552 Works

Data from: The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder

Dominic L. Cram, Jonathan D. Blount & Andrew J. Young
Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesised that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compromising survival and future reproduction and accelerating...

Data from: Moving from frugivory to seed dispersal: incorporating the functional outcomes of interactions in plant-frugivore networks

Benno I. Simmons, William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Jörg Albrecht, Nina Farwig, Daniel Garcia, Pedro Jordano & Juan P. González-Varo
1.There is growing interest in understanding the functional outcomes of species interactions in ecological networks. For many mutualistic networks, including pollination and seed dispersal networks, interactions are generally sampled by recording animal foraging visits to plants. However, these visits may not reflect actual pollination or seed dispersal events, despite these typically being the ecological processes of interest. 2.Frugivorous animals can act as seed dispersers, by swallowing entire fruits and dispersing their seeds, or as pulp...

Data from: Geographical variation in species' population responses to changes in temperature and precipitation

James W. Pearce-Higgins, Nancy Ockendon, David J. Baker, Jamie Carr, Elizabeth C. White, Rosamunde E. A. Almond, Tatsuya Amano, Esther Bertram, Richard B. Bradbury, Cassie Bradley, Stuart H. M. Butchart, Nathalie Doswald, Wendy Foden, David J. C. Gill, Rhys E. Green, William J. Sutherland & Edmund V. J. Tanner
Despite increasing concerns about the vulnerability of species’ populations to climate change, there has been little overall synthesis of how individual population responses to variation in climate differ between taxa, with trophic level or geographically. To address this, we extracted data from 132 long-term (≥20 years) studies of population responses to temperature and precipitation covering 236 animal and plant species across terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Temperature tended to have a greater overall impact on populations...

Data from: Habitat disturbance selects against both small and large species across varying climates

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Xavier Arnan, Heraldo L. Vasconcellos, David A. Donoso, Alan N. Andersen, Rogerio R. Silva, Tom R. Bishop, Crisanto Gomez, Blair F. Grossman, Kalsum M. Yusah, Sarah H. Luke, Renata Pacheco, Jessica Pearce-Duvet, Javier Retana, Melanie Tista, Catherine L. Parr & H. L. Vasconcelos
Global extinction drivers, including habitat disturbance and climate change, are thought to affect larger species more than smaller species. However, it is unclear if such drivers interact to affect assemblage body size distributions. We asked how these two key global change drivers differentially affect the interspecific size distributions of ants, one of the most abundant and ubiquitous animal groups on earth. We also asked whether there is evidence of synergistic interactions and whether effects are...

Data from: Odd-paired controls frequency doubling in Drosophila segmentation by altering the pair-rule gene regulatory network

Erik Clark & Michael Akam
The Drosophila embryo transiently exhibits a double segment periodicity, defined by the expression of seven "pair-rule" genes, each in a pattern of seven stripes. At gastrulation, interactions between the pair-rule genes lead to frequency doubling and the patterning of fourteen parasegment boundaries. In contrast to earlier stages of Drosophila anteroposterior patterning, this transition is not well understood. By carefully analysing the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule gene expression, we demonstrate that frequency-doubling is precipitated by multiple...

Data from: Anisotropic growth is achieved through the additive mechanical effect of material anisotropy and elastic asymmetry

Firas Bou Daher, Yuanjie Chen, Behruz Bozorg, Jack Clough, Henrik Jönsson & Siobhan A. Braybrook
Fast directional growth is a necessity for the young seedling; after germination, it needs to quickly penetrate the soil to begin its autotrophic life. In most dicot plants, this rapid escape is due to the anisotropic elongation of the hypocotyl, the columnar organ between the root and the shoot meristems. Anisotropic growth is common in plant organs and is canonically attributed to cell wall anisotropy produced by oriented cellulose fibers. Recently, a mechanism based on...

Data from: Variation in growth of Damaraland mole-rats is explained by competition rather than by functional specialization for different tasks

Markus Zöttl, Jack Thorley, David Gaynor, Nigel C. Bennett & Tim Clutton-Brock
In some eusocial insect societies, adaptation to the division of labour results in multimodal size variation among workers. It has been suggested that variation in size and growth among non-breeders in naked and Damaraland mole-rats may similarly reflect functional divergence associated with different cooperative tasks. However, it is unclear whether individual growth rates are multimodally distributed (as would be expected if variation in growth is associated with specialization for different tasks) or whether variation in...

Data from: Deep sequencing reveals extensive variation in the gut microbiota of wild mosquitoes from Kenya.

Jewelna Osei-Poku, Charles M. Mbogo, William J. Palmer & Francis M. Jiggins
The mosquito midgut is a hostile environment that vector-borne parasites must survive in order to be transmitted. Commensal bacteria in the midgut can reduce the ability of mosquitoes to transmit disease, either by having direct anti-parasite effects or by stimulating basal immune responses of the insect host. As different bacteria have different effects on parasite development, the composition of the bacterial community in the mosquito gut is likely to affect the probability of disease transmission....

Data from: The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence

Simon M. Reader, Yfke Hager & Kevin N. Laland
There are consistent individual differences in human intelligence, attributable to a single ‘general intelligence’ factor, g. The evolutionary basis of g and its links to social learning and culture remain controversial. Conflicting hypotheses regard primate cognition as divided into specialized, independently evolving modules versus a single general process. To assess how processes underlying culture relate to one another and other cognitive capacities, we compiled ecologically relevant cognitive measures from multiple domains, namely reported incidences of...

Data from: Local inter-species introgression is the main cause of extreme levels of intra-specific differentiation in mussels

Christelle Fraïsse, Khalid Belkhir, John J. Welch & Nicolas Bierne
Structured populations, and replicated zones of contact between species, are an ideal opportunity to study regions of the genome with unusual levels of differentiation; and these can illuminate the genomic architecture of species isolation, and the spread of adaptive alleles across species ranges. Here, we investigated the effects of gene flow on divergence and adaptation in the Mytilus complex of species, including replicated parental populations in quite distant geographical locations. We used target enrichment sequencing...

Data from: Y chromosome sequences reveal a short Beringian Standstill, rapid expansion, and early population structure of Native American founders

Thomaz Pinotti, Susana Revollo, Cézar Paz-Y-Miño, Ricardo Fujita, Fabrício Rodrigues Santos, Chris Tyler-Smith, Toomas Kivisild, Qasim Ayub, Anders Bergström, Yali Xue, Cinthia Cuellar, Dominique Ohasi, Daniela R. Lacerda, Marilza S. Jota, José E. Santos & Arne Solli
The Americas were the last inhabitable continents to be occupied by humans, with a growing multidisciplinary consensus for entry 15-25 thousand years ago (kya) from northeast Asia via the former Beringia land bridge. Autosomal DNA analyses have dated the separation of Native American ancestors from the Asian gene pool to 23 kya or later, and mtDNA analyses to ~25 kya, followed by isolation (‘Beringian Standstill’) for 2.4-9 ky and then a rapid expansion throughout the...

Data from: DNA methylation and gene expression changes derived from assisted reproductive technologies can be decreased by reproductive fluids

Sebastian Canovas, Elena Ivanova, Raquel Romar, Soledad García-Martínez, Cristina Soriano-Úbeda, Francisco Alberto A. García-Vázquez, Heba Saadeh, Simon Andrews, Gavin Kelsey & Pilar Coy
The number of children born since the origin of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) exceeds 5 million. The majority seem healthy, but a higher frequency of defects has been reported among ART-conceived infants, suggesting an epigenetic cost. We report the first whole-genome DNA methylation datasets from single pig blastocysts showing differences between in vivo and in vitro produced embryos. Blastocysts were produced in vitro either without (C-IVF) or in the presence of natural reproductive fluids (Natur-IVF)....

Data from: Linked morphological changes during palate evolution in early tetrapods

Charles B. Kimmel, Brian Sidlauskas & Jennifer A. Clack
We examined the shapes and sizes of dermal bones of the palate of selected Palaeozoic tetrapods in order to identify the ancestral states of palatal bone morphologies in the earliest tetrapods, to learn how the composition of the palate varies within and among early tetrapod radiations, and recognize evolutionary correlations among the size and shapes of skeletal elements in this important group of animals. We find that whereas the palatal bones themselves and their arrangements...

Data from: Of puzzles and pavements: a quantitative exploration of leaf epidermal cell shape

Róza V. Vőfély, Joseph Gallagher, Grace D. Pisano, Madelaine Bartlett & Siobhan A. Braybrook
Epidermal cells of leaves are diverse: tabular pavement cells, trichomes, and stomatal complexes. Pavement cells from the monocot Zea mays (maize) and the eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) have highly undulate anticlinal walls. The molecular basis for generating these undulating margins has been extensively investigated in these species. This has led to two assumptions: first, that particular plant lineages are characterized by particular pavement cell shapes; and second, that undulatory cell shapes are common enough to...

Data from: Multiple stages of tree seedling recruitment are altered in tropical forests degraded by selective logging

Rajeev Pillay, Fangyuan Hua, Bette A. Loiselle, Henry Bernard & Robert J. Fletcher
Tropical forest degradation is a global environmental issue. In degraded forests, seedling recruitment of canopy trees is vital for forest regeneration and recovery. We investigated how selective logging, a pervasive driver of tropical forest degradation, impacts canopy tree seedling recruitment, focusing on an endemic dipterocarp Dryobalanops lanceolata in Sabah, Borneo. During a mast-fruiting event in intensively logged and nearby unlogged forest, we examined four stages of the seedling recruitment process: seed production, seed predation, and...

Data from: Rook, but not jackdaw, post-conflict third-party affiliation reduces aggression for aggressors

Corina J. Logan, Ljerka Ostojić & Nicola S. Clayton
Post-conflict (PC) affiliation refers to positive social interactions that occur after fights. Although this behavior has been widely studied, its functions are rarely tested. We examine a potential function of PC third-party affiliation (affiliation between former opponents and bystanders) in rooks and jackdaws by investigating the hypothesis that conflicts lead to further aggression and that PC third-party affiliation increases to reduce such aggression. The results show that PC affiliation reduces PC aggression for rook aggressors...

Data from: Multiple regression modelling for estimating endocranial volume in extinct Mammalia

Laura C. Soul, Roger B. J. Benson & Vera Weisbecker
The profound evolutionary success of mammals has been linked to behavioral and life-history traits, many of which have been tied to brain size. However, studies of the evolution of this key trait have yet to explore the full potential of the fossil record, being limited by the difficulty of obtaining endocranial data from fossils. Using measurements of endocranial volume, length, height, and width of the braincase in 503 adult specimens from 199 extant species, representing...

Data from: Selection on male sex pheromone composition contributes to butterfly reproductive isolation

Paul M. B. Bacquet, Oskar Brattström, Hong-Lei Wang, Cerisse E. Allen, Christer Löfstedt, Paul M. Brakefield, Caroline M. Nieberding, C. Lofstedt, H.- L. Wang & O. Brattstrom
Selection can facilitate diversification by inducing character displacement in mate choice traits that reduce the probability of maladaptive mating between lineages. Although reproductive character displacement (RCD) has been demonstrated in two-taxa case studies, the frequency of this process in nature is still debated. Moreover, studies have focused primarily on visual and acoustic traits, despite the fact that chemical communication is probably the most common means of species recognition. Here, we showed in a large, mostly...

Data from: Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods

Stephanie E. Pierce, Per E. Ahlberg, John R. Hutchinson, Julia L. Molnar, Sophie Sanchez, Paul Tafforeau & Jennifer A. Clack
The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae - in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra - have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, as most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix,...

Data from: Screening of candidate substrates and coupling ions of transporters by thermostability shift assays

Homa Majd, Martin S. King, Shane M. Palmer, Anthony C. Smith, Liam D. H. Elbourne, Ian T. Paulsen, David Sharples, Peter J. F. Henderson, Edmund R. S. Kunji, Peter JF Henderson, Liam DH Elbourne & Edmund RS Kunji
Substrates of most transport proteins have not been identified, limiting our understanding of their role in physiology and disease. Traditional identification methods use transport assays with radioactive compounds, but they are technically challenging and many compounds are unavailable in radioactive form or are prohibitively expensive, precluding large-scale trials. Here, we present a high-throughput screening method that can identify candidate substrates from libraries of unlabeled compounds. The assay is based on the principle that transport proteins...

Data from: Urban development, land sharing and land sparing: the importance of considering restoration

Lydia Collas, Rhys E. Green, Alexander Ross, Josie H. Wastell & Andrew Balmford
1. At present, there is limited knowledge of how best to reconcile urban development with biodiversity conservation, and in particular whether populations of wild species would be greater under low-density housing (with larger gardens), or high-density housing (allowing more area to be left as undeveloped green spaces). The land sharing/sparing framework – originally developed in the context of farming – can be applied to address this question. 2. We sampled the abundance of trees in...

Data from: A limit on the extent to which increased egg size can compensate for a poor postnatal environment revealed experimentally in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

Matthew Schrader, Rachel M. Crosby, Aimee R. Hesketh, Benjamin J. M. Jarrett & Rebecca M. Kilner
It is often assumed that there is a positive relationship between egg size and offspring fitness. However, recent studies have suggested that egg size has a greater effect on offspring fitness in low-quality environments than in high-quality environments. Such observations suggest that mothers may compensate for poor posthatching environments by increasing egg size. In this paper we test whether there is a limit on the extent to which increased egg size can compensate for the...

Data from: Bayesian causal inference explains movement coordination to auditory beats

Mark T. Elliott, Alan M. Wing & Andrew E. Welchman
Many everyday skilled actions depend on moving in time with signals that are embedded in complex auditory streams (e.g. musical performance, dancing or simply holding a conversation). Such behaviour is apparently effortless; however, it is not known how humans combine auditory signals to support movement production and coordination. Here, we test how participants synchronize their movements when there are potentially conflicting auditory targets to guide their actions. Participants tapped their fingers in time with two...

Data from: The yeast mitochondrial pyruvate carrier is a hetero-dimer in its functional state

Sotiria Tavoulari, Chancievan Thangaratnarajah, Vasiliki Mavridou, Michael E. Harbour, Jean-Claude Martinou & Edmund R.S. Kunji
The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) is critical for cellular homeostasis, as it is required in central metabolism for transporting pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix. MPC has been implicated in many diseases and is being investigated as a drug target. A few years ago, small membrane proteins, called MPC1 and MPC2 in mammals and Mpc1, Mpc2 and Mpc3 in yeast, were proposed to form large protein complexes responsible for this function. However, the...

Data from: Conflict within species determines the value of a mutualism between species

Syuan-Jyun Sun, Nicholas P.C. Horrocks & Rebecca M. Kilner
Mutually beneficial interactions between species play a key role in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. Nevertheless, such mutualisms can erode into antagonistic interactions. One explanation is that the fitness costs and benefits of interacting with a partner species vary among individuals. However, it is unclear why such variation exists. Here we demonstrate that social behaviour within species plays an important, though hitherto overlooked, role in determining the relative fitness to be gained from interacting with...

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