88 Works

Derived global responses of annual river flow to catchment forestation through time, between 1900 and 2018

L. Bentley & D.A. Coomes
This dataset reports the responses of annual river flow to forestation in 43 catchments and contains 770 data points. Data shows the change in river flow following forestation at annual time scales, along control river flow measurements and associated metadata from primary and secondary sources. Data collection, processing and interpretation were performed by Laura Bentley and David A. Coomes between January 2018 and October 2019. Forestation was defined as a change in land cover from...

Drones and global navigation satellite systems: current evidence from polar scientists

Iain Sheridan
Aerial unmanned vehicles, so-called drones, present a paradigm shift away from the long term use by scientists of manned airplanes and helicopters. This is evident from the number of research articles that focus on data obtained with drones. This article examines the use of aerial drones for scientific research in cryospheric regions, especially Antarctica and the Arctic. Specifically it aims to provide insights into the choices and performance of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) use...

Data from: Resegmentation is an ancestral feature of the gnathostome vertebral skeleton

Katharine E. Criswell & J. Andrew Gillis
The vertebral skeleton is a defining feature of vertebrate animals. However, the mode of vertebral segmentation varies considerably between major lineages. In tetrapods, adjacent somite halves recombine to form a single vertebra through the process of ‘resegmentation’. In teleost fishes, there is considerable mixing between cells of the anterior and posterior somite halves, without clear resegmentation. To determine whether resegmentation is a tetrapod novelty, or an ancestral feature of jawed vertebrates, we tested the relationship...

Benefits of cooperation in captive Damaraland mole rats

Thomas Houslay, Philippe Vullioud, Markus Zöttl & Tim Clutton-Brock
Although the social mole rats are commonly classified as eusocial breeders on the grounds that groups include a single breeding female (the ‘queen’) and a number of non-breeding individuals (‘helpers’) of both sexes, alloparental care is not highly developed in these species and there is no direct evidence that the presence or number of non-breeders is associated with reductions in the workload of the ‘queen’. An alternative interpretation of mole rat groups is that the...

Tracking the Near East origins and European dispersal of the house mouse

Thomas CUCCHI, Katerina Papayianni, Sophie Cersoy, Laetitia Aznar-Cormano, Antoine Zazzo, Régis Debruyne, Rémi Berthon, Adrian Bălășescu, Alan Simmons, François Valla, Yannis Hamilakis, Fanis Mavridis, Marjan Mashkour, Jamshid Darvish, Roohollah Siahsarvi, Fereidoun Biglari, Cameron A. Petrie, Lloyd Weeks, Alireza Sardari, Sepideh Maziar, Christiane Denys, David Orton, Emma Jenkins, Melinda Zeder, Jeremy B. Searle … & Jean-Denis Vigne
The house mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most invasive mammals and an evolutionary model. However, the timing and components of its origin and dispersal remain poorly documented. To track its synanthropisation and subsequent biological invasion during the develoment of complex human societies, we analyzed 829 Mus specimens from 43 archaeological contexts in Southwestern Asia and Southeastern Europe, dating between 40,000 and 3,000 cal. BP, combining geometric morphometris numerical taxonomy with ancient mitochondrial DNA...

Kinetic data, oligomer data and binding data

Sara Linse, Tom Scheidt, Katja Bernfur, Michele Vendruscolo, Christopher Dobson, Samuel Cohen, Eimantas Sileikis, Martin Lundqvist, Fang Qian, Tiernan O'Malley, Thierry Bussiere, Paul Weinreb, Catherine Xu, Georg Meisl, Sean Devenish, Tuomas Knowles & Oskar Hansson
The amyloid cascade hypothesis, according to which the self-assembly of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a causative process in Alzheimer’s disease, has driven many therapeutic efforts for the past 20 years. Failures of clinical trials investigating Aβ-targeted therapies have been interpreted as evidence against this hypothesis, irrespective of the characteristics and mechanisms of action of the therapeutic agents, which are highly challenging to assess. Here, we combine kinetic analyses with quantitative binding measurements to address the...

Early-life effects on body size in each sex interact to determine reproductive success in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

Eleanor Bladon, Sinead English, Sonia Pascoal & Rebecca Kilner
Early-life conditions have been shown to have a profound effect on an animal’s body size and fecundity across diverse taxa. However, less is known about how early-life effects on fecundity within each sex interact to determine reproductive success. We used experiments with burying beetles Nicrophorus vespilloides to analyse this problem. The nutritional conditions experienced by burying beetles in early life are a key determinant of adult body size in both sexes, and adult body size...

Raw data for: No reproductive benefits of dear enemy recognition in a territorial songbird

Michael Reichert, Jodie Crane, Gabrielle Davidson, Eileen Dillane, Ipek Kulahci, James O'Neill, Kees Van Oers, Ciara Sexton & John Quinn
Territorial animals often learn to distinguish their neighbors from unfamiliar conspecifics. This cognitive ability facilitates the dear enemy effect, where individuals respond less aggressively to neighbors than to other individuals, and is hypothesized to be adaptive by reducing unnecessary aggressive interactions with individuals that are not a threat to territory ownership. A key prediction of this hypothesis, that individuals with better ability to learn to recognize neighbors should have higher fitness, has never been tested....

A practical approach to measuring the biodiversity impacts of land conversion

América P. Durán, Jonathan M. H. Green, Christopher D. West, Piero Visconti, Neil Burgess, Malika Virah-Sawmy & Andrew Balmford
1. Further progress in reducing biodiversity loss relies on the improved quantification of the connections between drivers of habitat loss and subsequent biodiversity impacts. To this end, biodiversity impact metrics should be able to report linked trends in specific human activities and changes in biodiversity state, accounting for both the ecology of different species, and the cumulative effects of historical habitat losses. These characteristics are not currently captured within a single metric. 2. Here we...

High temperatures drive offspring mortality in a cooperatively breeding bird

Amanda Bourne, Susan Cunningham, Claire Spottiswoode & Amanda Ridley
An improved understanding of life history responses to current environmental variability is required to predict species-specific responses to anthopogenic climate change. Previous research has suggested that cooperation in social groups may buffer individuals against some of the negative effects of unpredictable climates. We use a 15-year dataset on a cooperative-breeding arid-zone bird, the southern pied babbler Turdoides bicolor, to test i) whether environmental conditions and group size correlate with survival of young during three development...

Signalling adjustments to direct and indirect environmental effects on signal perception in meerkats

Gabriella Gall, Pauline Toni, Tim Clutton-Brock & Marta Manser
The efficiency of communication between animals is determined by the perception range of signals. With changes in the environment, signal transmission between a sender and a receiver can be affected both directly, where the signal’s propagation quality itself is affected, and indirectly, where for example the spacing between signaller and receiver is impacted. Here we investigated how meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in the Kalahari Desert adjust to these challenges in the context of maintaining group cohesion...

Hybridization and transgressive exploration of colour pattern and wing morphology in Heliconius butterflies

Claire Mérot, Vincent Debat, Yann Le Poul, Richard M Merrill, Russell E Naisbit, Adélie Tholance, Chris Jiggins & Mathieu Joron
Hybridization can generate novel phenotypes distinct from those of parental lineages, a phenomenon known as transgressive trait variation. Transgressive phenotypes might negatively or positively affect hybrid fitness, and increase available variation. Closely related species of Heliconius butterflies regularly produce hybrids in nature and hybridization is thought to play a role in the diversification of novel wing colour patterns despite strong stabilizing selection due to interspecific mimicry. Here, we studied wing phenotypes in first and second...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis of type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-InterAct study

Lina Cai, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicola D. Kerrison, Jian'an Luan, Panos Deloukas, Paul W. Franks, Pilar Amiano, Eva Ardanaz, Catalina Bonet, Guy Fagherazzi, Leif C. Groop, Rudolf Kaaks, José María Huerta, Giovanna Masala, Peter M. Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Valeria Pala, Salvatore Panico, Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco, Olov Rolandsson, Carlotta Sacerdote, Matthias B. Schulze, Annemieke M.W. Spijkeman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino … & Nicholas J. Wareham
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic...

Oxidative costs of cooperation in cooperatively breeding Damaraland mole-rats

Rute Mendonça, Philippe Vullioud, Nathan Katlein, Armelle Vallat, Gaetan Glauser, Nigel Bennett & Fabrice Helfenstein
Within cooperatively breeding societies, individuals adjust cooperative contributions to maximise indirect fitness and minimize direct fitness costs. Yet, little is known about the physiological costs of cooperation, which may be detrimental to direct fitness. Oxidative stress, the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (by-products of energy production) and antioxidant protection, may represent such a cost when cooperative behaviours are energetically demanding. Oxidative stress can lead to the accumulation of cellular damage, compromising survival and reproduction, thus...

Cuttlefish show flexible and future-dependent foraging cognition

Pauline Billard, Alexandra Schnell, Nicola Clayton & Christelle Jozet-Alves
Some animals optimise their foraging activity by learning and memorising food availability, in terms of quantity and quality, and adapt their feeding behaviour accordingly. Here we investigated whether cuttlefish flexibly adapt their foraging behaviour according to the availability of their preferred prey. In Experiment 1, cuttlefish switched from a selective to an opportunistic foraging strategy (or vice versa) when the availability of their preferred prey at night was predictable versus unpredictable. In Experiment 2, cuttlefish...

Weight loss, insulin resistance, and study design confound results in a meta-analysis of animal models of fatty liver

Harriet Hunter, Dana De Gracia Hahn, Amedine Duret, Yu Ri Im, Qinrong Cheah, Jiawen Dong, Madison Fairey, Clarissa Hjalmarsson, Alice Li, Hong Kai Lim, Lorcan McKeown, Claudia-Gabriela Mitrofan, Raunak Rao, Mrudula Utukuri, Ian A Rowe & Jake Mann
The classical drug development pipeline necessitates studies using animal models of human disease to gauge future efficacy in humans, however there is a low conversion rate from success in animals to humans. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex chronic disease without any established therapies and a major field of animal research. We performed a meta-analysis with meta-regression of 603 interventional rodent studies (10,364 animals) in NAFLD to assess which variables influenced treatment response....

The evolutionary dynamics and fitness landscape of clonal hematopoiesis

Caroline J. Watson, A.L. Papula, Gladys Y.P. Poon, Wing H. Wong, Andrew L. Young, Todd E. Druley, Daniel S. Fisher & Jamie R. Blundell
Somatic mutations acquired in healthy tissues as we age are major determinants of cancer risk. Whether variants confer a fitness advantage or rise to detectable frequencies by change remains largely unknown. Blood sequencing data from ∼50,000 individuals reveals how mutation, genetic drift and fitness shape the genetic diversity of healthy blood (clonal hematopoiesis). We show that positive selection, not drift, is the major force shaping clonal hematopoiesis, provide bounds on the number of hematopoietic stem...

Genome reduction is associated with bacterial pathogenicity across different scales of temporal and ecological divergence - between species core gene alignments

Jane Charlesworth, Gemma Murray, Eric Miller, Michael Casey, Catrin Lloyd, Marcello Gottschalk, Dan Tucker, John Welch & Lucy Weinert
Emerging bacterial pathogens threaten global health and food security, and so it is important to ask whether these transitions to pathogenicity have any common features. We present a systematic study of the claim that pathogenicity is associated with genome reduction and gene loss. We compare broad-scale patterns across all bacteria, with detailed analyses of Streptococcus suis, an emerging zoonotic pathogen of pigs, which has undergone multiple transitions between disease and carriage forms. We find that...

The signal detection problem of aposematic prey revisited: integrating prior social and personal experience

Rose Thorogood & Liisa Hämäläinen
Data collected during three separate experiments using the "novel world" (Alatalo & Mappes, Nature 1996) approach to test how social information changes predator discrimination of novel aposematic prey from a cryptic palatable alternative. Experiments were conducted with great tits (Parus major), captured from the wild and released afterwards, at the University of Jyväskylä Research Station, Konnevesi, Finland (62.6° N, 26.3° E) during three winters (2013-2014, 2016-2017, 2017-2018). Social information was provided by video playback of...

Speedy revelations: how alarm calls can convey rapid, reliable information about urgent danger

Jessica McLachlan & Robert Magrath
In the perpetual struggle between high-speed predators and their prey, individuals need to react in the blink of an eye to avoid capture. Alarm calls that warn of danger therefore need to do so sufficiently rapidly that listeners can escape in time. Paradoxically, many species produce more elements in their alarm calls when signalling about more immediate danger, thereby increasing the reliability of transmission of critical information but taking longer to convey the urgent message....

Ecological mechanisms explaining interactions within plant-hummingbird networks: morphological matching increases towards lower latitudes

Jesper Sonne, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Pietro K. Maruyama, Andréa C. Araújo, Edgar Chávez-González, Aline G. Coelho, Peter A. Cotton, Oscar H. Marín-Gómez, Carlos Lara, Liliana R. Lasprilla, Caio G. Machado, Maria A. Maglianesi, Tiago S. Malucelli, Ana M. Martín-González, Genilda M. Oliveira, Paulo E. Oliveira, Raul Ortiz-Pulido, Márcia A. Rocca, Licléia C. Rodrigues, Ivan Sazima, Benno I. Simmons, Boris Tinoco, Isabela G. Varassin, Marcelo F. Vasconcelos, Bob O’Hara … & Bo Dalsgaard
Interactions between species are influenced by different ecological mechanisms, such as morphological matching, phenological overlap, and species abundances. How these mechanisms explain interaction frequencies across environmental gradients remains poorly understood. Consequently, we also know little about the mechanisms that drive the geographical patterns in network structure, such as complementary specialization and modularity. Here, we use data on morphologies, phenologies and abundances to explain interaction frequencies between hummingbirds and plants at a large geographic scale. For...

Data from: Extending the climatological concept of ‘Detection and Attribution’ to global change ecology in the Anthropocene

Ulf Buentgen, Fidel Gonzalez-Rouco, Juerg Luterbacher, Nils Christian Stenseth & Derek Johnson
Research into global change ecology is motivated by the need to understand the role of humans in changing biotic systems. Mechanistic understanding of ecological responses requires the separation of different climatic parameters and processes that often operate on diverse spatiotemporal scales. Yet most environmental studies do not distinguish the effects of internal climate variability from those caused by external, natural (e.g. volcanic, solar, orbital) or anthropogenic (e.g. greenhouse gases, ozone, aerosols, land-use) forcing factors. We...

Data from: Maxwell-Cattaneo magnetoconvection dataset

David Hughes, Ibrahim Eltayeb & Michael Proctor
We study the instability of a Bénard layer subject to a vertical uniform magnetic field, in which the fluid obeys the Maxwell-Cattaneo (MC) heat flux-temperature relation. We extend the work of Bissell (Proc. R. Soc. A, 472: 20160649, 2016) to non-zero values of the magnetic Prandtl number pm. With non-zero pm, the order of the dispersion relation is increased, leading to considerably richer behaviour. An asymptotic analysis at large values of the Chandrasekhar number Q...

Exploring intraspecific variation in migratory destinations to investigate the drivers of migration

Anne-Sophie Bonnet-Lebrun, Marius Somveille, Ana S.L. Rodrigues & Andrea Manica
Various benefits (e.g. tracking of resources and of climate niche) and costs (e.g. distance travelled) are hypothesized to drive seasonal animal migrations. Until now, these potential factors have been investigated together at the species level, but migratory movements are made at the individual level, leading to intraspecific variability. Here, we use ringing/recovery data from 1308 individuals belonging to thirteen North American bird species to analyse patterns in intraspecific variability of migratory destinations in order to...

‘The last channel’: Vision at the temporal margin of the field

Peter Veto, Peter B. M. Thomas, Philip Alexander, Thomas Wemyss & John D. Mollon
The human visual field, on the temporal side, extends to at least 90 degrees from the line of sight. Using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure in which observers are asked to report the direction of motion of a Gabor patch, and taking precautions to exclude unconscious eye movements in the direction of the stimulus, we show that the limiting eccentricity of image-forming vision can be established with precision. There are large, but reliable, individual differences in...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    88

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    88

Affiliations

  • University of Cambridge
    88
  • University of Exeter
    6
  • University of Leeds
    5
  • Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
    4
  • University of Oxford
    4
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    3
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
    3
  • Oklahoma State University
    3
  • University of Pretoria
    2
  • Linnaeus University
    2