Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Interhemispheric antiphasing of neotropical precipitation during the past millennium’ (PNAS, Steinman et al. 2022)B.A. Steinman, N. Stansall, M.E. Mann, C.A. Cooke, M.B. Abbott, M. Vuille, B.W. Bird, M.S. Lachniet & A. Fernandez
Uncertainty about the influence of anthropogenic radiative forcing on the position and strength of convective rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) inhibits our ability to project future tropical hydroclimate change in a warmer world. Paleoclimatic and modeling data inform on the timescales and mechanisms of ITCZ variability; yet a comprehensive, long-term perspective remains elusive. Here, we quantify the evolution of neotropical hydroclimate over the pre-industrial past millennium (850 to 1850 CE) using a synthesis...
Environmental factors are common forces driving infectious disease dynamics. We compared inter-annual and seasonal patterns of anthrax infections in two multi-host systems in southern Africa: Etosha National Park, Namibia, and Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using several decades of mortality data from each system, we assessed possible transmission mechanisms behind anthrax dynamics, examining 1) within- and between-species case correlations, and 2) associations between anthrax mortalities and environmental factors, specifically rainfall and the Normalized Difference Vegetation...
Data from: Phenotypic stochasticity prevents lytic bacteriophage population from extinction during bacterial stationary phaseRomain Gallet, Thomas Lenormand & Ing Nang Wang
It is generally thought that the adsorption rate of a bacteriophage correlates positively with fitness, but this view neglects that most phages rely only on exponentially growing bacteria for productive infections. Thus, phages must cope with the environmental stochasticity that is their hosts’ physiological states. If lysogeny is one alternative, it is unclear how strictly lytic phages can survive the host stationary phase. Three scenarios may explain their maintenance: (1) pseudolysogeny, (2) diversified or (3)...
Data from: Reintroducing extirpated herbivores could partially reverse the late Quaternary decline of large and grazing speciesSimon D. Schowanek, Matt Davis, Erick J. Lundgren, Owen Middleton, John Rowan, Rasmus Ø. Pedersen, Daniel Ramp, Christopher J. Sandom & Jens-Christian Svenning
Aim: Reinstating large, native herbivores is an essential component of ecological restoration efforts, as these taxa can be important drivers of ecological processes. However, many herbivore species have gone globally or regionally extinct during the last 50,000 years, leaving simplified herbivore assemblages and trophically downgraded ecosystems. Here, we discuss to what extent trophic rewilding can undo these changes by reinstating native herbivores. Location: Global Time Period: We report functional trait changes from the Late Pleistocene...
Genetic structure and biogeographic history of the Bicknell’s Thrush/ Gray-cheeked Thrush species complexAlyssa FitzGerald, Jason Weir, Joel Ralston, Ian Warkentin, Darroch Whitaker & Jeremy Kirchman
Abstract We examined species limits, admixture, and genetic structure among populations in the Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli)–Gray-cheeked Thrush (C. minimus) species complex to establish the geographic and temporal context of speciation in this group, which is a model system in ecology and a high conservation priority. We obtained mitochondrial ND2 sequences from 186 Bicknell’s Thrushes, 77 Gray-cheeked Thrushes, and 55 individuals of their closest relative, the Veery (C. fuscescens), and genotyped a subset of individuals...
Dogs were present in the Americas prior to the arrival of European colonists, but the origin and fate of these pre-contact dogs are largely unknown. We sequenced 71 mitochondrial and seven nuclear genomes from ancient North American and Siberian dogs spanning ~9,000 years. Our analysis indicates that American dogs were not domesticated from North American wolves. Instead, American dogs form a monophyletic lineage that likely originated in Siberia and dispersed into the Americas alongside people....
Data from: Computer simulations show that Neanderthal facial morphology represents adaptation to cold and high energy demands, but not heavy bitingStephen Wroe, William C.H. Parr, Justin A. Ledogar, Jason Bourke, Samuel P. Evans, Luca Fiorenza, Stefano Benazzi, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Chris Stringer, Ottmar Kullmer, Michael Curry, Todd C. Rae, Todd R. Yokley & William C. H. Parr
Three adaptive hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the distinctive Neanderthal face: 1) an improved ability to accommodate high anterior bite forces, 2) more effective conditioning of cold and/or dry air, and, 3) adaptation to facilitate greater ventilatory demands. We test these hypotheses using three-dimensional models of Neanderthals, modern humans, and a close outgroup (H. heidelbergensis), applying finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is the most comprehensive application of either approach...
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a considerable global health threat affecting wildlife, livestock, and the general public. In this study whole-genome sequence analysis of over 350 B. anthracis isolates was used to establish a new high-resolution global genotyping framework that is both biogeographically informative, and compatible with multiple genomic assays. The data presented in this study shed new light on the diverse global dissemination of this species and indicate that many lineages...
Data from:Radial growth decline of White Spruce (Picea glauca) during hot summers without drought: Preliminary results from a study site south of a boreal forest borderAndrei Lapenis & George Robinson
Climate warming and more frequent droughts threaten the effectiveness of circumpolar boreal forests as carbon sinks. To the immediate south of boreal forests in eastern North American lie regions that still support natural island-like growths of boreal conifers, where warming (expressed by higher temperature maxima) has increased at similar rates but with seasonal precipitation increases rather than the decreases that are commonly seen in other warming regions. Studying tree growth under these circumstances offers the...
University at Albany, State University of New York9
University of Maine2
Natural History Museum2
Memorial University of Newfoundland2
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive1
University of Sussex1
University of Newcastle Australia1
University of Pretoria1
The Ohio State University1