67 Works

Detecting purging of inbreeding depression by a slow rate of inbreeding for various traits: the impact of environmental and experimental conditions

Mads Fristrup Schou, Jørgen Bundgaard, Volker Loeschcke &
Inbreeding depression (ID) has since long been recognized as a significant factor in evolutionary biology. It is mainly the consequence of (partially) recessive deleterious mutations maintained by mutation-selection balance in large random mating populations. When population size is reduced, recessive alleles are increasingly found in homozygous condition due to drift and inbreeding and become more prone to selection. Particularly at slow rates of drift and inbreeding, selection will be more effective in purging such alleles,...

Data from: Male and female reproductive fitness costs of an immune response in natural populations

Stephen De Lisle & Daniel Bolnick
Parasites can mediate host fitness both directly, via effects on survival and reproduction, or indirectly by inducing host immune defense with costly side-effects. The evolution of immune defense is determined by a complex interplay of costs and benefits of parasite infection and immune response, all of which may differ for male and female hosts in sexual lineages. Here, we examine fitness costs associated with an inducible immune defense in a fish-cestode host-parasite system. Cestode infection...

Hovering flight in hummingbird hawkmoths: Kinematics, wake dynamics and aerodynamic power

Kajsa Warfvinge, Christoffer Johansson & Anders Hedenström
Hovering insects are divided into two categories: ‘normal’ hoverers that move the wing symmetrically in a horizontal stroke plane, and those with an inclined stroke plane. Normal hoverers have been suggested to support their weight during both downstroke and upstroke, shedding vortex rings each half-stroke. Insects with an inclined stroke plane should, according to theory, produce flight forces only during downstroke, and only generate one set of vortices. The type of hovering is thus linked...

Evolutionary tradeoffs between male secondary sexual traits revealed by a phylogeny of the hyperdiverse tribe Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

Wendy A. Valencia-Montoya, Tiago B. Quental, João Filipe R. Tonini, Gerard Talavera, James D. Crall, Gerardo Lamas, Robert C. Busby, Ana Paula S. Carvalho, Ana B. Morais, Nicolás Oliveira Mega, Helena Piccoli Romanowski, Marjorie A. Liénard, Shayla Salzman, Melissa R. L. Whitaker, Akito Y. Kawahara, David J. Lohman, Robert K. Robbins & Naomi E. Pierce
Male butterflies in the hyperdiverse tribe Eumaeini possess an unusually complex and diverse repertoire of secondary sexual characteristics involved in pheromone production and dissemination. Maintaining multiple sexually selected traits is likely to be metabolically costly, potentially resulting in trade-offs in the evolution of male signals. However, a phylogenetic framework to test hypotheses regarding the evolution and maintenance of male sexual traits in Eumaeini has been lacking. Here, we infer a comprehensive, time-calibrated phylogeny from 379...

Data for: Flying through gaps – How does a bird deal with the problem and what costs are there?

Per Henningsson
Animals flying in the wild often show remarkable abilities to negotiate obstacles and narrow openings in complex environments. Impressive as these abilities are, this must result in costs in terms of impaired flight performance. In this study, I used a budgerigar as model for studying these costs. The bird was filmed in stereo when flying through a wide range of gap widths from well above wingspan down to a mere 1/4 of wingspan. 3D flight...

Data from: Extreme altitudes during diurnal flights in a nocturnal songbird migrant

Sissel Sjöberg, Gintaras Malmiga, Andreas Nord, Arne Andersson, Johan Bäckman, Maja Tarka, Mikkel Willemoes, Kasper Thorup, Bengt Hansson, Thomas Alerstam & Dennis Hasselquist
Billions of nocturnally migrating songbirds fly across oceans and deserts on their annual journeys. Using multisensor dataloggers, we show that great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) regularly prolong their otherwise strictly nocturnal flights into daytime when crossing the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. Intriguingly, when prolonging their flights, they climbed steeply at dawn, from mean 2,394 m asl to reach extreme cruising altitudes (mean 5,367 m asl, max 6,267 m asl) during daytime flights. This...

Fish resist temptation from junk food: State-dependent diet choice in reproductive Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) facing seasonal fluxes of lipid-rich prey

Mikael Van Deurs, Anders Persson & Christian Jorgensen
In ecological sciences, animal diets are often simplified to “resources” or “caloric quantities”. However, in the present study, we investigated the optimal foraging strategy of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) when both macro- and micro-nutritional requirements are accounted for. Proteins cannot be synthesized from fatty acids, so the proteins for gonad development must come from other dietary sources. In addition, micronutrients are required in smaller quantities. For example, for cod, arachidonic acid (ARA) acts as a...

Data from: Variation in predation regime drives sex-specific differences in mosquitofish foraging behaviour

Varpu Pärssinen, Kaj Hulthén, Christer Brönmark, Gustaf Ekelund Ugge, Raphael Gollnisch, Simon David Herzog, Nan Hu, Marcus Lee, Yongcui Sha, Martin Škerlep, Jerker Vinterstare, R. Brian Langerhans, P. Anders Nilsson, Caroline Björnerås, Lars-Anders Hansson, Emma Johansson, Karin Rengefors & Huan Zhang
Predation is a well-studied driver of ecological selection on prey traits, which frequently drives divergence in anti-predator performance across environments that vary in predation risk. However, predation also alters prey mortality regimes, where low predation risk often results in higher prey densities and consequently higher intensities of intraspecific resource competition. In addition, predation risk alters the foraging context, as acquiring food can be risky in the presence of predators. Thus, different predation regimes can drive...

Wild bees and hoverflies respond differently to urbanisation, human population density and urban form

Anna Persson, Johan Ekroos, Peter Olsson & Henrik Smith
While urbanisation contributes to global biodiversity declines, flower-rich urban habitats may provide beneficial pollinator habitats. We investigated the potential of urban residential areas to contribute to pollinator diversity by analysing wild bee and hoverfly species richness and composition of species assemblages of summer-active species, sampled in 53 gardens across urban and rural landscapes of Malmö, the regional capital of Sweden’s southernmost county. Species richness differed between urban and rural gardens, and between four urban residential...

Latitudinal clines in sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism, and sex-specific genetic dispersal during a poleward range expansion

Rachael Dudaniec, Alexander Carey, Erik Svensson, Bengt Hansson, Chuan Ji Yong & Lesley Lancaster
Range expansions can be shaped by sex differences in behaviours and other phenotypic traits affecting dispersal and reproduction. Here, we investigate sex differences in morphology, behaviour and genomic population differentiation along a climate-mediated range expansion in the common bluetail damselfly Ischnura elegans in northern Europe. We sampled 65 sites along a 583 km gradient spanning the I. elegans range in Sweden and quantified latitudinal gradients in site relative abundance, sex ratio and sex-specific shifts in...

Data from: Wintering bird communities are tracking climate change faster than breeding communities

Aleksi Lehikoinen, Åke Lindström, Andrea Santangeli, Päivi Sirkiä, Lluis Brotons, Vincent Devictor, Jaanus Elts, Ruud P. B. Fobben, Henning Heldbjerg, Sergi Herrando, Marc Herremans, Marie-Anne R. Hudson, Frederic Jiguet, Alison Johnston, Romain Lorrilliere, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Nicole L. Michel, Charlotte M. Moshøj, Renno Nellis, Jean-Yves Paquet, Adam C. Smith, Tibor Szep & Chris Van Turnhout
1. Global climate change is driving species’ distributions towards the poles and mountain tops during both non-breeding and breeding seasons, leading to changes in the composition of natural communities. However, the degree of season differences in climate-driven community shifts has not been thoroughly investigated at large spatial scales. 2. We compared the rates of change in the community composition during both winter (non-breeding season) and summer (breeding) and their relation to temperature changes. 3. Based...

Fitness cost from fluctuating ultraviolet radiation in Daphnia magna

Franca Stábile, Christer Brőnmark, Lars-Anders Hansson & Marcus Lee
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important environmental threat for organisms in aquatic systems, but its temporally variable nature makes the understanding of its effects ambiguous. The aim of our study was to assess potential fitness costs associated with fluctuating UVR in the aquatic zooplankter Daphnia magna. We investigated individual survival, reproduction and behaviour when exposed to different UVR treatments. Individuals exposed to fluctuating UVR, resembling natural variations in cloud cover, had the lowest fitness...

Matching habitat choice in Azure sand grasshoppers

Carlos Camacho, Alberto Sanabria-Fernández, Adrián Baños-Villalba & Pim Edelaar
This data set includes measurements of substrate use by ground-perching grasshoppers (Sphingonotus azurescens) in relation to body colour before and after experimental manipulation of their original colour. The data were collected between May and September 2017 in an urban mosaic of dark and pale pavements located in an abandoned housing development area near Dos Hermanas (Seville, Spain; 37.306° N, 5.932° E). The analysis presented in this article is based on 80 adult females and 138...

Data for: Anti-predator phenotype in crucian carp altered by a psychoactive drug

Jerker Vinterstare
Predator-inducible defences constitute a widespread form of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, and such defences have recently been suggested linked with the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system is a target of endocrine disruptors, such as psychoactive pharmaceuticals, which are common aquatic contaminants. We hypothesized that exposure to an antidepressant pollutant, fluoxetine, influences the physiological stress response in our model species, crucian carp, affecting its behavioural and morphological responses to predation threat. We examined short- and long-term effects...

Raw data for: Rhinarium cooling and sensitivity to thermal radiation in domestic dogs

Ronald Kröger, Chelsey Luce & Dennis Kröger
The rhinarium of a dog seems to be cold for sensitivity to weak thermal radiation, such as body heat radiation. However, according to De Cock Buning [1], the temperature of the sensor should not matter for the detection of radiating heat. We investigated the relevance of detector temperature for the amount of transferred thermal energy and the contrast in the thermal image by computer modelling, which showed that the detector has to be colder than...

Scavenging beetles control the temporal response of soil communities to carrion decomposition

Tancredi Caruso, Marco Ilardi, Sheena Cotter, Edith Hammer & Gillian Riddell
1. Carrion is a frequent but overlooked source of nutrients to the soil. The decomposition of carrion is accelerated by invertebrate scavengers but the impact of the scavengers on below-ground biota and its functions is scarcely known. 2. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides on the soil community of a temperate broadleaved forest. We assembled microcosms from soil collected from an oak woodland and treated them...

The integrin-mediated adhesive complex in the ancestor of animals, fungi, and amoebae

Matthew Brown, Seungho Kang, Alexander K. Tice, Courtney W. Stairs, Robert E. Jones, Daniel J.G. Lahr & Matthew W. Brown
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that activate signal transduction pathways upon extracellular matrix binding. The integrin-mediated adhesive complex (IMAC) mediates various cell physiological processes. Although the IMAC was thought to be specific to animals, in the past ten years these complexes were discovered in other lineages of Obazoa, the group containing animals, fungi, and several microbial eukaryotes. Very recently, many genomes and transcriptomes from Amoebozoa (the eukaryotic supergroup sister to Obazoa), other obazoans, and orphan protist...

Trust in researchers and researchers’ statements in large carnivore conservation

Kristin Mathiesen, Magnus Barmoen, Kim Magnus Bærum & Maria Johansson
Human-wildlife interactions occur when humans and wildlife overlap in the same landscapes. Due to the growing human population, the number of interactions will continue to increase, and in some cases, develop further into social conflicts. Conflicts may occur between people disagreeing about wildlife conservation or arguing over which wildlife management measures should be taken. Social conflicts between humans are based on different attitudes, values and land-use aspirations. The success of solving these social conflicts strongly...

Habitat geometry in artificial microstructure affects bacterial and fungal growth, interactions, and substrate degradation 2nd part

Carlos Arellano-Caicedo
Microhabitat conditions determine the magnitude and speed of microbial processes but have been challenging to investigate. In this study we used microfluidic devices to determine the effect of the spatial distortion of a pore space on fungal and bacterial growth, interactions, and substrate degradation. The devices contained channels differing in bending angles and order. Sharper angles reduced fungal and bacterial biomass, especially when angles were repeated in the same direction. Substrate degradation was only decreased...

Population specific annual cycles and migration strategies in a leap-frog migrant

Linus Hedh, Juliana Dänhardt & Anders Hedenström
A common migratory pattern in birds is that northerly breeding populations migrate to more southerly non-breeding sites compared to southerly: a pattern called leap-frog migration. Not only do populations experience differences in migration distances, but also different environmental conditions, which may vary spatiotemporally within their annual cycles, crating distinctive selective pressures and migratory behaviors. Information on how populations schedule their annual cycles according to environmental conditions and by extension, adapt their migratory behaviors is important...

Data for: Larval environmental conditions influence plasticity in resource use by adults in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

Matthew Schrader, Benjamin Jarrett & Rebecca Kilner
Recent studies have shown that intraspecific patterns of phenotypic plasticity can mirror patterns of evolutionary diversification among species. This appears to be the case in Nicrophorus beetles. Within species, body size is positively correlated with the size of carrion used to provision larvae and parental performance. Likewise, among species, variation in body size influences whether species exploit smaller or larger carrion and the extent to which larvae depend on parental care. However, it is unclear...

Data from: Opsins in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods

Lars Hering, Miriam J. Henze, Martin Kohler, Almut Kelber, Christoph Bleidorn, Maren Leschke, Birgit Nickel, Matthias Meyer, Martin Kircher, Paul Sunnucks & Georg Mayer
Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one opsin gene (onychopsin) in each onychophoran species, and our behavioral experiments indicate a maximum sensitivity of onychopsin to blue–green light. In our phylogenetic analyses,...

A highly invasive malaria parasite has expanded its range to non-migratory birds in North America

Angela Theodosopoulos, Kathryn Grabenstein, Staffan Bensch & Scott Taylor
Parasite range expansions are a direct consequence of globalization and are an increasing threat to biodiversity. Here we report a recent range expansion of the SGS1 strain of a highly invasive parasite, Plasmodium relictum, to two non-migratory passerines in North America. Plasmodium relictum is considered one of the world’s most invasive parasites and causes the disease avian malaria: this is the first reported case of SGS1 in wild birds of Western North America and wild...

Data from: Crypsis in the pelagic realm: evidence from exceptionally preserved fossil fish larvae from the Eocene Stolleklint Clay of Denmark

Miriam Heingård, Peter Sjövall, René Sylvestersen, Bo Schultz & Johan Lindgren
Marine deposits of earliest Eocene age in northern Jutland, Denmark, are renowned for yielding diverse teleost assemblages that have proved central for enhancing our understanding of the early evolution of many extant actinopterygian clades. In this study, we investigate diminutive larval fish fossils from the Stolleklint Clay, Ølst Formation, that retain multiple soft-tissue features preserved as distinct dark-coloured stains. In order to examine the elemental and molecular composition of these soft parts, we employed a...

Hybrids between Rubus idaeus and Rubus Sect. Corylifolii and their relation to R. pruinosus and R. rosanthus

Ulf Ryde, Melanie Montes, Mingyue Zhou, Tore Mattsson, Tomas Burén & Mikael Hedrén
We have studied hybrids between Rubus idaeus and various members of R. Sect. Corylifolii, primarily in Sweden. With the help of DNA-ploidy level determinations using flow cytometry and microsatellite DNA analysis of over 500 samples, we show that the material can be divided into four stable apomictic species (belonging to Subsect. Subidaei) and a large number of primary hybrids. Stable species can be recognised by a distribution that is distinct from the Corylifolii parent, a...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Lund University
  • University of Cambridge
  • Uppsala University
  • North Carolina State University
  • Aarhus University
  • University of Oslo
  • University of Connecticut
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Tartu