Data from: Life stage and species identity affect whether habitat subsidies enhance or simply redistribute consumer biomassDanielle A. Keller, Rachel K. Gittman, Rachel K. Bouchillon & F. Joel Fodrie
1. Quantifying the response of mobile consumers to changes in habitat availability is essential for determining the degree to which population-level productivity is habitat limited rather than regulated by other, potentially density-independent factors. 2. Over landscape scales, this can be explored by monitoring changes in density and foraging as habitat availability varies. As habitat availability increases, densities may: (1) decrease (unit-area production decreases; weak habitat limitation); (2) remain stable (unit-area production remains stable; habitat limitation);...
The relative contributions of phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution to the responses of species to recent and future climate change are poorly understood. We combine recent (1960–2010) climate and phenotypic data with microclimate, heat balance, demographic and evolutionary models to address this issue for a montane butterfly, Colias eriphyle, along an elevational gradient. Our focal phenotype, wing solar absorptivity, responds plastically to developmental (pupal) temperatures and plays a central role in thermoregulatory adaptation in adults....
Batesian mimicry is widespread, but whether and why different species of mimics vary geographically in resemblance to their model is unclear. We characterized geographic variation in mimetic precision among four Batesian mimics of coral snakes. Each mimic occurs where its model is abundant (i.e., in “deep sympatry”), rare (i.e., at the sympatry/allopatry boundary or “edge sympatry”), and absent (i.e., in allopatry). Geographic variation in mimetic precision was qualitatively different among these mimics. In one mimic,...
Data from: Population structure and connectivity of the mountainous star coral, Orbicella faveolata, throughout the wider Caribbean regionJohn P. Rippe, Mikhail V. Matz, Elizabeth A. Green, Mónica Medina, Nida Z. Khawaja, Thanapat Pongwarin, Jorge H. Pinzón C., Karl D. Castillo & Sarah W. Davies
As coral reefs continue to decline worldwide, it becomes ever more necessary to understand the connectivity between coral populations to develop efficient management strategies facilitating survival and adaptation of coral reefs in the future. Orbicella faveolata is one of the most important reef-building corals in the Caribbean and has recently experienced severe population reductions. Here, we utilize a panel of nine microsatellite loci to evaluate the genetic structure of O. faveolata and to infer connectivity...
Data from: Genetic accommodation in the wild: evolution of gene expression plasticity during character displacementNicholas A. Levis, Antonio Serrato-Capuchina & David W. Pfennig
Ecological character displacement is considered crucial in promoting diversification, yet relatively little is known of its underlying mechanisms. We examined whether evolutionary shifts in gene expression plasticity (‘genetic accommodation’) mediate character displacement in spadefoot toads. Where Spea bombifrons and S. multiplicata occur separately in allopatry (the ancestral condition), each produces alternative, diet-induced, larval ecomorphs: omnivores, which eat detritus, and carnivores, which specialize on shrimp. By contrast, where these two species occur together in sympatry (the...
The disruption of coupling between brain areas has been suggested as the mechanism underlying loss of consciousness in anesthesia. This hypothesis has been tested previously by measuring the information transfer between brain areas, and by taking reduced information transfer as a proxy for decoupling. Yet, information transfer is a function of the amount of information available in the information source—such that transfer decreases even for unchanged coupling when less source information is available. Therefore, we...
Hybrids between two species are generally less fit than the parental species, and the mechanisms underlying their fitness reductions can manifest through different traits and at different life history stages. For example, hybrids can have physiological, behavioral, or ecological defects, resulting in postzygotic isolation between their parental species. However, mechanisms of postzygotic isolation other than sterility and inviability have remained largely uninvestigated. Isolated studies have found that other postzygotic defects are not only possible but...
Aim We examine the influence of fluctuating sea levels in a land-bridge archipelago on the apportioning of intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence in the widespread Puerto Rican crested anole (Anolis cristatellus). We compare three alternative scenarios for genetic diversification in an archipelagic species that contrast the relative influences of periodic isolation versus island connectedness driven by fluctuating sea levels. Our approach combines information from geography and population genetics to assess the influence of island size,...
Data from: Intraspecific adaptive radiation: competition, ecological opportunity, and phenotypic diversification within speciesNicholas A. Levis, Ryan A. Martin, Kerry A. O'Donnell & David W. Pfennig
Intraspecific variation in resource-use traits can have profound ecological and evolutionary implications. Among the most striking examples are resource polymorphisms, where alternative morphs that utilize different resources evolve within a population. An underappreciated aspect of their evolution is that the same conditions that favor resource polymorphism—competition and ecological opportunity—might foster additional rounds of diversification within already existing morphs. We examined these issues in spadefoot toad tadpoles that develop into either a generalist ‘omnivore’ or a...
University of North Carolina34
University of California, Berkeley3
North Carolina State University3
University of Cambridge2
Case Western Reserve University2
University of South Dakota1
Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self Organization1