43 Works

Data from: The ecology and economics of shorebird conservation in a tropical human-modified landscape

Jonathan M. H. Green, Siriya Sripanomyom, Xingli Giam & David S. Wilcove
1. Rapid and extensive land-use change in intertidal foraging habitat and coastal roosting habitat is thought to be driving major population declines of shorebirds migrating through the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Along the Inner Gulf of Thailand, a critical stopover and wintering ground for these birds, artificial wetlands (saltpans and aquaculture ponds) have replaced much of the natural coastal ecosystem. 2. We conducted a two-part study to: (i) assess the importance of saltpans and semi-traditional aquaculture...

Data from: Parental effects alter the adaptive value of an adult behavioural trait

Rebecca M. Kilner, Giuseppe Boncoraglio, Jono M. Henshaw, Benjamin J. M. Jarrett, Ornela De Gasperin, Hanna Kokko, Benjamin JM Jarrett, Alfredo Attisano & Jonathan M Henshaw
The parents' phenotype, or the environment they create for their young, can have long-lasting effects on their offspring, with profound evolutionary consequences. Yet virtually no work has considered how such parental effects might change the adaptive value of behavioural traits expressed by offspring upon reaching adulthood. To address this problem, we combined experiments on burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) with theoretical modelling, and focussed on one adult behavioural trait in particular: the supply of parental care....

Data from: Spermatozoa scattering by a microchannel feature: an elastohydrodynamic model

Thomas D. Montenegro-Johnson, Hermes Gadêlha, David J. Smith & H. Gadelha
Sperm traverse their microenvironment through viscous fluid by propagating flagellar waves; the waveform emerges as a consequence of elastic structure, internal active moments and low Reynolds number fluid dynamics. Engineered microchannels have recently been proposed as a method of sorting and manipulating motile cells; the interaction of cells with these artificial environments therefore warrants investigation. A numerical method is presented for large-amplitude elastohydrodynamic interaction of active swimmers with domain features. This method is employed to...

Data from: Hidden diversity in the freshwater planktonic diatom Asterionella formosa

Silke Van Den Wyngaert, Markus Möst, Remo Freimann, Bastiaan W. Ibelings & Piet Spaak
Many freshwater and marine algal species are described as having cosmopolitan distributions. Whether these widely distributed morphologically similar algae also share a similar gene pool remains often unclear. In the context of island biogeography theory, stronger spatial isolation deemed typical of freshwater lakes should restrict gene flow and lead to higher genetic differentiation among lakes. Using nine microsatellite loci, we investigate the genetic diversity of a widely distributed freshwater planktonic diatom, Asterionella formosa, across different...

Data from: Global circulation patterns of seasonal influenza viruses vary with antigenic drift

Trevor Bedford, Steven Riley, Ian G. Barr, Shobha Broor, Mandeep Chadha, Nancy J. Cox, Rodney S. Daniels, C. Palani Gunasekaran, Aeron C. Hurt, Anne Kelso, Alexander Klimov, Nicola S. Lewis, Xiyan Li, John W. McCauley, Takato Odagiri, Varsha Potdar, Andrew Rambaut, Yuelong Shu, Eugene Skepner, Derek J. Smith, Marc A. Suchard, Masato Tashiro, Dayan Wang, Xiyan Xu, Philippe Lemey … & Colin A. Russell
Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B viruses have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the global circulation patterns of A/H1N1 (up to 2009), B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata viruses differ substantially from those of A/H3N2...

Data from: Neural tuning functions underlie both generalization and interference

Ian S. Howard & David W. Franklin
In sports, the role of backswing is considered critical for generating a good shot, even though it plays no direct role in hitting the ball. We recently demonstrated the scientific basis of this phenomenon by showing that immediate past movement affects the learning and recall of motor memories. This effect occurred regardless of whether the past contextual movement was performed actively, passively, or shown visually. In force field studies, it has been shown that motor...

Data from: A palaeoscolecid worm from the Burgess Shale

Martin R. Smith
Palaeoscolecid worms are a ubiquitous group of Early Palaeozoic ecdysozoans that are curiously lacking in the archetypal Cambrian Lagerstätten, the Burgess Shale. Here I describe Scathascolex minor gen. et sp. nov, the first unequivocal palaeoscolecid from this site. Scathascolex is armoured with simple Hadimopanella-like plates, but lacks smaller platelets, pointing to a close affinity with the Palaeoscolecida sensu stricto. Neither preservational nor environmental factors account for the scarcity of palaeoscolecids in the Burgess Shale, which...

Data from: Crying wolf to a predator: deceptive vocal mimicry by a bird protecting young

Branislav Igic, Jessica McLachlan, Inkeri Lehtinen & Robert D. Magrath
Animals often mimic dangerous or toxic species to deter predators; however, mimicry of such species may not always be possible and mimicry of benign species seems unlikely to confer anti-predator benefits. We reveal a system in which a bird mimics the alarm calls of harmless species to fool a predator 40 times its size and protect its offspring against attack. Our experiments revealed that brown thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla) mimic a chorus of other species' aerial...

Data from: The macro- and microfossil record of the middle Cambrian priapulid Ottoia

Martin R. Smith, Thomas H. P. Harvey & Nicholas J. Butterfield
The stem-group priapulid Ottoia Walcott, 1911, is the most abundant worm in the mid-Cambrian Burgess Shale, but has not been unambiguously demonstrated elsewhere. High-resolution electron and optical microscopy of macroscopic Burgess Shale specimens reveals the detailed anatomy of its robust hooks, spines and pharyngeal teeth, establishing the presence of two species: Ottoia prolifica Walcott, 1911, and Ottoia tricuspida sp. nov. Direct comparison of these sclerotized elements with a suite of shale-hosted mid-to-late Cambrian microfossils extends...

Data from: Evidence for aggressive mimicry in an adult brood parasitic bird, and generalised defences in its host

William E. Feeney, Jolyon Troscianko, Naomi E. Langmore & Claire N. Spottiswoode
Mimicry of a harmless model (aggressive mimicry) is used by egg, chick and fledgling brood parasites that resemble the host's own eggs, chicks and fledglings. However, aggressive mimicry may also evolve in adult brood parasites, to avoid attack from hosts and/or manipulate their perception of parasitism risk. We tested the hypothesis that female cuckoo finches (Anomalospiza imberbis) are aggressive mimics of female Euplectes weavers, such as the harmless, abundant and sympatric southern red bishop (Euplectes...

Data from: Hosts of avian brood parasites have evolved egg signatures with elevated information content

Eleanor M. Caves, Martin Stevens, Edwin S. Iversen & Claire N. Spottiswoode
Hosts of brood-parasitic birds must distinguish their own eggs from parasitic mimics, or pay the cost of mistakenly raising a foreign chick. Egg discrimination is easier when different host females of the same species each lay visually distinctive eggs (egg ‘signatures’), which helps to foil mimicry by parasites. Here, we ask whether brood parasitism is associated with lower levels of correlation between different egg traits in hosts, making individual host signatures more distinctive and informative....

Data from: Managing Neotropical oil palm expansion to retain phylogenetic diversity

Graham W. Prescott, James J. Gilroy, Torbjørn Haugaasen, Claudia A. Medina Uribe, William A. Foster & David P. Edwards
The expansion of tropical agriculture is a major driver of the extinction crisis. A key question is whether biodiversity losses can be minimized by restricting future expansion to low-productivity farmland and retaining forest fragments, especially in rapidly changing Neotropical landscapes. We investigated these methods in the context of avian phylogenetic diversity, which summarizes the evolutionary history preserved within communities. Evidence suggests that phylogenetic diversity plays an important role in maintaining key ecosystem functions. We collected...

Data from: Disruptive viability selection on a black plumage trait associated with dominance

Paul Acker, Arnaud Grégoire, Margaux Rat, Claire N. Spottiswoode, René E. Van Dijk, Matthieu Paquet, Jennifer C. Kaden, Roger Pradel, Ben J. Hatchwell, Rita Covas & Claire Doutrelant
Traits used in communication, such as colour signals, are expected to have positive consequences for reproductive success, but their associations with survival are little understood. Previous studies have mainly investigated linear relationships between signals and survival, but both hump-shaped and U-shaped relationships can also be predicted, depending on the main costs involved in trait expression. Furthermore, few studies have taken the plasticity of signals into account in viability selection analyses. The relationship between signal expression...

Data from: Colour polymorphism torn apart by opposing positive frequency-dependent selection, yet maintained in space

Swanne P. Gordon, Hanna Kokko, Bibiana Rojas, Ossi Nokelainen & Johanna Mappes
1. Polymorphic warning signals in aposematic species are enigmatic because predator learning and discrimination should select for the most common coloration, resulting in positive frequency-dependent survival selection. 2. Here, we investigated whether differential mating success could create sufficiently strong negative frequency-dependent selection for rare morphs to explain polymorphic (white and yellow) warning coloration in male wood tiger moths (Parasemia plantaginis). 3. We conducted an experiment in semi-natural conditions where we estimated mating success for both...

Data from: Experimental evidence for phonemic contrasts in a nonhuman vocal system

Sabrina Engesser, Jodie M. S. Crane, James L. Savage, Andrew F. Russell & Simon W. Townsend
The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone. Using acoustic analyses, natural observations, and a series of controlled playback...

Data from: Inbreeding ratio and genetic relationships among strains of the Western clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis

Takeshi Igawa, Ai Watanabe, Atsushi Suzuki, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Keiko Kashiwagi, Anna Noble, Matt Guille, David E. Simpson, Marko E. Horb, Tamotsu Fujii & Masayuki Sumida
The Western clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, is a highly promising model amphibian, especially in developmental and physiological research, and as a tool for understanding disease. It was originally found in the West African rainforest belt, and was introduced to the research community in the 1990s. The major strains thus far known include the Nigerian and Ivory Coast strains. However, due to its short history as an experimental animal, the genetic relationship among the various strains...

Data from: Amyloid precursor protein translation is regulated by a 3'UTR guanine quadruplex

Ezekiel Crenshaw, Brian P. Leung, Chun Kit Kwok, Michal Sharoni, Kalee Olson, Neeraj P. Sebastian, Sara Ansaloni, Reinhard Schweitzer-Stenner, Michael R. Akins, Philip C. Bevilacqua & Aleister J. Saunders
A central event in Alzheimer’s disease is the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides generated by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP overexpression leads to increased Aβ generation and Alzheimer’s disease in humans and altered neuronal migration and increased long term depression in mice. Conversely, reduction of APP expression results in decreased Aβ levels in mice as well as impaired learning and memory and decreased numbers of dendritic spines. Together these...

Data from: Dissecting molecular evolution in the highly diverse plant clade Caryophyllales using transcriptome sequencing

Ya Yang, Michael J. Moore, Samuel F. Brockington, Douglas E. Soltis, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Eric J. Carpenter, Yong Zhang, Li Chen, Zhixiang Yan, Yinlong Xie, Rowan F. Sage, Sarah Covshoff, Julian M. Hibberd, Matthew N. Nelson & Stephen A. Smith
Many phylogenomic studies based on transcriptomes have been limited to “single-copy” genes due to methodological challenges in homology and orthology inferences. Only a relatively small number of studies have explored analyses beyond reconstructing species relationships. We sampled 69 transcriptomes in the hyperdiverse plant clade Caryophyllales and 27 outgroups from annotated genomes across eudicots. Using a combined similarity- and phylogenetic tree-based approach, we recovered 10,960 homolog groups, where each was represented by at least eight ingroup...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    43

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    43

Affiliations

  • University of Cambridge
    43
  • University of Sheffield
    6
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    4
  • University of Exeter
    4
  • Australian National University
    3
  • University of Zurich
    3
  • University of Cape Town
    3
  • University of Porto
    3
  • University of Copenhagen
    2
  • Harvard University
    2