentangle. The mesopredator suppression hypothesis predicts that a superpredator may either simultaneously repress two mesopredators, restrain the dominant one and thereby release the subdominant mesopredator, or elicit different responses by both mesopredators. We show the outcome arising from such conditions in a three-level predator assemblage (Eurasian eagle owl Bubo bubo L., northern goshawk...

Data from: Differences in endophyte communities of introduced trees depend on the phylogenetic relatedness of the receiving forest

Michael J. Gundale, Juan P. Almeida, Håkan Wallander, David A. Wardle, Paul Kardol, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson Hegethorn, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Duane A. Peltzer, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Bill Mason, Nicholas Rosenstock & Marie-Charlotte Nilsson
Plant species sometimes perform extraordinarily well when introduced to new environments, through achieving higher growth rates, individual biomasses or higher densities in their receiving communities compared to their native range communities. One hypothesis proposed to explain enhanced performance in species’ new environments is that their soil microbial communities may be different and provide greater benefit than microbial communities encountered in species’ native environments. However, detailed descriptions of soil biota associated with species in both their...

Data from: Long-term consequences of high incubation temperature in a wild bird population

Andreas Nord & Jan-Åke Nilsson
Because incubation by birds is energetically costly, parents frequently trade off investment in incubation against self-maintenance. This can be manifested by a reduction in incubation temperature, which comes at high somatic costs for nestlings. The extent to which these costs constrain fitness is poorly understood. We incubated wild blue tit clutches at three biologically relevant temperatures and subsequently recorded winter survival and survival to the breeding season. Fledglings from the coldest treatment (35.0°C) survived less...

Data from: Comparative system identification of flower tracking performance in three hawkmoth species reveals adaptations for dim light vision

Anna L. Stöckl, Klara Kihlström, Steven Chandler & Simon Sponberg
Flight control in insects is heavily dependent on vision. Thus, in dim light, the decreased reliability of visual signal detection also prompts consequences for insect flight. We have an emerging understanding of the neural mechanisms that different species employ to adapt the visual system to low light. However, much less explored are comparative analyses of how low light affects the flight behaviour of insect species, and the corresponding links between physiological adaptations and behaviour. We...

Data from: Spatial variation in climate mediates gene flow across an island archipelago

Michael Latter Logan, M. C. Duryea, Orsolya R. Molnar, Benji J. Kessler & Ryan Calsbeek
High levels of gene flow among partially isolated populations can overwhelm selection and limit local adaptation. This process, known as “gene swamping,” can homogenize genetic diversity among populations and reduce the capacity of a species to withstand rapid environmental change. We studied brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) distributed across seven islands in The Bahamas. We used microsatellite markers to estimate gene flow among islands and then examined the correlation between thermal performance and island temperature....

Data from: Brood size constrains the development of endothermy in blue tits

Fredrik Andreasson, Andreas Nord & Jan-Åke Nilsson
Altricial birds are unable to maintain body temperature when exposed to low ambient temperatures during the first days after hatching. Thermoregulatory capacity begins to form as postnatal development progresses, and eventually nestlings become homeothermic. Several factors may influence this development at both the level of the individual and the level of the whole brood, but to our knowledge no studies have focused on the effect of brood size per se on the development of endothermy...

Registration Year

  • 2016

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Lund University
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Tasmania
  • University of Oxford
  • University of Oslo
  • Swiss Ornithological Institute
  • University of Helsinki
  • Dartmouth College
  • Wageningen University & Research
  • Karolinska Institute