39 Works

Data from: Morphological novelty emerges from pre-existing phenotypic plasticity

Nicholas A. Levis, Andrew J. Isdaner & David W. Pfennig
Plasticity-first evolution (PFE) posits that novel features arise when selection refines pre-existing phenotypic plasticity into an adaptive phenotype. However, PFE is controversial because few tests have been conducted in natural populations. Here we present evidence that PFE fostered the origin of an evolutionary novelty that allowed certain amphibians to invade a new niche—a distinctive carnivore morph. We compared morphology, gene expression and growth of three species of spadefoot toad tadpoles when reared on alternative diets:...

Data from: Don’t throw out the sympatric speciation with the crater lake water: fine-scale investigation of introgression provides equivocal support for causal role of secondary gene flow in one of the clearest examples of sympatric speciation

Emilie J. Richards, Jelmer W. Poelstra & Christopher H. Martin
Genomic data has revealed complex histories of colonization and repeated gene flow previously unrecognized in some of the most celebrated examples of sympatric speciation and radiation. However, much of the evidence for secondary gene flow into these radiations comes from summary statistics calculated from sparse genomic sampling without knowledge of which specific genomic regions introgressed. This tells us little about how gene flow potentially influenced sympatric diversification. Here we investigated whole genomes of Barombi Mbo...

Data from: Past is prologue: host community assembly and the risk of infectious disease over time

Fletcher W. Halliday, Robert W. Heckman, Peter A. Wilfahrt & Charles E. Mitchell
Infectious disease risk is often influenced by host diversity, but the causes are unresolved. Changes in diversity are associated with changes in community structure, particularly during community assembly; therefore, by incorporating change over time, host community assembly may provide a framework to resolve causation. In turn, community assembly can be driven by many processes, including resource enrichment. To test the hypothesis that community assembly causally links host diversity to future disease, we experimentally manipulated host...

Data from: Genetic divergence and the number of hybridizing species affect the path to homoploid hybrid speciation

Aaron A. Comeault & Daniel R. Matute
Hybridization is often maladaptive, and in some instances has led to the loss of biodiversity. However, hybridization can also promote speciation, such as during homoploid hybrid speciation, thereby generating biodiversity. Despite examples of homoploid hybrid species, the importance of hybridization as a speciation mechanism is still widely debated, and we lack a general understanding of the conditions most likely to generate homoploid hybrid species. Here we show that the level of genetic divergence between hybridizing...

Data from: Gliding for a free lunch: biomechanics of foraging flight in Common Swifts (Apus apus)

Tyson Hedrick, Cecile Pichot & Emmanuel De Margerie
Although the biomechanics of animal flight have been well studied in laboratory apparatus such as wind tunnels for many years, the applicability of these data to natural flight behaviour has been examined in few instances and mostly in the context of long-distance migration. Here we use rotational stereo-videography to record the free-flight trajectories of foraging common swifts. We find that despite their exquisite manoeuvring capabilities, the swifts only rarely performed high-acceleration turns. More surprisingly, we...

Data from: Near absence of differential gene expression in the retina of rainbow trout after exposure to a magnetic pulse: implications for magnetoreception

Robert R. Fitak, Lorian E. Schweikert, Benjamin R. Wheeler, David A. Ernst, Kenneth J. Lohmann & Sonke Johnsen
The ability to perceive Earth’s magnetic field, or magnetoreception, exists in numerous animals. Although the mechanism underlying magnetoreception has not been clearly established in any species, in salmonid fish it is hypothesized to occur by means of crystals of magnetite associated with nervous tissue such as the brain, olfactory organ, or retina. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to a brief magnetic pulse known to disrupt magnetic orientation behavior in several animals....

Data from: Geomagnetic field influences upward movement of young Chinook salmon emerging from nests

Nathan F. Putman, Michelle M. Scanlan, Amanda M. Pollock, Joseph P. O'Neil, Ryan B. Couture, Joseph S. Stoner, Thomas P. Quinn, Kenneth J. Lohmann, David L.G. Noakes & David L. G. Noakes
Organisms use a variety of environmental cues to orient their movements in three-dimensional space. Here, we show that the upward movement of young Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) emerging from gravel nests is influenced by the geomagnetic field. Fish in the ambient geomagnetic field travelled farther upwards through substrate than did fish tested in a field with the vertical component inverted. This suggests that the magnetic field is one of several factors that influences emergence from...

Data from: Systematic revision of Symbiodiniaceae highlights the antiquity and diversity of coral endosymbionts

Todd C. LaJeunesse, John Everett Parkinson, Paul W. Gabrielson, Hae Jin Jeong, James Davis Reimer, Christian R. Voolstra & Scott R. Santos
The advent of molecular data has transformed the science of organizing and studying life on Earth. Genetics-based evidence provides fundamental insights into the diversity, ecology, and origins of many biological systems, including the mutualisms between metazoan hosts and their micro-algal partners. A well-known example is the dinoflagellate endosymbionts (“zooxanthellae”) that power the growth of stony corals and coral reef ecosystems. Once assumed to encompass a single panmictic species, genetic evidence has revealed a divergent and...

Data from: The genomic and ecological context of hybridization affects the probability that symmetrical incompatibilities drive hybrid speciation

Aaron A. Comeault
Despite examples of homoploid hybrid species, theoretical work describing when, where, and how we expect homoploid hybrid speciation to occur remains relatively rare. Here, I explore the probability of homoploid hybrid speciation due to “symmetrical incompatibilities” under different selective and genetic scenarios. Through simulation, I test how genetic architecture and selection acting on traits that do not themselves generate incompatibilities interact to affect the probability that hybrids evolve symmetrical incompatibilities with their parent species. Unsurprisingly,...

Data from: A host immune hormone modifies parasite species interactions and epidemics: insights from a field manipulation.

Fletcher W. Halliday, James Umbanhowar & Charles E. Mitchell
Parasite epidemics can depend on priority effects, and parasite priority effects can result from the host immune response to prior infection. Yet we lack experimental evidence that such immune-mediated priority effects influence epidemics. To address this research gap, we manipulated key host immune hormones, then measured the consequences for within-host parasite interactions, and ultimately parasite epidemics in the field. Specifically, we applied plant immune-signaling hormones to sentinel plants, embedded into a wild host population, and...

Data from: Oyster aquaculture impacts Zostera marina epibiont community composition in Akkeshi-ko estuary, Japan

Carter S. Smith, Minako Ito, Mizuho Namba & Masahiro Nakaoka
Coastal fisheries are in decline worldwide, and aquaculture has become an increasingly popular way to meet seafood demand. While finfish aquaculture can have substantial adverse effects on coastal ecosystems due mostly to necessary feed inputs, bivalves graze on natural phytoplankton and are often considered for their positive ecosystem services. We conducted two independent studies to investigate the effects of long-line Crassostrea gigas oyster aquaculture on Zostera marina seagrass beds and associated epibiont communities in Akkeshi-ko...

Data from: Uncertainty in geographic estimates of performance and fitness

H. Arthur Woods, Joel G. Kingsolver, Samuel B. Fey & David A. Vasseur
1. Thermal performance curves (TPCs) have become key tools for predicting geographic distributions of performance by ectotherms. Such TPC-based predictions, however, may be sensitive to errors arising from diverse sources. 2. We analyzed potential errors that arise from common choices faced by biologists integrating TPCs with climate data by constructing case studies focusing on experimental sets of TPCs and simulating geographic patterns of mean performance. We first analyzed differences in geographic patterns of performance derived...

Data from: Beyond novelty effect: a mixed-methods exploration into the motivation for long-term activity tracker use

Grace Shin, Yuanyuan Feng, Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi & Nicci Gafinowitz
Objectives: Activity trackers hold the promise to support people in managing their health through quantified measurements about their daily physical activities. Monitoring personal health with quantified activity tracker-generated data provides patients with an opportunity to self-manage their health. Many activity tracker user studies have been conducted within short time frames, however, which makes it difficult to discover the impact of the activity tracker’s novelty effect or the reasons for the device’s long-term use. This study...

Data from: Optimizing prevention of HIV mother to child transmission: duration of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression at delivery among pregnant Malawian women

Maganizo B. Chagomerana, William C. Miller, Jennifer H. Tang, Irving F. Hoffman, Bryan C. Mthiko, Jacob Phulusa, Mathias John, Allan Jumbe & Mina C. Hosseinipour
Background: Effective antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy minimizes the risk of vertical HIV transmission. Some women present late in their pregnancy for first antenatal visit; whether these women achieve viral suppression by delivery and how suppression varies with time on ART is unclear. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy for the first time from June 2015 to November 2016. Multivariable Poisson models with robust variance estimators were used...

Data from: Living shorelines enhanced the resilience of saltmarshes to Hurricane Matthew (2016)

Carter S. Smith, Brandon Puckett, Rachel K. Gittman & Charles H. Peterson
Nature-based solutions, such as living shorelines, have the potential to restore critical ecosystems, enhance coastal sustainability, and increase resilience to natural disasters; however, their efficacy during storm events compared to traditional hardened shorelines is largely untested. This is a major impediment to their implementation and promotion to policy-makers and homeowners. To address this knowledge gap, we evaluated rock sill living shorelines as compared to natural marshes and hardened shorelines (i.e. bulkheads) in North Carolina, USA...

Data from: Explosion-generated infrasound recorded on ground and airborne microbarometers at regional distances

Eliot F. Young, Daniel C. Bowman, Jonathan M. Lees, Viliam Klein, Steven J. Arrowsmith & Courtney Ballard
Recent work in deploying infrasound (low frequency sound) sensors on aerostats and free flying balloons has shown them to be viable alternatives to ground stations. However, no study to date has compared the performance of surface and free floating infrasound microbarometers with respect to acoustic events at regional (100s of kilometers) range. The prospect of enhanced detection of aerial explosions at similar ranges, such as those from bolides, has not been investigated either. We examined...

Data from: A convolutional neural network for detecting sea turtles in drone imagery

Patrick C. Gray, Abram B. Fleishman, David J. Klein, Matthew W. McKown, Vanessa S. Bézy, Kenneth J. Lohmann & David W. Johnston
1. Marine megafauna are difficult to observe and count because many species travel widely and spend large amounts of time submerged. As such, management programs seeking to conserve these species are often hampered by limited information about population levels. 2. Unoccupied aircraft systems (UAS, aka drones) provide a potentially useful technique for assessing marine animal populations, but a central challenge lies in analyzing the vast amounts of data generated in the images or video acquired...

Data from: Bioprinted liver provides early insight into the role of Kupffer cells in TGF-β1 and methotrexate-induced fibrogenesis

Leah M. Norona, Deborah G. Nguyen, David A. Gerber, Sharon C. Presnell, Merrie Mosedale & Paul B. Watkins
Hepatic fibrosis develops from a series of complex interactions among resident and recruited cells making it a challenge to replicate using standard in vitro approaches. While studies have demonstrated the importance of macrophages in fibrogenesis, the role of Kupffer cells (KCs) in modulating the initial response remains elusive. Previous work demonstrated utility of 3D bioprinted liver to recapitulate basic fibrogenic features following treatment with fibrosis-associated agents. In the present study, culture conditions were modified to...

Data from: Challenges and solutions for analyzing dual RNA-seq data for non-model host/pathogen systems

Kayleigh R. O'Keeffe & Corbin D. Jones
1. Dual RNA-seq simultaneously profiles the transcriptomes of a host and pathogen during infection and may reveal the mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions. Dual RNA-seq is inherently a mixture of transcripts from at least two species (host and pathogen), so this mixture must be computationally sorted into host and pathogen components. Sorting relies on aligning reads to respective reference genomes, which may be unavailable for both species in non-model host-pathogen pairs. This lack of genomic resources...

Data from: A maladaptive combination of traits contributes to the maintenance of a Drosophila hybrid zone

Brandon S. Cooper, Alisa Sedghifar, W. Thurston Nash, Aaron A. Comeault & Daniel R. Matute
Drosophila teissieri and D. yakuba diverged approximately 3 mya and are thought to share a large, ancestral, African range [1, 2, 3]. These species now co-occur in parts of continental Africa and in west Africa on the island of Bioko [1, 4]. While D. yakuba is a human commensal, D. teissieri seems to be associated with Parinari fruits, restricting its range to forests [4, 5, 6]. Genome data indicate introgression, despite no evidence of contemporary...

Data from: Hypothesis: a plastically-produced phenotype predicts host specialization and can precede subsequent mutations in bacteriophage

Colin S. Maxwell
The role of phenotypic plasticity in the evolution of new traits is controversial due to a lack of direct evidence. Phage host range becomes plastic in the presence of restriction-modification (R-M) systems in their hosts. I modeled the evolution of phage host range in the presence of R-M systems. The model makes two main predictions. The first prediction is that the offspring of the first phage to gain a new methylation pattern by infecting a...

Evaluating the effects of land-use change and future climate change on vulnerability of coastal landscapes to saltwater intrusion

Abinash Bhattachan, Ryan Emanuel, Marcelo Ardon, Emily Bernhardt, Steven Anderson, Matthew Stillwagon, Emily Ury, Todd Bendor & Justin Wright
The exposure of freshwater-dependent coastal ecosystems to saltwater is a present-day impact of climate and land-use changes in many coastal regions, with the potential to harm freshwater and terrestrial biota, alter biogeochemical cycles and reduce agricultural yields. Land-use activities associated with artificial drainage infrastructure (canals, ditches, and drains) could exacerbate saltwater exposure. However, studies assessing the effects of artificial drainage on the vulnerability of coastal landscapes to saltwater exposure are lacking. We examined the extent...

Data from: Cardiac vagal dysfunction moderates patterns of craving across the day in moderate to heavy consumers of alcohol

Rhiannon E. Mayhugh, Paul J. Laurienti, Jason Fanning, Lise Gauvin, Keri J. Heilman, Stephen W. Porges & W. Jack Rejeski
Background: Alcohol craving, a known correlate of vulnerability to Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), has been found to be inversely related to cardiac vagal tone (CVT). Here we examine how resting CVT, CVT reactivity to a postural challenge, and their interaction influence craving during imposed alcohol abstinence and their usual drinking among moderate to heavy drinkers. Methods: Participants were recruited from the local community (final n=29) and assessed for CVT functioning via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)...

Data from: Complex data produce better characters

B.K. Kirchoff, S.J. Richter, D.L. Remington & E. Wisniewski
Two studies were conducted to explore the use of complex data in character description and hybrid identification. In order to determine if complex data allow the production of better characters, eight groups of plant systematists were given two classes of drawings of plant parts, and asked to divide them into character states (clusters) in two separate experiments. The first class of drawings consisted only of cotyledons. The second class consisted of triplets of drawings: a...

Data from: Upper atmosphere heating from ocean-generated acoustic wave energy

Daniel C. Bowman & Jonathan M. Lees
Colliding sea surface waves generate the ocean microbarom, an acoustic signal that may transmit significant energy to the upper atmosphere. Previous estimates of acoustic energy flux from the ocean microbarom and mountain/wind interactions are on the order of 0.01 to 1 mW/m2, heating the thermosphere by tens of degrees Kelvin per day. We captured up going ocean microbarom waves with a balloon borne infrasound microphone; the maximum acoustic energy flux was approximately 0.05 mW/m2. This...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of North Carolina
  • Duke University
  • Oregon State University
  • North Carolina State University
  • University of Montana
  • University of Washington
  • Sandia National Laboratories
  • Carnegie Mellon University
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
  • Reed College