580 Works

Field spectroscopy and leaf trait data from a field experiment in Surrey [HMTF]

D.A. Coomes, M. Davey & M.H. Nunes
The dataset comprises a range of leaf traits, measured from leaf samples collected from trees growing on deep alluvial soils and shallow chalk soils, near Mickleham in Surrey, UK. Across both sites, leaves were collected from 66 trees, representing six species. The six species common to both sites were: Acer campestre (field maple), Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore), Corylus avellana (hazel), Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn), Fraxinus excelsior (ash) and Sambucus nigra (elder). Data were collected under the NERC...

Behavioural experiments in the laboratory with stickleback fish - Fish personality data

I. Furtbaer, D. Mamuneas, C. James, A. Manica & A. King
The data consist of eight datasets on stickleback fish personality data. Data are on catch order, mean time spent out of cover, proportion of time fish spent out of cover, sex differences for the catch order, sex differences for the catch order on two occasions and sex differences in the proportion of time spent out of cover. A laboratory population of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were filmed and timed using a high definition camera. The...

Dataset associated with \"Volcanic ash ice nucleation activity is variably reduced by aging in water and sulfuric acid: the effects of leaching, dissolution, and precipitation\"

William Fahy, Elena Maters, Rona Giese-Miranda, Michael P. Adams, Leif G. Jahn, Ryan Sullivan & Benjamin Murray
Volcanic ash nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water, giving it the potential to influence weather and climate from local to global scales. However, the ice nucleation activity (INA) of ash can be modified by interaction with various chemical species during atmospheric transport. In the experimental study associated with this dataset, we show that the INA of two mineralogically distinct ash samples from Fuego and Astroni volcanoes is variably reduced when immersed in water or...

Sulawesi and Celebes Sea Ocean-bottom Seismic Network

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This network is comprised of 12 off-shore broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (60s-1) made by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, The observation spans from August 2010 to August 2020 and the research is targeting the lithosphere structure of the North Sulawesi Subduction system and the Palu-Koro Transform Faults.

Data from: Evolution transforms pushed waves into pulled waves

Philip Erm & Ben Phillips
Understanding the dynamics of biological invasions is crucial for managing numerous phenomena, from invasive species to tumours. While the Allee effect (where individuals in low-density populations suffer lowered fitness) is known to influence both the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of an invasion, the possibility that an invader's susceptibility to the Allee effect might itself evolve has received little attention. Since invasion fronts are regions of perpetually low population density, selection should be expected to favour...

Re-emergence and diversification of a specialised antennal lobe morphology in ithomiine butterflies

Billy J Morris, Antoine Couto, Asli Aydin & Stephen H Montgomery
How an organism’s sensory system functions is central to how it navigates its environment. The insect olfactory system is a prominent model for investigating how ecological factors impact sensory reception and processing. Notably, work in Lepidoptera led to the discovery of vastly expanded structures, termed macroglomerular complexes (MGCs), within the primary olfactory processing centre. MGCs typically process pheromonal cues, are usually larger in males, and provide classic examples of how variation in the size of...

Data from: A new approach for investigating spatial relationships of ichnofossils: a case study of Ediacaran–Cambrian animal traces

Emily Mitchell, Scott Evans, Zhe Chen & Shuhai Xiao
Abstract — Trace fossils record foraging behaviours, the search for resources in patchy environments, of animals in the rock record. Quantification of the strength, density and nature of foraging behaviours enables the investigation of how these may have changed through time. Here, we present a novel approach to explore such patterns using spatial point process analyses to quantify the scale and strength of ichnofossil spatial distributions on horizontal bedding planes. To demonstrate the utility of...

Recognition of discrete export signals in flagellar subunits during bacterial Type III secretion

Owain Bryant, Paraminder Dhillon, Colin Hughes & Gillian Fraser
Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS) deliver subunits from the bacterial cytosol to nascent cell surface flagella. Early flagellar subunits that form the rod and hook substructures are unchaperoned and contain their own export signals. A gate recognition motif (GRM) docks them at the FlhBc component of the FlhAB-FliPQR export gate, but the gate must then be opened and subunits must be unfolded to pass through the flagellar channel. This induced us to seek further signals...

Inhibitory control, exploration behaviour and manipulated ecological context are associated with foraging flexibility in the great tit

Jenny Coomes, Gabrielle Davidson, Michael Reichert, Ipek Kulahci, Camille Troisi & John Quinn
​​​​​Organisms are constantly under selection to respond effectively to diverse, sometimes rapid, changes in their environment, but not all individuals are equally plastic in their behaviour. Although cognitive processes and personality are expected to influence individual behavioural plasticity, the effects reported are highly inconsistent, which we hypothesise is because ecological context is usually not considered. We explored how one type of behavioural plasticity, foraging flexibility, was associated with inhibitory control (assayed using a detour-reaching task)...

Data from: A whole-ecosystem method for experimentally suppressing ants on a small scale

Amelia S. C. Hood, Anak Agung Ketut Aryawan, Andreas D. Advento, Wahyu R. Suberkah, Adham Ashton-Butt, Sudharto Ps, Jean-Pierre Caliman, Mohammad Naim, William A. Foster & Edgar C. Turner
Ant suppression experiments have emerged as a powerful method for assessing the role of ants in ecosystems. However, traditional methods have been limited to canopy ants, and not assessed the role of ants on and below ground. Recent advances have enabled whole-ecosystem ant suppression in large plots, but large-scale experiments are not always feasible. Here, we develop a small-scale, whole-ecosystem suppression method. We compare techniques for monitoring suppression experiments, and assess whether habitat complexity in...

Temperature stress induces mites to help their carrion beetle hosts by eliminating rival blowflies

Syuan-Jyun Sun & Rebecca Kilner
Ecological conditions are known to change the expression of mutualisms though the causal agents driving such changes remain poorly understood. Here we show that temperature stress modulates the harm threatened by a common enemy, and thereby induces a phoretic mite to become a protective mutualist. Our experiments focus on the interactions between the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an associated mite species Poecilochirus carabi and their common enemy, blowflies, when all three species reproduce on the...

Signals interpreted as archaic introgression are driven primarily by accelerated evolution in Africa

William Amos
Non-African humans appear to carry a few percent archaic DNA due to ancient inter-breeding. This modest legacy and its likely recent timing imply that most introgressed fragments will be rare and hence will occur mainly in the heterozygous state. I tested this prediction by calculating D statistics, a measure of legacy size, for pairs of humans where one of the pair was conditioned always to be either homozygous or heterozygous. Using coalescent simulations, I confirmed...

Wolbachia affect behavior and possibly reproductive compatibility but not thermoresistance, fecundity, and morphology in a novel transinfected host, Drosophila nigrosparsa

Matsapume Detcharoen, Wolfgang Arthofer, Francis Jiggins, Florian Steiner & Birgit Schlick-Steiner
Wolbachia, intracellular endosymbionts, are estimated to infect about half of all arthropod species. These bacteria manipulate their hosts in various ways for their maximum benefits. The rising global temperature may accelerate species migration and, thus, horizontal transfer of Wolbachia may occur across species previously not in contact. We transinfected and then cured the alpine fly Drosophila nigrosparsa with Wolbachia strain wMel to study its effects on this species. We found low Wolbachia titer, possibly cytoplasmic...

Can behaviour impede evolution? persistence of singing effort after morphological song loss in crickets

Jack Rayner, Will Schneider & Nathan Bailey
Evolutionary loss of sexual signals is widespread. Examining the consequences for behaviours associated with such signals can provide insight into factors promoting or inhibiting trait loss. We tested whether a behavioural component of a sexual trait, male calling effort, has been evolutionary reduced in silent populations of Hawaiian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus). Cricket song requires energetically costly wing movements, but ‘flatwing’ males have feminised wings that preclude song and protect against a lethal, eavesdropping parasitoid....

Data from: Differential divergence in autosomes and sex chromosomes is associated with intra-island diversification at a very small spatial scale in a songbird lineage

Yann Bourgeois, Joris Bertrand, Boris Delahaie, Helene Holota, Christophe Thebaud & Borja Mila
Recently diverged taxa showing marked phenotypic and ecological diversity are optimal systems to understand the genetic processes underlying speciation. We used genome-wide markers to investigate the diversification of the Reunion grey white eye (Zosterops borbonicus) on the small volcanic island of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago), where this species complex exhibits four geographic forms that are parapatrically distributed across the island and differ strikingly in plumage colour. One form restricted to the highlands is separated by a...

Small scale variability in soil moisture drives infection of vulnerable juniper populations by invasive forest pathogen

Flora Donald, Sarah Green, Kate Searle, Nik J. Cunniffe & Bethan V. Purse
The oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora austrocedri, is an aggressive killer of cypress trees causing severe mortality of Chilean cedar (Austrocedrus chilensis) in Argentina since the 1940s and now common juniper (Juniperus communis s.l.) in the UK. Rapid mortality of key UK juniper populations was first observed in the early 2000s; the causal agent of mortality was confirmed as P. austrocedri in 2012 and the pathogen has now been widely detected - but is not ubiquitous...

Data from: Consistent within‐individual plasticity is sufficient to explain temperature responses in red deer reproductive traits

Hannah Froy, Julien Martin, Katie Stopher, Alison Morris, Sean Morris, Tim Clutton-Brock, Josephine Pemberton & Loeske Kruuk
Warming global temperatures are affecting a range of aspects of wild populations, but the exact mechanisms driving associations between temperature and phenotypic traits may be difficult to identify. Here, we use a 36‐year data set on a wild population of red deer to investigate the causes of associations between temperature and two important components of female reproduction: timing of breeding and offspring size. By separating within‐ versus between‐individual associations with temperature for each trait, we...

Data from: Virus evolution in Wolbachia-infected Drosophila

Julien Martinez, Gaspar Bruner-Montero, Sophia CL Smith, Jonathan P Day, Ben Longdon, Ramesh Arunkumar & Francis M Jiggins
Wolbachia, a common vertically transmitted symbiont, can protect insects against viral infection and prevent mosquitoes from transmitting viral pathogens. For this reason, Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes are being released to prevent the transmission of dengue and other arboviruses. An important question for the long-term success of these programs is whether viruses can evolve to escape the antiviral effects of Wolbachia. We have found that Wolbachia altered the outcome of competition between strains of the DCV virus in...

Optimal searching behaviour generated intrinsically by the central pattern generator for locomotion

Jimena Berni, David W. Sims & Nicolas E. Humphries
Efficient searching for resources such as food by animals is key to their survival. It has been proposed that diverse animals from insects to sharks and humans adopt searching patterns that resemble a simple Lévy random walk, which is theoretically optimal for ‘blind foragers’ to locate sparse, patchy resources. To test if such patterns are generated intrinsically, or arise via environmental interactions, we tracked free-moving Drosophila larvae with (and without) blocked synaptic activity in the...

Collective decision-making appears more egalitarian in populations where group fission costs are higher

James Herbert-Read, Amy Wade, Indar Ramnarine & Christos Ioannou
Collective decision-making is predicted to be more egalitarian in conditions where the costs of group fission are higher. Here we ask whether Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) living in high or low predation environments, and thereby facing differential group fission costs, make collective decisions in line with this prediction. Using a classic decision-making scenario, we found that fish from high predation environments switched their positions within groups more frequently than fish from low predation environments. Because...

Spatial and taxonomic biases in bat records: Drivers and conservation implications in a megadiverse country

Veronica Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica Zamora‐Gutierrez, Tatsuya Amano & Kate E. Jones
Biases in data availability have serious consequences on scientific inferences that can be derived. The potential consequences of these biases could be more detrimental in the less-studied megadiverse regions, often characterized by high biodiversity and serious risks of human threats, as conservation and management actions could be misdirected. Here, focusing on 134 bat species in Mexico, we analyze spatial and taxonomic biases and their drivers in occurrence data; and identify priority areas for further data...

Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions

Zenobia Lewis, Julia Cooke, Yoseph Araya, Karen Bacon, Joanna Bagniewska, Lesley Batty, Tom Bishop, Moya Burns, Magda Charalambous, David Daversa, Liam Dougherty, Miranda Dyson, Adam Fisher, Dan Forman, Cristina Garcia, Ewan Harney, Thomas Hesselberg, Elizabeth John, Robert Knell, Kadmiel Maseyk, Alice Mauchline, Julie Peacock, Angelo Pernetto, Jeremy Pritchard, William Sutherland … & Nicholas Worsfold
We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and therole of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences. Here we present the results of a horizon scanning exercise that identified current and future challenges facing the teaching of ecology,...

Clustering of loci controlling species differences in male chemical bouquets of sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Diana Abondano Almeida, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
The degree to which loci promoting reproductive isolation cluster in the genome – i.e. the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation - can influence the tempo and mode of speciation. Tight linkage between these loci can facilitate speciation in the face of gene flow. Pheromones play a role in reproductive isolation in many Lepidoptera species, and the role of endogenously-produced compounds as secondary metabolites decreases the likelihood of pleiotropy associated with many barrier loci. Heliconius butterflies...

Data from: Group size elevates inequality in cooperative behaviour

Shay Rotics & Tim Clutton-Brock
In cooperatively breeding species where rearing effort is shared among multiple group members, increases in group size typically reduce average per capita contributions to offspring care in all group members (load-lightening) but it is not known how changes in group size affect the distribution of workload among group members. The socioeconomic collective action theory suggests that, in larger groups, the incentives for free riding are stronger, leading to greater inequalities in work-division among group members....

The Geometry and Genetics of Hybridization

Hilde Schneemann, Bianca De Sanctis, Denis Roze, Nicolas Bierne & John Welch
When divergent populations form hybrids, hybrid fitness can vary with genome composition, current environmental conditions, and the divergence history of the populations. We develop analytical predictions for hybrid fitness, which incorporate all three factors. The predictions are based on Fisher's geometric model, and apply to a wide range of population genetic parameter regimes and divergence conditions, including allopatry and parapatry, local adaptation and drift. Results show that hybrid fitness can be decomposed into intrinsic effects...

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  • University of Cambridge
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  • University of Sheffield
  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Zurich
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Zoological Society of London
  • Harvard University