32 Works

Social context, but not individual personality, alters immigrant viability in a spider with mixed social structure

Jessica Purcell, Spencer Ingley, Jonathan Pruitt & Inon Scharf
Immigrant viability is a major determinant of the realized rate of gene flow across populations. For social organisms, the social context in which immigrants disperse across contrasting environments may have important implications for their viability post dispersal. Here, we use social spiders whose individual personalities as well as group personality compositions vary across sites to test whether the strength of selection against immigrants (i.e. mortality rates) differs depending on whether spiders are transplanted (1) as...

Data from: Identification of candidate loci for adaptive phenotypic plasticity in natural populations of spadefoot toads

Nicholas Levis, Emily Reed, David Pfennig & Martha Burford Reiskind
Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to alter their phenotype in direct response to changes in the environment. Despite growing recognition of plasticity’s role in ecology and evolution, few studies have probed plasticity’s molecular bases—especially using natural populations. We investigated the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity in natural populations of spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Spea tadpoles normally develop into an ‘omnivore’ morph that is favored in long-lasting, low-density ponds. However, if tadpoles consume freshwater shrimp or other...

Data from: Carryover effects and the evolution of polyphenism

David Pfennig, Sofia De La Serna Buzón & Ryan Martin
An individual’s early-life environment and phenotype often influence its traits and performance as an adult. We investigated whether such ‘carryover effects’ are associated with alternative, environmentally induced phenotypes (‘polyphenism’), and, if so, whether they influence polyphenism’s evolution. To do so, we studied spadefoot toads, Spea multiplicata, which have evolved a polyphenism consisting of two, dramatically different forms: a carnivore morph and an omnivore morph. We sampled both morphs from a fast-drying and a slow-drying pond...

Paracoccidioides genomes reveal divergence

Academic Matute
The fungus Paracoccidioides spp. is a prevalent human pathogen endemic to South America. The genus is composed of five species. In this report, we use 37 whole genome sequences to study the allocation of genetic variation in Paracoccidioides. We tested three genome-wide predictions of advanced speciation, namely, that all species should be reciprocally monophyletic, that species pairs should be highly differentiated along the whole genome, and that there should be low rates of interspecific gene...

Data from: A condition-dependent male sexual signal predicts adaptive predator-induced plasticity in offspring

Patrick Kelly
The possibility that sexual selection promotes adaptive evolution in variable environments remains controversial. In particular, where the scale of environmental variation results in parents and their offspring experiencing different environmental conditions, such variation is expected to break down associations between adult sexual traits and adaptive offspring traits. However, when adaptive offspring plasticity in nonsexual traits acts as an indirect benefit of mate choice, then mate choice for males that produce more plastic offspring could promote...

Data from: Exposure effects beyond the epithelial barrier: trans-epithelial induction of oxidative stress by diesel exhaust particulates in lung fibroblasts in an organotypic human airway model

Samantha Faber, Nicole McNabb, Pablo Ariel, Emily Aungst & Shaun McCullough
In vitro bronchial epithelial monoculture models have been pivotal in defining the adverse effects of inhaled toxicant exposures; however, they are only representative of one cellular compartment and may not accurately reflect the effects of exposures on other cell types. Lung fibroblasts exist immediately beneath the bronchial epithelial barrier and play a central role in lung structure and function, as well as disease development and progression. We tested the hypothesis that in vitro exposure of...

Fine particulate matter and neuroanatomic risk for Alzheimer’s disease in older women

Diana Younan, Xinhui Wang, Ramon Casanova, Ryan Barnard, Sarah Gaussoin, Santiago Saldana, Andrew Petkus, Daniel Beavers, Susan Resnick, JoAnn Manson, Marc Serre, William Vizuete, Victor Henderson, Bonnie Sachs, Joel Salinas, Margaret Gatz, Mark Espeland, Helena Chui, Sally Shumaker, Stephen Rapp & Jiu-Chiuan Chen
Objective: To examine whether late-life exposure to PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters <2.5-µm) contributes to progressive brain atrophy predictive of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using a community-dwelling cohort of women (aged 71-89) with up to two brain MRI scans (MRI-1: 2005-6; MRI-2: 2010-11). Methods: AD pattern similarity (AD-PS) scores, developed by supervised machine learning and validated with MRI data from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative, was used to capture high-dimensional gray matter atrophy in brain areas...

Registration Year

  • 2020
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Resource Types

  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of North Carolina
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  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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  • University of California, Davis
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  • Massachusetts General Hospital
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