30 Works

Data from: Seed dispersal and fine-scale genetic structuring in the asexual Nigritella miniata (Orchidaceae) in the Alps

Mikael Hedrén & Richard Lorenz
Orchids have minute, air-filled seeds and are considered as efficient dispersers and colonizers. Yet, empirical studies show that most seeds fall within the nearest metre from the mother plant in orchids, and that individuals standing close to each other are often closely related. A poor contribution to gene dispersal by seeds may be compensated for by more efficient dispersal by pollen, but in autogamous or agamospermous orchids this component is not available. Here, we used...

Beak morphology predicts apparent survival of crossbills: due to selective survival or selective dispersal?

David Gómez-Blanco, Simone Santoro, Pim Edelaar, Antoni Borrás, Josep Cabrera & Juan Carlos Senar
Dozens of morphologically differentiated populations, subspecies and species of crossbills (genus Loxia) exist. It has been suggested that this divergence is due to variation in the conifer cones that each population specialises upon, requiring a specific beak size to efficiently separate the cone scales. If so, apparent survival should depend on beak size. To test this hypothesis, we undertook multievent capture-recapture modelling for 6,844 individuals monitored during 27 years in a Pyrenean Common crossbill (L....

Data from: Bumblebee visual allometry results in locally improved resolution and globally improved sensitivity

Gavin J. Taylor, Pierre Tichit, Marie D. Schmidt, Andrew J. Bodey, Christoph Rau & Emily Baird
The quality of visual information that is available to an animal is limited by the size of its eyes. Differences in eye size can be observed even between closely related individuals, yet we understand little about how this affects vision. Insects are good models for exploring the effects of size on visual systems because many insect species exhibit size polymorphism. Previous work has been limited by difficulties in determining the 3D structure of eyes. We...

Data from: Competition, seed dispersal, and hunting: what drives germination and seedling survival in an Afrotropical forest?

Ola Olsson, Gabriela Nuñez-Iturri, Henrik G. Smith, Ulf Ottosson & Edu O. Effiom
Disentangling the contributions of different processes that influence plant recruitment, such as competition and seed dispersal, is important given the increased human-mediated changes in tropical forest ecosystems. Previous studies have shown that seedling communities in an Afro-tropical rainforest in Southeastern Nigeria are strongly affected by the loss of important seed dispersing primates, including Cross River gorillas (Gorilla gorilla diehli), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes elioti), and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus). Here we study how germination and survival of...

Repeated sex chromosome evolution in vertebrates supported by expanded avian sex chromosomes

Hanna Sigeman, Bengt Hansson, Suvi Ponnikas, Pallavi Chauhan, Elisa Dierickx & M. De L. Brooke
Sex chromosomes have evolved from the same autosomes multiple times across vertebrates, suggesting that selection for recombination suppression has acted repeatedly and independently on certain genetic backgrounds. Here, we perform comparative genomics of a bird clade (larks and their sister lineage; Alaudidae and Panuridae) where multiple sex chromosome–autosome fusions appear to have formed expanded sex chromosomes. We detected the largest known avian sex chromosome (195.3 Mbp) and show that it originates from fusions between parts...

Data from: Pollination treatment affects fruit set and modifies marketable and storable fruit quality of commercial apples

Ulrika Samnegård, Peter Hambäck & Henrik Smith
Insect-mediated pollination increases yields of many crop species and some evidence suggests that it also influences crop quality. However, the mechanistic linkages between insect-mediated pollination and crop quality are poorly known. In this study, we explored how different pollination treatments affected fruit set, dry matter content (DMC), mineral content and storability of apples. Apple flowers supplementary pollinated with compatible pollen resulted in higher initial fruit set rates, higher fruit DMC and a tendency for lower...

Data from: Resting metabolic rate in migratory and non-migratory geese following range expansion; go south, go low

Götz Eichhorn, Manfred R. Enstipp, Jean-Yves Georges, Dennis Hasselquist & Bart A. Nolet
While many species suffer from human activities, some like geese benefit and may show range expansions. In some cases geese (partially) gave up migration and started breeding at wintering and stopover grounds. Range expansion may be facilitated and accompanied by physiological changes, especially when associated with changes in migratory behaviour. Interspecific comparisons found that migratory tendency is associated with a higher basal or resting metabolic rate (RMR). We compared RMR of individuals belonging to a...

The migration pattern of a monogamous shorebird challenges existing hypotheses explaining the evolution of differential migration

Linus Hedh & Anders Hedenström
Differential migration by sex, where one sex migrates further than the other, occurs in many bird species. How this pattern evolves is however little understood. The first aim of this study was to investigate the extent of differential migration in the common ringed plover Charadrius hiaticula, breeding in southeast Sweden, and test three main hypotheses (the social dominance, body size and arrival time hypothesis) regarding the evolution of differential migration. Geolocators were used to derive...

Data from \"Removal of grazers alters the response of tundra soil carbon to warming and enhanced nitrogen availability\", Ecological Monograps in October 2019

Henni Ylänne, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Maria Väisänen, Minna K Männistö, Saija H. K. Ahonen, Johan Olofsson & Sari Stark
Here we present the data used in the manuscript "Removal of grazers alters the response of tundra soil carbon to warming and enhanced nitrogen availability", Ecological Monograps, Early view in October 2019 by H. Ylänne, E. Kaarlejärvi, M. Väisänen, M. K. Männistö, S. H. K. Ahonen, J. Olofsson & S. Stark. In this paper we studied, how five years of experimental warming and increased soil nitrogen availability interact with both long- and short-term differences in...

Data from: Wind-associated detours promote seasonal migratory connectivity in a flapping flying long-distance avian migrant

Gabriel Norevik, Susanne Akesson, Tom Artois, Natalie Beenaerts, Greg Conway, Brian Cresswell, Ruben Evens, Ian Henderson, Frederic Jiguet & Anders Hedenström
1. It is essential to gain knowledge about the causes and extent of migratory connectivity between stationary periods of migrants to further the understanding of processes affecting populations, and to allow efficient implementation of conservation efforts throughout the annual cycle. Avian migrants likely use optimal routes with respect to mode of locomotion, orientation and migration strategy, influenced by external factors such as wind and topography. In self-powered flapping flying birds any increases in fuel loads...

Data from: The contribution of successional grasslands to the conservation of semi-natural grasslands species – A landscape perspective

Barbara C. Schmid, Oskar Löfgren, Martin T. Sykes, Peter Poschlod, Karin Hall & Honor C. Prentice
These data have been used in the following works: Schmid, B. C., Poschlod, P., & Prentice, H. C. (2017). The contribution of successional grasslands to the conservation of semi-natural grasslands species – A landscape perspective. Biological Conservation, 206, 112-119. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.12.002 Oskar Löfgren, Karin Hall, Barbara C. Schmid, Honor C. Prentice. (in revision: Journal of Vegetation Science). Grasslands ancient and modern: soil nutrients, habitat age and their relation to Ellenberg N Abstract (Schmid et al. 2017)...

Data from: Defence versus defence: are crucian carp trading off immune function against predator-induced morphology?

Jerker Vinterstare, Arne Hegemann, Anders Nilsson, Kaj Hulthén & Christer Brönmark
1. Numerous species adopt inducible defence strategies, i.e. they have phenotypically plastic traits that decrease the risk of capture and consumption by potential predators. The benefits of expressing alternative phenotypes in high- versus low-risk environments are well documented. However, inducible anti-predator traits are also expected to incur costs, as they are not expressed when predators are absent, yet empirical evidence of such costs remains scarce. 2. Virtually all animals in nature are simultaneously under strong...

The implications of different approaches to define AT(N) in Alzheimer's disease

Niklas Mattsson
Objective: To compare different amyloid-β (A), tau (T) and neurodegeneration (N) [AT(N)] variants within the Swedish BioFINDER studies. Methods: A total of490 participants were classified into AT(N) groups. These include 53 cognitively unimpaired (CU) and 48 cognitively impaired (CI) participants (14 mild cognitive impairment [MCI] and 34 AD dementia) from BioFINDER-1 and 389 participants from BioFINDER-2 (245 CU and 144 CI subjects [138 MCI and six AD dementia]).Biomarkers for “A” were CSF Aβ42 and Amyloid-PET...

The Benefits of Help in Cooperative Birds – non-existent or difficult to detect?

Philip Downing, Ashleigh Griffin & Charlie Cornwallis
In birds that breed cooperatively in family groups, adult offspring often delay dispersal to assist the breeding pair in raising their young. Kin selection is thought to play an important role in the evolution of this breeding system. However, evidence supporting the underlying assumption that helpers increase the reproductive success of breeders is inconsistent. In 10/19 species where the effect of helpers on breeder reproductive success has been estimated while controlling for the effects of...

Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe

Emily A. Martin, Matteo Dainese, Yann Clough, András Báldi, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Lorenzo Marini, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Diab Al Hassan, Matthias Albrecht, Georg K. S. Andersson, Josep Asis, Stephanie Aviron, Mario Balzan, Laura Baños-Picón, Ignasi Bartomeus, Peter Batary, Françoise Burel, Berta Caballero-López, Elena D. Concepcion … & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with...

Data from: Tolerance and overcompensation to infection by Phytophthora infestans in the wild perennial climber Solanum dulcamara

Laura Masini, Laura J. Grenville-Briggs, Erik Andreasson, Lars Råberg & Asa Lankinen
Studies of infection by Phytophthora infestans—the causal agent of potato late blight—in wild species can provide novel insights into plant defense responses, and indicate how wild plants might be influenced by recurrent epidemics in agricultural fields. In the present study, our aim was to investigate if different clones of Solanum dulcamara (a relative of potato) collected in the wild differ in resistance and tolerance to infection by a common European isolate of P. infestans. We...

Data from: Early wasp plucks the flower: disparate extant diversity of sawfly superfamilies (Hymenoptera: 'Symphyta') may reflect asynchronous switching to angiosperm hosts

Tommi Nyman, Renske E. Onstein, Daniele Silvestro, Saskia Wutke, Andreas Taeger, Niklas Wahlberg, Stephan Blank & Tobias Malm
The insect order Hymenoptera originated during the Permian nearly 300 million years ago. Ancestrally herbivorous hymenopteran lineages today make up the paraphyletic suborder 'Symphyta,' which encompasses circa 8200 species with very diverse host-plant associations. We used phylogeny-based statistical analyses to explore drivers of diversity dynamics within the 'Symphyta,' with a particular focus on the hypothesis that diversification of herbivorous insects has been driven by the explosive radiation of angiosperms during and after the Cretaceous. Our...

Data from: Comparing thermal performance curves across traits: how consistent are they?

Vanessa Kellermann, Steven L. Chown, Mads Fristrup Schou, Ian Aitkenhead, Charlene Janion-Scheepers, Allannah Clemson, Marina Telonis Scott & Carla M. Sgro
Thermal performance curves (TPCs) are intended to approximate the relationship between temperature and fitness, and are commonly integrated into species distributional models for understanding climate change responses. However, TPCs may vary across traits because selection and environmental sensitivity (plasticity) differ across traits or because the timing and duration of the temperature exposure, here termed time-scale, may alter trait variation. Yet the extent to which TPCs vary temporally and across traits is rarely considered in assessments...

Data from: The Odonate Phenotypic Database, a new open data resource for comparative studies of an old insect order

John T. Waller, Beatriz Willink, Maximilian Tschol & Erik I. Svensson
We present The Odonate Phenotypic Database (OPD): an online data resource of dragonfly and damselfly phenotypes (Insecta: Odonata). Odonata is a relatively small insect order that currently consists of about 6400 species belonging to 32 families. The database consists of a variety of morphological, life-history and behavioral traits, and biogeographical information collected from literature sources. We see taxon-specific phenotypic databases from Odonata and other organismal groups as becoming an increasing valuable resource in comparative studies....

Data from: Apolipoprotein M-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate regulates blood-brain barrier paracellular permeability and transcytosis

Mette Mathiesen Janiurek, Rana Soylu-Kucharz, Christina Christoffersen, Krzysztof Kucharz & Martin Lauritzen
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by the endothelial cells lining cerebral microvessels. Here, we report that the BBB permeability is modified by apolipoprotein M (apoM)-bound sphingosine 1–phosphate (S1P). We used two-photon microscopy to monitor changes in BBB permeability in apoM-deficient mice (apoM-/-), showing significant increases in paracellular BBB permeability to small molecules without structural changes in junctional complexes between endothelial cells. Lack of apoM-bound S1P increased vesicle-mediated transfer of albumin across endothelium of brain...

Vertical transmission of a nematode from female lizards to the brains of their offspring

Nathalie Feiner, Sueli De Souza-Lima, Fátima Jorge, Soraya Naem, Fabien Aubret, Tobias Uller & Steven Nadler
Parasites have evolved a diversity of life styles that exploit the biology of their hosts. Some nematodes that parasitize mammals pass via the placenta or milk from one host to another. Similar cases of vertical transmission have never been reported in avian and non-avian reptiles, suggesting that egg laying may constrain themeans of parasite transmission. However, here we report the first incidence of transovarial transmission of a previously undescribed nematode in an egg-laying amniote, the...

Group formation and the evolutionary pathway to complex sociality in birds

Philip Downing, Ashleigh Griffin & Charlie Cornwallis
Group-living species show a diversity of social organisation, from simple mated pairs to complex communities of inter-dependent individuals performing specialized tasks. The advantages of living in cooperative groups are well understood, but why some species breed in small aggregations while others evolve large, complex groups with clearly divided roles is unclear. We address this problem by reconstructing the evolutionary pathways to cooperative breeding across 4730 bird species. We show that differences in the way groups...

Data from: Exploring the visual world of fossilized and modern fungus gnat eyes (Diptera: Keroplatidae) with X-ray microtomography

Gavin Taylor, Stephen Hall, Johan Gren & Emily Baird
Animal eyes typically possess specialised regions for guiding different behavioural tasks within their specific visual habitat. These specializations, and evolutionary changes to them, can be crucial for understanding an animal’s ecology. Here, we explore how the visual systems of some of the smallest flying insects, fungus gnats, have adapted to different types of forest habitat over time (~30 mya to today). Unravelling how behavioural, environmental and phylogenetic factors influence the evolution of visual specialisations is...

Data from: Non‐breeding flight activity in pallid swifts Apus pallidus

Anders Hedenström, Gabriel Norevik, Giovanni Boano, Arne Andersson, Johan Bäckman & Susanne Akesson
Flight activity recorders have recently confirmed that alpine and common swifts spend the majority of their non‐breeding period on the wing, which may last 6‐10 months. Here we test the hypothesis that the closely related pallid swift, a species with a breeding distribution around the Mediterranean, lead a similar aerial life‐style during its migration and wintering periods. The pallid swift usually lays two clutches in one season and therefore spends more time in the breeding...

Data from: Sexual conflict and intrasexual polymorphism promote assortative mating and halts population differentiation

Lars L. Iversen, Erik I. Svensson, Søren T. Christensen, Johannes Bergsten & Kaj Sand-Jensen
Sexual conflict is thought to be an important evolutionary force in driving phenotypic diversification, population divergence and speciation. However, empirical evidence is inconsistent with the generality of sexual conflict as enhancing population divergence. Here we demonstrate an alternative evolutionary outcome in which sexual conflict plays a conservative role in maintaining male and female polymorphisms locally, rather than promoting population divergence. In diving beetles, female polymorphisms have evolved in response to male mating harassment and sexual...

Registration Year

  • 2019

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Lund University
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Aberdeen
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • University of Costa Rica
  • Stockholm University
  • University of Padua
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
  • University of Jos
  • University of Eastern Finland