34 Works

Data from: Plant spines deter herbivory by restricting caterpillar movement

Rupesh R. Kariyat, Sean B. Hardison, Consuelo M. De Moraes & Mark C. Mescher
The spines of flowering plants are thought to function primarily in defence against mammalian herbivores; however, we previously reported that feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars on the leaves of horsenettle plants (Solanum carolinense) induces increased development of internode spines on new growth. To determine whether and how spines impact caterpillar feeding, we conducted assays with three Solanaceous plant species that vary in spine numbers (S. carolinense, S. atropurpureum and S. aethiopicum) and also manipulated spine...

Data from: Interactions among symbionts operate across scales to influence parasite epidemics

Fletcher W. Halliday, James Umbanhowar & Charles E. Mitchell
Parasite epidemics may be influenced by interactions among symbionts, which can depend on past events at multiple spatial scales. Within host individuals, interactions can depend on the sequence in which symbionts infect a host, generating priority effects. Across host individuals, interactions can depend on parasite phenology. To test the roles of parasite interactions and phenology in epidemics, we embedded multiple cohorts of sentinel plants, grown from seeds with and without a vertically transmitted symbiont, into...

Data from: A multivariate test of disease risk reveals conditions leading to disease amplification

Fletcher W. Halliday, Robert W. Heckman, Peter A. Wilfhart, Charles E. Mitchell & Peter A. Wilfahrt
Theory predicts that increasing biodiversity will dilute the risk of infectious diseases under certain conditions and will amplify disease risk under others. Yet, few empirical studies demonstrate amplification. This contrast may occur because few studies have considered the multivariate nature of disease risk, which includes richness and abundance of parasites with different transmission modes. By combining a multivariate statistical model developed for biodiversity–ecosystem–multifunctionality with an extensive field manipulation of host (plant) richness, composition and resource...

Data from: High throughput functional genomics identifies modulators of TCE metabolite genotoxicity and candidate susceptibility genes

Vanessa Y. De La Rosa, Jonathan Asfaha, Michael Fasullo, Alex Loguinov, Peng Li, Lee E. Moore, Nathaniel Rothman, Jun Nakamura, James A. Swenberg, Ghislaine Scelo, Luoping Zhang, Martyn T. Smith & Chris D. Vulpe
Trichloroethylene (TCE), an industrial chemical and environmental contaminant, is a human carcinogen. Reactive metabolites are implicated in renal carcinogenesis associated with TCE exposure, yet the toxicity mechanisms of these metabolites and their contribution to cancer and other adverse effects remain unclear. We employed an integrated functional genomics approach that combined functional profiling studies in yeast and avian DT40 cell models to provide new insights into the specific mechanisms contributing to toxicity associated with TCE metabolites....

Data from: Flat and complex temperate reefs provide similar support for fish: evidence for a unimodal species-habitat relationship

Avery B. Paxton, Emily A. Pickering, Alyssa M. Adler, J. Christopher Taylor & Charles H. Peterson
Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat...

Data from: Effects of grain size and niche breadth on species distribution modeling

Thomas Connor, Vanessa Hull, Andres Vina, Ashton Shortridge, Ying Tang, Jindong Zhang, Fang Wang & Jianguo Liu
Scale is a vital component to consider in ecological research, and spatial resolution or grain size is one of its key facets. Species distribution models (SDMs) are prime examples of ecological research in which grain size is an important component. Despite this, SDMs rarely explicitly examine the effects of varying the grain size of the predictors for species with different niche breadths. To investigate the effect of grain size and niche breadth on SDMs, we...

Data from: Using Pool-seq to search for genomic regions affected by hybrid inviability in the copepod T. californicus

Thiago G. Lima & Christopher S. Willett
The formation of reproductive barriers between allopatric populations involves the accumulation of incompatibilities that lead to intrinsic postzygotic isolation. The evolution of these incompatibilities is usually explained by the Dobzhansky-Muller model, where epistatic interactions that arise within the diverging populations, lead to deleterious interactions when they come together in a hybrid genome. These incompatibilities can lead to hybrid inviability, killing individuals with certain genotypic combinations, and causing the population’s allele frequency to deviate from Mendelian...

Data from: Three-dimensional trajectories and network analyses of group behaviour within chimney swift flocks during approaches to the roost

Dennis J. Evangelista, Dylan D. Ray, Sathish K. Raja & Tyson L. Hedrick
Chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica) are highly manoeuvrable birds notable for roosting overnight in chimneys, in groups of hundreds or thousands of birds, before and during their autumn migration. At dusk, birds gather in large numbers from surrounding areas near a roost site. The whole flock then employs an orderly, but dynamic, circling approach pattern before rapidly entering a small aperture en masse. We recorded the three-dimensional trajectories of ≈1 800 individual birds during a 30...

Data from: Inducible versus constitutive social immunity: examining effects of colony infection on glucose oxidase and defensin-1 production in honeybees

Margarita M. López-Uribe, Andrea Fitzgerald & Michael Simone-Finstrom
Honeybees use a variety of defence mechanisms to reduce disease infection and spread throughout the colony. Many of these defences rely on the collective action of multiple individuals to prevent, reduce or eradicate pathogens—often referred to as ‘social immunity’. Glucose oxidase (GOX) and some antimicrobial peptides (e.g. defensin-1 or Def1) are secreted by the hypopharyngeal gland of adult bees on larval food for their antiseptic properties. Because workers secrete these compounds to protect larvae, they...

Data from: The rate of evolution of postmating-prezygotic reproductive isolation in Drosophila

David A Turissini, Joseph A. McGirr, Sonali S. Patel, Jean R. David & Daniel R. Matute
Reproductive isolation (RI) is an intrinsic aspect of species, as described in the Biological Species Concept. For that reason, the identification of the precise traits and mechanisms of RI, and the rates at which they evolve, is crucial to understanding how species originate and persist. Nonetheless, precise measurements of the magnitude of reproductive isolation are rare. Previous work has measured the rates of evolution of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to gene flow, yet no systematic...

Data from: Genome sequences reveal cryptic speciation in the human pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum

Victoria E. Sepúlveda, Roberto Márquez, David A. Turissini, Willam E. Goldman & Daniel R. Matute
Histoplasma capsulatum is a pathogenic fungus that causes life-threatening lung infections. About 500,000 people are exposed to H. capsulatum each year in the United States, and over 60% of the U.S. population has been exposed to the fungus at some point in their life. We performed genome-wide population genetics and phylogenetic analyses with 30 Histoplasma isolates representing four recognized areas where histoplasmosis is endemic and show that the Histoplasma genus is composed of at least...

Data from: A nonrandom subset of olfactory genes is associated with host preference in the fruit fly Drosophila orena

Aaron A. Comeault, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina, David A. Turissini, Patrick J. McLaughlin, Jean R. David & Daniel R. Matute
Specialization onto different host plants has been hypothesized to be a major driver of diversification in insects, and traits controlling olfaction have been shown to play a fundamental role in host preferences. A diverse set of olfactory genes control olfactory traits in insects, and it remains unclear whether specialization onto different hosts is likely to involve a nonrandom subset of these genes. Here, we test the role of olfactory genes in a novel case of...

Data from: The evolution of post-pairing male mate choice

Nan Lyu, Maria R. Servedio, Huw Lloyd & Yue-Hua Sun
An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of post-pairing male choice, specifically that which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such post-pairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more...

Data from: Does dynamic stability govern propulsive force generation in human walking?

Michael G. Browne & Jason R. Franz
Before succumbing to slower speeds, older adults may walk with a diminished push-off to prioritize stability over mobility. However, direct evidence for trade-offs between push-off intensity and balance control in human walking, independent of changes in speed, has remained elusive. As a critical first step, we conducted two experiments to investigate: (i) the independent effects of walking speed and propulsive force (FP) generation on dynamic stability in young adults, and (ii) the extent to which...

Data from: Candidate genes mediating magnetoreception in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Robert R. Fitak, Benjamin R. Wheeler, David A. Ernst, Kenneth J. Lohmann & Sonke Johnsen
Diverse animals use Earth's magnetic field in orientation and navigation, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie magnetoreception. Recent studies have focused on two possibilities: (i) magnetite-based receptors; and (ii) biochemical reactions involving radical pairs. We used RNA sequencing to examine gene expression in the brain of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to a magnetic pulse known to disrupt magnetic orientation behaviour. We identified 181 differentially expressed genes, including increased expression...

Data from: Life stage and species identity affect whether habitat subsidies enhance or simply redistribute consumer biomass

Danielle A. Keller, Rachel K. Gittman, Rachel K. Bouchillon & F. Joel Fodrie
1. Quantifying the response of mobile consumers to changes in habitat availability is essential for determining the degree to which population-level productivity is habitat limited rather than regulated by other, potentially density-independent factors. 2. Over landscape scales, this can be explored by monitoring changes in density and foraging as habitat availability varies. As habitat availability increases, densities may: (1) decrease (unit-area production decreases; weak habitat limitation); (2) remain stable (unit-area production remains stable; habitat limitation);...

Data from: Oyster reefs as carbon sources and sinks

F. Joel Fodrie, Antonio B. Rodriguez, Rachel K. Gittman, Jonathan H. Grabowski, Niels L. Lindquist, Charles H. Peterson, Michael F. Piehler, Justin T. Ridge & Niels. L. Lindquist
Carbon burial is increasingly valued as a service provided by threatened vegetated coastal habitats. Similarly, shellfish reefs contain significant pools of carbon and are globally endangered, yet considerable uncertainty remains regarding shellfish reefs' role as sources (+) or sinks (−) of atmospheric CO2. While CO2 release is a by-product of carbonate shell production (then burial), shellfish also facilitate atmospheric-CO2 drawdown via filtration and rapid biodeposition of carbon-fixing primary producers. We provide a framework to account...

Data from: Genomic analysis of demographic history and ecological niche modeling in the endangered Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis

, Chih-Ming Hung, Pei-Jen Shaner, James Denvir, Megan Justice, Shang-Fang Yang, Terri L. Roth, David A. Oehler, Jun Fan, Swanthana Rekulapally, Donald A. Primerano & Herman L. Mays
The vertebrate extinction rate over the past century is approximately 22–100 times greater than background extinction rates, and large mammals are particularly at risk. Quaternary megafaunal extinctions have been attributed to climate change, overexploitation, or a combination of the two. Rhinoceroses (Family: Rhinocerotidae) have a rich fossil history replete with iconic examples of climate-induced extinctions, but current pressures threaten to eliminate this group entirely. The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is among the most imperiled mammals...

Data from: Precipitation drives global variation in natural selection

Adam Siepielski, Michael B. Morrissey, Mathieu Buoro, Stephanie M. Carlson, Christina M. Caruso, Sonya M. Clegg, Tim Coulson, Joseph DiBattista, Kiyoko M. Gotanda, Clinton D. Francis, Joe Hereford, Joel G. Kingsolver, Kate E. Augustine, Loeske E. B. Kruuk, Ryan A. Martin, Ben C. Sheldon, Nina Sletvold, Erik I. Svensson, Michael J. Wade & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Climate change has the potential to affect the ecology and evolution of every species on Earth. Although the ecological consequences of climate change are increasingly well documented, the effects of climate on the key evolutionary process driving adaptation—natural selection—are largely unknown. We report that aspects of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, along with the North Atlantic Oscillation, predicted variation in selection across plant and animal populations throughout many terrestrial biomes, whereas temperature explained little variation. By...

Data from: Automated integration of trees and traits: a case study using paired fin loss across teleost fishes

Laura M. Jackson, Pasan C. Fernando, Josh S. Hanscom, James P. Balhoff & Paula M. Mabee
Data synthesis required for large-scale macroevolutionary studies is challenging with the current tools available for integration. Using a classic question regarding the frequency of paired fin loss in teleost fishes as a case study, we sought to create automated methods to facilitate the integration of broad-scale trait data with a sizable species-level phylogeny. Similar to the evolutionary pattern previously described for limbs, pelvic and pectoral fin reduction and loss are thought to have occurred independently...

Data from: The use of functional data analysis to evaluate activity in a spontaneous model of degenerative joint disease associated pain in cats

Margaret E. Gruen, Marcela Alfaro-Córdoba, Andrea E. Thomson, Alicia Worth, Ana-Maria Staicu, B. Duncan X. Lascelles & Alicia C. Worth
Accelerometry is used as an objective measure of physical activity in humans and veterinary species. In cats, one important use of accelerometry is in the study of therapeutics designed to treat degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated pain, where it serves as the most widely applied objective outcome measure. These analyses have commonly used summary measures, calculating the mean activity per-minute over days and comparing between treatment periods. While this technique has been effective, information about...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Evolution of a mating preference for a dual-utility trait used in intrasexual competition in genetically monogamous populations

Caitlin A. Stern & Maria R. Servedio
The selection pressures by which mating preferences for ornamental traits can evolve in genetically monogamous mating systems remain understudied. Empirical evidence from several taxa supports the prevalence of dual-utility traits, defined as traits used both as armaments in intersexual selection and ornaments in intrasexual selection, as well as the importance of intrasexual resource competition for the evolution of female ornamentation. Here, we study whether mating preferences for traits used in intrasexual resource competition can evolve...

Data from: Adaptive introgression from distant Caribbean islands contributed to the diversification of a microendemic adaptive radiation of trophic specialist pupfishes

Christopher H. Martin, Emilie H Richards & Emilie J. Richards
Rapid diversification often involves complex histories of gene flow that leave variable and conflicting signatures of evolutionary relatedness across the genome. Identifying the extent and source of variation in these evolutionary relationships can provide insight into the evolutionary mechanisms involved in rapid radiations. Here we compare the discordant evolutionary relationships associated with species phenotypes across 42 whole genomes from a sympatric adaptive radiation of Cyprinodon pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas and several outgroup...

Data from: Transitions between phases of genomic differentiation during stick-insect speciation

Rüdiger Riesch, Moritz Muschick, Dorothea Lindtke, Romain Villoutreix, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Kay Lucek, Elizabeth Hellen, Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Stuart R. Dennis, Clarissa F. De Carvalho, Rebecca J. Safran, Cristina P. Sandoval, Jeff Feder, Regine Gries, Bernard J. Crespi, Gerhard Gries, Zach Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Speciation can involve a transition from a few genetic loci that are resistant to gene flow to genome-wide differentiation. However, only limited data exist concerning this transition and the factors promoting it. Here, we study phases of speciation using data from >100 populations of 11 species of Timema stick insects. Consistent with early phases of genic speciation, adaptive colour-pattern loci reside in localized genetic regions of accentuated differentiation between populations experiencing gene flow. Transitions to...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of North Carolina
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • North Carolina State University
  • Lund University
  • University of Cambridge
  • Harvard University
  • Uppsala University
  • Case Western Reserve University
  • University of South Dakota
  • Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self Organization