54 Works

Data from: Evolution of antigenic diversity in the tick-transmitted bacterium Borrelia afzelii: a role for host specialization?

Lars Råberg, Åsa Hagström, Martin Andersson, Simona Bartkova, Kristin Scherman, Maria Strandh & Barbara Tschirren
Antigenic diversity in pathogenic microbes can be a result of at least three different processes: diversifying selection by acquired immunity, host-pathogen coevolution, and/or host specialization. Here, we investigate if host specialization drives diversity at ospC (which encodes an immunodominant surface protein) in the tick-transmitted bacterium Borrelia afzelii. We determined prevalence and infection intensity of ospC strains in naturally infected wild mammals (rodents and shrews) by 454 amplicon sequencing in combination with qPCR. Neither prevalence nor...

Data from: Mass extinctions over the last 500 myr: an astronomical cause?

Anatoly D. Erlykin, David A. T. Harper, Terry Sloan & Arnold W. Wolfendale
A Fourier analysis of the magnitudes and timing of the Phanerozoic mass extinctions (MEs) demonstrates that many of the periodicities claimed in other analyses are not statistically significant. Moreover we show that the periodicities associated with oscillations of the Solar System about the galactic plane are too irregular to give narrow peaks in the Fourier periodograms. This leads us to conclude that, apart from possibly a small number of major events, astronomical causes for MEs...

Data from: The use of the nest for parental roosting and thermal consequences of the nest for nestlings and parents

Jan-Åke Nilsson & Andreas Nord
At temperate latitudes, altricial birds and their nestlings need to handle night temperatures well below thermoneutrality during the breeding season. Thus, energy costs of thermoregulation might constrain nestling growth, and low nocturnal temperatures might require resources that parents could otherwise have invested into nestlings during the day. To manipulate parental work rate, we performed brood size manipulations in breeding marsh tits (Poecile palustris). Nest box temperatures were always well above ambient temperature and increased with...

Data from: Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection

Adam Siepielski, Michael B. Morrissey, Mathieu Buoro, Stephanie M. Carlson, Christina M. Caruso, Sonya M. Clegg, Tim Coulson, Joseph DiBattista, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, Clinton D. Francis, Joe Hereford, Joel G. Kingsolver, Kate E. Augustine, Loeske E. B. Kruuk, Ryan A. Martin, Ben C. Sheldon, Nina Sletvold, Erik I. Svensson, Michael J. Wade & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation—natural selection—are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation. By...

Data from: Expression and phylogenetic analyses reveal paralogous lineages of putatively classical and non-classical MHC-I genes in three sparrow species (Passer)

Anna Drews, Maria Strandh, Lars Råberg & Helena Westerdahl
Background: The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a central role in immunity and has been given considerable attention by evolutionary ecologists due to its associations with fitness-related traits. Songbirds have unusually high numbers of MHC class I (MHC-I) genes, but it is not known whether all are expressed and equally important for immune function. Classical MHC-I genes are highly expressed, polymorphic and present peptides to T-cells whereas non-classical MHC-I genes have lower expression, are more...

Data from: Stable, metastable and unstable cellulose solutions

Marta Gubitosi, Pegah Nosrati, Mona Koder Hamid, Stefan Kuczera, Manja A. Behrens, Eric G. Johansson & Ulf Olsson
We have characterized the dissolution state of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) in aqueous tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, TBAH(aq), at different concentrations of TBAH, by means of turbidity and small-angle X-ray scattering. The solubility of cellulose increases with increasing TBAH concentration, which is consistent with solubilization driven by neutralization. When comparing the two polymorphs, the solubility of cellulose I is higher than that of cellulose II. This has the consequence that the dissolution of MCC (cellulose I) may create...

Data from: On the missing link in ecology: improving communication between modellers and experimentalists

Jan Heuschele, Mikael T. Ekvall, Patrizio Mariani & Christian Lindemann
Collaboration between modellers and experimentalists is essential in ecological research, however, different obstacles linking both camps often hinder scientific progress. In this commentary, we discuss several issues of the current state of affairs in this research loop. Backed by an online survey amongst fellow ecologists, modellers and experimentalists alike, we identify two major areas that need to be mended. Firstly, differences in language and jargon lead to a lack of exchange of ideas and to...

Data from: Plant-pollinator networks in semi-natural grasslands are resistant to the loss of pollinators during blooming of mass-flowering crops

Ainhoa Magrach, Anna Holzschuh, Ignasi Bartomeus, Verena Riedinger, Stuart P.M. Roberts, , Ante Vujic, Jennifer B. Wickens, Victoria J. Wickens, Riccardo Bommarco, Juan P. Gonzalez-Varo, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Montserrat Vilà, Andrea Holzschuh & Stuart P. M. Roberts
Mass-flowering crops lead to spatial redistributions of pollinators and to transient shortages within nearby semi-natural grasslands, but the impacts on plant-pollinator interactions remain largely unexplored. Here, we characterised which pollinator species are attracted by oilseed rape and how this affected the structure of plant-pollinator networks in nearby grasslands. We surveyed 177 networks from three countries (Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom) in 24 landscapes with high crop cover, and compared them to 24 landscapes with low...

Data from: Mutualistic mimicry enhances species diversification through spatial segregation and extension of the ecological niche space

Thomas G. Aubier, Marianne Elias, Violaine Llaurens & Nicolas Chazot
Species richness varies among clades, yet the drivers of diversification creating this variation remain poorly understood. While abiotic factors likely drive some of the variation in species richness, ecological interactions may also contribute. Here, we examine one class of potential contributors to species richness variation that is particularly poorly understood: mutualistic interactions. We aim to elucidate large-scale patterns of diversification mediated by mutualistic interactions using a spatially-explicit population-based model. We focus on mutualistic Müllerian mimicry...

Data from: Do group dynamics affect colour morph clines during a range shift?

Lesley T. Lancaster, Rachael Y. Dudaniec, Bengt Hansson & Erik I. Svensson
Species exhibiting colour-polymorphism are thought to have an ecological advantage at the landscape scale, because spatial segregation of alternatively-adapted ecotypes into diverse habitats can increase the total species’ niche breadth and thus confer greater geographic range size. However, morph frequencies are also influenced by intra-populational processes such as frequency- or density-dependent social interactions. To identify how social feedback may affect clinal variation in morph frequencies, we investigated reciprocal interactions between morph-specific thermal tolerance, local climatic...

Data from: The interaction between predation risk and food ration on behavior and morphology of Eurasian perch

Richard Svanback, Yinghua Zha, Christer Brönmark & Frank Johansson
Both the risk of predation and food level have been shown to affect phenotypic development of organisms. However, these two factors also influence animal behavior that in turn may influence phenotypic development. Hence, it might be difficult to disentangle the behavioral effect from the predator or resource level effects. This is because the presence of predators and high resource levels usually results in a lower activity, which in turn affects energy expenditure that is used...

Data from: Sexually antagonistic evolution caused by male-male competition in the pistil

Åsa Lankinen, Sofia Hydbom & Maria Strandh
While sexual selection and sexual conflict are important evolutionary forces in animals, their significance in plants is uncertain. In hermaphroditic organisms, such as many plants, sexual conflict may occur both between mating partners (inter-locus conflict) and between male and female sex roles within an individual (intra-locus conflict). We performed experimental evolution, involving lines that were crossed with either one or two pollen donors (monogamous or polyandrous lines), in the hermaphroditic plant (Collinsia heterophylla) where early...

Data from: Land-use type and intensity differentially filter traits in above- and belowground arthropod communities

Klaus Birkhofer, Martin M. Gossner, Tim Diekötter, Claudia Drees, Olga Ferlian, Mark Maraun, Stefan Scheu, Wolfgang W. Weisser, Volkmar Wolters, Susanne Wurst, Andrey S. Zaitsev & Henrik G. Smith
1. Along with the global decline of species richness goes a loss of ecological traits. Associated biotic homogenization of animal communities and narrowing of trait diversity threaten ecosystem functioning and human well-being. High management intensity is regarded as an important ecological filter, eliminating species that lack suitable adaptations. Belowground arthropods are assumed to be less sensitive to such effects than aboveground arthropods. 2. Here, we compared the impact of management intensity between (grassland vs. forest)...

Data from: Habitat heterogeneity induces rapid changes in the feeding behaviour of generalist arthropod predators

Karin Staudacher, Oskar Rennstam Rubbmark, Klaus Birkhofer, Gerard Malsher, Daniela Sint, Mattias Jonsson & Michael Traugott
1. The “habitat heterogeneity hypothesis” predicts positive effects of structural complexity on species coexistence. Increasing habitat heterogeneity can change the diversity (number of species, abundances) and the functional roles of communities. The latter, however, is not well understood as species and individuals may respond very differently and dynamically to a changing environment. 2. Here, we experimentally test how habitat heterogeneity affects generalist arthropod predators, including epigaeic spiders, carabid and staphylinid beetles, under natural conditions by...

Data from: Function and flexibility of object exploration in kea and New Caledonian crows

Megan L. Lambert, Martina Schiestl, Raoul Schwing, Alex H. Taylor, Gyula K. Gajdon, Katie E. Slocombe & Amanda M. Seed
A range of nonhuman animals frequently manipulate and explore objects in their environment, which may enable them to learn about physical properties and potentially form more abstract concepts of properties such as weight and rigidity. Whether animals can apply the information learned during their exploration to solve novel problems, however, and whether they actually change their exploratory behaviour to seek functional information about objects have not been fully explored. We allowed kea (Nestor notabilis) and...

Data from: Diversity of cnidarians and cycloneuralians in the Fortunian (early Cambrian) Kuanchuanpu Formation at Zhangjiagou, South China

Tiequan Shao, Hanhua Tang, Yunhuan Liu, Dieter Waloszek, Andreas Maas & Huaqiao Zhang
The latest discovery of microfossils from lower Cambrian (Fortunian Stage) Zhangjiagou Lagerstätte in South China are presented. This lagerstätte is rich in exceptionally preserved microfossils, including embryos of Olivooides multisulcatus, Olivooides mirabilis, and Pseudooides prima, hatched stages of O. multisulcatus, O. mirabilis, Hexaconularia sichuanensis and Quadrapyrgites quadratacris, and cycloneuralians represented by Eopriapulites sphinx and a new form. The largest known fragment of O. mirabilis implies that its adults length can be more than 9.0 mm...

Data from: Experimentally increased nest temperature affects body temperature, growth and apparent survival in blue tit nestlings

Fredrik Andreasson, Andreas Nord & Jan-Åke Nilsson
The thermal environment experienced by birds during early postembryonic development may be an important factor shaping growth and survival. However, few studies have directly manipulated nest temperature (Tn) during the nestling phase, and none have measured the consequences of experimental heat stress on nestlings’ body temperature (Tb). It is therefore not known to what extent any fitness consequences of development in a thermally challenging environment arise as a direct, or indirect, effect of heat stress....

Data from: A hidden cost of migration? Innate immune function versus antioxidant defense

Cas Eikenaar, Caroline Isaksson & Arne Hegemann
Migration is energetically demanding and physiologically challenging. Migrating birds, for example, need to boost their antioxidant defenses to defeat the pro-oxidants produced during high energetic activity. The enhanced antioxidant defense possibly withdraws limited resources (e.g. energy or micronutrients) from other physiological functions, such as immune defense. Such a trade-off might not occur outside the migration seasons or in resident individuals. Here, we investigate if there is a negative relationship between innate immune function and antioxidant...

Data from: Genetic differences between willow warbler migratory phenotypes are few and cluster in large haplotype blocks

Max Lundberg, Miriam Liedvogel, Keith Larson, Hanna Sigeman, Mats Grahn, Anthony Wright, Susanne Åkesson & Staffan Bensch
It is well established that differences in migratory behavior between populations of songbirds have a genetic basis but the actual genes underlying these traits remains largely unknown. In an attempt to identify such candidate genes we de novo assembled the genome of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus, and used whole-genome resequencing and a SNP array to associate genomic variation with migratory phenotypes across two migratory divides around the Baltic Sea that separate SW migrating P....

Data from: Social and spatial effects on genetic variation between foraging flocks in a wild bird population

Reinder Radersma, Colin J. Garroway, Anna W. Santure, Isabelle De Cauwer, Damien R. Farine, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Social interactions are rarely random. In some instances animals exhibit homophily or heterophily, the tendency to interact with similar or dissimilar conspecifics respectively. Genetic homophily and heterophily influence the evolutionary dynamics of populations, because they potentially affect sexual and social selection. Here we investigate the link between social interactions and allele frequencies in foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) over three consecutive years. We constructed co-occurrence networks which explicitly described the splitting and merging...

Data from: Seed polyphenols in a diverse tropical plant community

Sofia Gripenberg, Jadranka Rota, Jorma Kim, S. Joseph Wright, Nancy C. Garwood, Evan C. Fricke, Paul-Camilo Zalamea & Juha-Pekka Salminen
1. Polyphenols are one of the most common groups of secondary metabolites in plants and thought to play a key role in enhancing plant fitness by protecting plants against enemies. Although enemy-inflicted mortality at the seed stage can be an important regulator of plant populations and a key determinant of community structure, few studies have assessed community-level patterns of polyphenol content in seeds. 2. We describe the distribution of the main seed polyphenol groups across...

Data from: Genes of the major histocompatibility complex highlight interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system

Barbara Lukasch, Helena Westerdahl, Maria Strandh, Hans Winkler, Yoshan Moodley, Felix Knauer & Herbert Hoi
Background: A well-functioning immune defence is crucial for fitness, but our knowledge about the immune system and its complex interactions is still limited. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are involved in T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses, but MHC is also highly upregulated during the initial innate immune response. The aim of our study was therefore to determine to what extent the highly polymorphic MHC is involved in interactions of the innate and adaptive immune defence...

Data from: What controls variation in carbon use efficiency among Amazonian tropical forests?

Christopher E. Doughty, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Nicolas Raab, Cecile A. J. Girardin, Filio Farfan-Amezquita, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E. Silva-Espejo, Alejandro Araujo-Murakami, Antonio C. L. Da Costa, Wanderley Rocha, David Galbraith, Patrick Meir, Dan B. Metcalfe, Yadvinder Malhi & Walter Huaraca-Huasco
Why do some forests produce biomass more efficiently than others? Variations in Carbon Use Efficiency (CUE: total Net Primary Production (NPP)/ Gross Primary Production (GPP)) may be due to changes in wood residence time (Biomass/NPPwood), temperature, or soil nutrient status. We tested these hypotheses in 14, one ha plots across Amazonian and Andean forests where we measured most key components of net primary production (NPP: wood, fine roots, and leaves) and autotrophic respiration (Ra; wood,...

Data from: Effects of UVB radiation on grazing of two cladocerans from high-altitude Andean lakes

Carla Eloisa Fernandez & Danny Rejas
Climate change and water extraction may result in increased exposition of the biota to ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) in high-altitude Andean lakes. Although exposition to lethal doses in these lakes is unlikely, sub-lethal UVB doses may have strong impacts in key compartments such as zooplankton. Here, we aimed at determining the effect of sub-lethal UVB doses on filtration rates of two cladoceran species (Daphnia pulicaria and Ceriodaphnia dubia). We firstly estimated the Incipient Limiting Concentration (ILC)...

Data from: The relation between oilseed rape and pollination of later flowering plants varies across plant species and landscape contexts

Lina Herbertsson, & Henrik G. Smith
Increasing cultivation of oilseed rape may have consequences for pollinators and wild plant pollination. By providing pollinating insects with pollen and nectar, oilseed rape benefits short-tongued, generalist insect species. Long-tongued bumble bee species, specialized to other flower types, may instead be negatively affected by increased competition from the generalists (e.g. due to nectar-robbing of long-tubed flowers) after oilseed rape has ceased flowering. We expected that the increased abundance of short-tongued pollinators and reduced abundance of...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    54

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    54

Affiliations

  • Lund University
    54
  • Uppsala University
    6
  • University of Oxford
    6
  • University of Cambridge
    5
  • University of Tasmania
    3
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    3
  • Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
    2
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
    2
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    2
  • Universidad Mayor
    2