517 Works

Field spectroscopy and leaf trait data from a field experiment in Surrey [HMTF]

D.A. Coomes, M. Davey & M.H. Nunes
The dataset comprises a range of leaf traits, measured from leaf samples collected from trees growing on deep alluvial soils and shallow chalk soils, near Mickleham in Surrey, UK. Across both sites, leaves were collected from 66 trees, representing six species. The six species common to both sites were: Acer campestre (field maple), Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore), Corylus avellana (hazel), Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn), Fraxinus excelsior (ash) and Sambucus nigra (elder). Data were collected under the NERC...

Behavioural experiments in the laboratory with stickleback fish - Fish personality data

I. Furtbaer, D. Mamuneas, C. James, A. Manica & A. King
The data consist of eight datasets on stickleback fish personality data. Data are on catch order, mean time spent out of cover, proportion of time fish spent out of cover, sex differences for the catch order, sex differences for the catch order on two occasions and sex differences in the proportion of time spent out of cover. A laboratory population of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were filmed and timed using a high definition camera. The...

Effects of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on parents’ attitudes towards green space and time spent outside by children in Cambridgeshire and North London, United Kingdom

Kate Howlett & Edgar C. Turner
1. In the United Kingdom, children are spending less time outdoors and are more disconnected from nature than previous generations. However, interaction with nature at a young age can benefit wellbeing and long-term support for conservation. Green space accessibility in the UK varies between rural and urban areas and is lower for children than for adults. It is possible that COVID-19 lockdown restrictions may have influenced these differences. 2. In this study, we assessed parents’...

Data from: Reproduction triggers adaptive increases in body size in female mole-rats

Jack Thorley, Nathan Katlein, Katy Goddard, Markus Zoettl & Tim Clutton-Brock
In social mole-rats, breeding females are larger and more elongated than nonbreeding female helpers. The status-related morphological divergence is thought to arise from modifications of skeletal growth following the death or removal of the previous breeder and the transition of their successors from a nonbreeding to a breeding role. However, it is not clear what changes in growth are involved, whether they are stimulated by the relaxation of reproductive suppression or by changes in breeding...

Data from: Routine habitat switching alters the likelihood and persistence of infection with a pathogenic parasite

David R. Daversa, Andrea Manica, Jaime Bosch, Jolle W. Jolles & Trenton W. J. Garner
1.Animals switch habitats on a regular basis, and when habitats vary in suitability for parasitism, routine habitat switching alters the frequency of parasite exposure and may affect post-infection parasite proliferation. However, the effects of routine habitat switching on infection dynamics are not well understood. 2.We performed infection experiments, behavioural observations, and field surveillance to evaluate how routine habitat switching by adult alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) influences infection dynamics of the pathogenic parasite, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)....

Data from: Population genetic dynamics of an invasion reconstructed from the sediment egg bank

Markus Möst, Sarah Oexle, Silvia Markova, Dalia Aidukaite, Livia Baumgartner, Hans-Bernd Stich, Martin Wessels, Dominik Martin-Creuzburg & Piet Spaak
Biological invasions are a global issue with far-reaching consequences for single species, communities and whole ecosystems. Our understanding of modes and mechanisms of biological invasions requires knowledge of the genetic processes associated with successful invasions. In many instances, this information is particularly difficult to obtain as the initial phases of the invasion process often pass unnoticed and we rely on inferences from contemporary population genetic data. Here, we combined historic information with the genetic analysis...

Data from: Genetic uniformity and long-distance clonal dispersal in the invasive androgenetic Corbicula clams

Lise-Marie Pigneur, Emilie Etoundi, David C. Aldridge, Jonathan Marescaux, Nina Yasuda & Karine Van Doninck
The clam genus Corbicula is an interesting model system to study the evolution of reproductive modes since it includes both sexual and asexual (androgenetic) lineages. While the sexual populations are restricted to the native Asian areas, the androgenetic lineages are widely distributed being also found in America and Europe where they form a major aquatic invasive pest. We investigated the genetic diversity of native and invasive Corbicula populations through a worldwide sampling. The use of...

Data from: Divergence in brain composition during the early stages of ecological specialization in Heliconius butterflies

Stephen H. Montgomery & Richard M. Merrill
During speciation across ecological gradients diverging populations are exposed to contrasting sensory and spatial information that present new behavioural and perceptive challenges. These challenges may be met by heritable or environmentally-induced changes in brain function which mediate behaviour. However, few studies have investigated patterns of neural divergence at the early stages of speciation, inhibiting our understanding of the relative importance of these processes. Here, we provide a novel case study. The incipient species pair, Heliconius...

Data from: Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Iceland show weak genetic structure among diverse isotopic signatures and observed movement patterns

Sara B. Tavares, Filipa I.P. Samarra, Sonia Pascoal, Jeff A. Graves, Patrick J.O. Miller, Filipa I. P. Samarra & Patrick J. O. Miller
Local adaption through ecological niche specialization can lead to genetic structure between and within populations. In the Northeast Pacific, killer whales (Orcinus orca) of the same population have uniform specialized diets that are non-overlapping with other sympatric, genetically divergent and socially isolated killer whale ecotypes. However, killer whales in Iceland show intra-population variation of isotopic niches and observed movement patterns: some individuals appear to specialise on herring and follow it year-round while others feed upon...

Data from: Experimental evidence that primate trichromacy is well suited for detecting primate social colour signals

Chihiro Hiramatsu, Amanda D. Melin, William L. Allen, Constance Dubuc & James P. Higham
Primate trichromatic colour vision has been hypothesized to be well tuned for detecting variation in facial coloration, which could be due to selection on either signal wavelengths or the sensitivities of the photoreceptors themselves. We provide one of the first empirical tests of this idea by asking whether, when compared with other visual systems, the information obtained through primate trichromatic vision confers an improved ability to detect the changes in facial colour that female macaque...

Data from: Continuous-time spatially explicit capture-recapture models, with an application to a jaguar camera-trap survey.

Rebecca Foster, Bart Harmsen, Lorenzo Milazzo, Greg Distiller & David Borchers
1. Many capture-recapture surveys of wildlife populations operate in continuous time but detections are typically aggregated into occasions for analysis, even when exact detection times are available. This discards information and introduces subjectivity, in the form of decisions about occasion definition. 2. We develop a spatio-temporal Poisson process model for spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) surveys that operate continuously and record exact detection times. We show that, except in some special cases (including the case in...

Data from: Why on earth did I buy that? A study of regretted appliance purchases

Thomas Roberts, Aimie Hope & Alexandra Skelton
If targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby tackle climate change are to be achieved, it will be necessary to reduce both embodied energy costs (e.g. in terms of producing and manufacturing the products and services that society consumes) and operational energy costs. Reducing the number of purchases that people regret could be a first step in changing the overall dynamic of consumption patterns. This research looks at some potentially adverse effects of consumption...

Data from: Childhood adiposity and type 1 diabetes: a Mendelian randomization study

J. C. Censin, Christoph Nowak, Nicholas Cooper, Peter Bergsten, John A. Todd & Tove Fall
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing globally. One hypothesis is that increasing childhood obesity rates may explain part of this increase, but, as T1D is rare, intervention studies are challenging to perform. The aim of this study was to assess this hypothesis with a Mendelian randomization approach that uses genetic variants as instrumental variables to test for causal associations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created a genetic instrument of 23 single nucleotide...

Data from: Function and flexibility of object exploration in kea and New Caledonian crows

Megan L. Lambert, Martina Schiestl, Raoul Schwing, Alex H. Taylor, Gyula K. Gajdon, Katie E. Slocombe & Amanda M. Seed
A range of nonhuman animals frequently manipulate and explore objects in their environment, which may enable them to learn about physical properties and potentially form more abstract concepts of properties such as weight and rigidity. Whether animals can apply the information learned during their exploration to solve novel problems, however, and whether they actually change their exploratory behaviour to seek functional information about objects have not been fully explored. We allowed kea (Nestor notabilis) and...

Data from: Genetic analysis of life-history constraint and evolution in a wild ungulate population

Michael B. Morrissey, Craig A. Walling, Alastair J. Wilson, Josephine M. Pemberton, Tim H. Clutton-Brock & Loeske E. B. Kruuk
Trade-offs among life-history traits are central to evolutionary theory. In quantitative genetic terms, trade-offs may be manifested as negative genetic covariances relative to the direction of selection on phenotypic traits. Although the expression and selection of ecologically important phenotypic variation are fundamentally multivariate phenomena, the in situ quantification of genetic covariances is challenging. Even for life-history traits, where well-developed theory exists with which to relate phenotypic variation to fitness variation, little evidence exists from in...

Data from: Adaptive responses to cool climate promotes persistence of a non-native lizard

Geoffrey M. While, Joseph Williamson, Graham Prescott, Terézia Horváthová, Belén Fresnillo, Nicholas J. Beeton, Ben Halliwell, Sozos Michaelides, Tobias Uller & T. Horvathova
Successful establishment and range expansion of non-native species often require rapid accommodation of novel environments. Here, we use common-garden experiments to demonstrate parallel adaptive evolutionary response to a cool climate in populations of wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) introduced from southern Europe into England. Low soil temperatures in the introduced range delay hatching, which generates directional selection for a shorter incubation period. Non-native lizards from two separate lineages have responded to this selection by retaining their...

Data from: Group structure, kinship, inbreeding risk and habitual female dispersal in plural-breeding mammals

Dieter Lukas & Tim H Clutton-Brock
In most plural breeding mammals, female group members are matrilineal relatives but, in a small number of species, all adult females are immigrants who are seldom closely related to each other. Some explanations of contrasts in female philopatry suggest that these differences are a consequence of variation in resource distribution and feeding competition, while others argue that they reflect variation in the risk of close inbreeding to philopatric females. However, neither explanation has been tested...

Data from: Reciprocal signaling in honeyguide-human mutualism

Claire N. Spottiswoode, Keith S. Begg & Colleen M. Begg
Greater honeyguides (Indicator indicator) lead human honey-hunters to wild bees’ nests, in a rare example of a mutualistic foraging partnership between humans and free-living wild animals. We show experimentally that a specialized vocal sound made by Mozambican honey-hunters seeking bees’ nests elicits elevated cooperative behavior from honeyguides. The production of this sound increased the probability of being guided by a honeyguide from about 33 to 66% and the overall probability of thus finding a bees’...

Data from: Light accelerates plant responses to warming

Pieter De Frenne, Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez, An De Schrijver, David A. Coomes, Martin Hermy, Pieter Vangansbeke & Kris Verheyen
Competition for light has profound effects on plant performance in virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. Nowhere is this more evident than in forests, where trees create environmental heterogeneity that shapes the dynamics of forest-floor communities1,​2,​3. Observational evidence suggests that biotic responses to both anthropogenic global warming and nitrogen pollution may be attenuated by the shading effects of trees and shrubs4,​5,​6,​7,​8,​9. Here we show experimentally that tree shade is slowing down changes in below-canopy communities due to...

Data from: Variability in commercial demand for tree saplings affects the probability of introducing exotic forest diseases

Vasthi Alonso Chavez, Christopher A. Gilligan & Frank Van Den Bosch
1. Several devastating forest pathogens are suspected or known to have entered the UK through imported planting material. The nursery industry is a key business of the tree trade network. Variability in demand for trees makes it difficult for nursery owners to predict how many trees to produce in their nursery. When in any given year, the demand for trees is larger than the production, nursery owners buy trees from foreign sources to match market...

Data from: Functional morphology and efficiency of the antenna cleaner in Camponotus rufifemur ants

Alexander Hackmann, Henry Delacave, Adam Robinson, David Labonte & Walter Federle
Contamination of body surfaces can negatively affect many physiological functions. Insects have evolved different adaptations for removing contamination, including surfaces that allow passive self-cleaning and structures for active cleaning. Here, we study the function of the antenna cleaner in Camponotus rufifemur ants, a clamp-like structure consisting of a notch on the basitarsus facing a spur on the tibia, both bearing cuticular ‘combs’ and ‘brushes’. The ants clamp one antenna tightly between notch and spur, pull...

Data from: Human variation in the shape of the birth canal is significant and geographically structured

Lia Betti & Andrea Manica
The human birth canal shows a tight fit with the size of the neonate, which can lead to obstetric complications. This is not the case in other apes, and has been explained as the outcome of conflicting evolutionary pressures for bipedal locomotion and parturition of a highly-encephalised fetus. Despite the suggested evolutionary constraints on the female pelvis, we show that women are, in fact, extremely variable in the shape of the bony birth canal, with...

Data from: Benefits and costs of ecological restoration: rapid assessment of changing ecosystem service values at a UK wetland

Francine M. R. Hughes, Kelvin S. H. Peh, Andrew Balmford, Rob H. Field, Anthony Lamb, Jennifer C. Birch, Richard B. Bradbury, Claire Brown, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Martin Lester, Ross Morrison, Isabel Sedgwick, Chris Soans, Alison J. Stattersfield, Peter A. Stroh, Ruth D. Swetnam, David H. L. Thomas, Matt Walpole, Stuart Warrington & Kelvin S.-H. Peh
Restoration of degraded land is recognized by the international community as an important way of enhancing both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but more information is needed about its costs and benefits. In Cambridgeshire, U.K., a long-term initiative to convert drained, intensively farmed arable land to a wetland habitat mosaic is driven by a desire both to prevent biodiversity loss from the nationally important Wicken Fen National Nature Reserve (Wicken Fen NNR) and to increase the...

Data from: Complementarity of statistical treatments to reconstruct worldwide routes of invasion: the case of the Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis

Eric Lombaert, Thomas Guillemaud, Jonathan Lundgren, Robert Koch, Benoît Facon, Audrey Grez, Antoon Loomans, Thibaut Malausa, Oldrich Nedved, Emma Rhule, Arnstein Staverlokk, Tove Steenberg & Arnaud Estoup
Inferences about introduction histories of invasive species remain challenging because of the stochastic demographic processes involved. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) can help to overcome these problems, but such method requires a prior understanding of population structure over the study area, necessitating the use of alternative methods and an intense sampling design. In this study, we made inferences about the worldwide invasion history of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis by various population genetics statistical methods, using a...

Data from: Oral microbiomes from hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers reveal shifts in commensal balance and pathogen load linked to diet

Florent Lassalle, Matteo Spagnoletti, Matteo Fumagalli, Liam Shaw, Mark Dyble, Catherine Walker, Mark G. Thomas, Andrea Bamberg Migliano & Francois Balloux
Maladaptation to modern diets has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Given the higher prevalence of disease such as dental caries and chronic gum diseases in industrialized societies, we sought to investigate the impact of different subsistence strategies on oral health and physiology, as documented by the oral microbiome. To control for confounding variables such as environment and host genetics, we sampled saliva from three pairs of populations of hunter-gatherers and traditional farmers living in...

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