170 Works

Data from: Interactions between demography, genetics, and landscape connectivity increase extinction probability for a small population of large carnivores in a major metropolitan area

John F. Benson, Peter J. Mahoney, Jeff A. Sikich, Laurel E.K. Serieys, John P. Pollinger, Holly B. Ernest, Seth P.D. Riley, Laurel E. K. Serieys & Seth P. D. Riley
The extinction vortex is a theoretical model describing the process by which extinction risk is elevated in small, isolated populations owing to interactions between environmental, demographic, and genetic factors. However, empirical demonstrations of these interactions have been elusive. We modelled the dynamics of a small mountain lion population isolated by anthropogenic barriers in greater Los Angeles, California, to evaluate the influence of demographic, genetic, and landscape factors on extinction probability. The population exhibited strong survival...

Data from: Isotopic niches support the resource breadth hypothesis

Jonathan A. Rader, Seth D. Newsome, Pablo Sabat, R. Terry Chesser, Michael E. Dillon & Carlos Martínez Del Rio
Because a broad spectrum of resource use allows species to persist in a wide range of habitat types, and thus permits them to occupy large geographical areas, and because broadly distributed species have access to more diverse resource bases, the resource breadth hypothesis posits that the diversity of resources used by organisms should be positively related with the extent of their geographic ranges. We investigated isotopic niche width in a small radiation of South American...

Data from: What, if anything, are hybrids: enduring truths and challenges associated with population structure and gene flow

Zachariah Gompert & C. Alex Buerkle
Hybridization is a potent evolutionary process that can affect the origin, maintenance, and loss of biodiversity. Because of its ecological and evolutionary consequences, an understanding of hybridization is important for basic and applied sciences, including conservation biology and agriculture. Herein, we review and discuss ideas that are relevant to the recognition of hybrids and hybridization. We supplement this discussion with simulations. The ideas we present have a long history, particularly in botany, and clarifying them...

Data from: Demographic modelling with whole-genome data reveals parallel origin of similar Pundamilia cichlid species after hybridization

Joana I. Meier, Vitor C. Sousa, David Alexander Marques, Oliver M. Selz, Catherine E. Wagner, Laurent Excoffier & Ole Seehausen
Modes and mechanisms of speciation are best studied in young species pairs. In older taxa, it is increasingly difficult to distinguish what happened during speciation from what happened after speciation. Lake Victoria cichlids in the genus Pundamilia encompass a complex of young species and polymorphic populations. One Pundamilia species pair, P. pundamilia and P. nyererei, is particularly well suited to study speciation because sympatric population pairs occur with different levels of phenotypic differentiation and reproductive...

Data from: Highly variable reproductive isolation among pairs of Catostomus species

Elizabeth G. Mandeville, Thomas L. Parchman, David B. McDonald & C. Alex Buerkle
Hybridization between diverged taxa tests the strength of reproductive isolation and can therefore reveal mechanisms of reproductive isolation. However, it remains unclear how consistent reproductive isolation is across species' ranges and to what extent reproductive isolation might remain polymorphic as species diverge. To address these questions, we compared outcomes of hybridization across species pairs of Catostomus fishes in three rivers in the Upper Colorado River basin, where an introduced species, C. commersoni, hybridizes with at...

Investigating the morphological and genetic divergence of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in lakes of arctic Alaska

Stephen L. Klobucar, Jessica Rick, Elizabeth Mandeville, Catherine Wagner & Phaedra Budy
Polymorphism facilitates coexistence of divergent morphs (e.g., phenotypes) of the same species by minimizing intraspecific competition, especially when resources are limiting. Arctic char (Salvelinus sp.) are a Holarctic fish often forming morphologically, and sometimes genetically, divergent morphs. In this study, we assessed the morphological and genetic diversity and divergence of 263 individuals from seven populations of arctic char with varying length-frequency distributions across two distinct groups of lakes in northern Alaska. Despite close geographic proximity,...

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity drives a depth gradient in male conspicuousness in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus

Chad D. Brock, Molly E. Cummings & Daniel I. Bolnick
Signal evolution is thought to depend on both a signal's detectability or conspicuousness (signal design) as well as any extractable information it may convey to a potential receiver (signal content). While theoretical and empirical work in sexual selection has largely focused on signal content, there has been a steady accrual of evidence that signal design is also important for trait evolution. Despite this, relatively little attention has been paid to spatial variation in the conspicuousness...

Data from: Functional group, biomass, and climate change effects on ecological drought in semiarid grasslands

Scott D. Wilson, Daniel R. Schlaepfer, John B. Bradford, William K. Lauenroth, Michael C. Duniway, Sonia A. Hall, Khishigbayar Jamiyansharav, G. Jia, Ariuntsetseg Lkhagva, Seth M. Munson, David A. Pyke & Britta Tietjen
Water relations in plant communities are influenced both by contrasting functional groups (grasses, shrubs) and by climate change via complex effects on interception, uptake and transpiration. We modelled the effects of functional group replacement and biomass increase, both of which can be outcomes of invasion and vegetation management, and climate change on ecological drought (soil water potential below which photosynthesis stops) in 340 semiarid grassland sites over 30-year periods. Relative to control vegetation (climate and...

Data from: Diel predator activity drives a dynamic landscape of fear

Michel T. Kohl, Daniel R. Stahler, Matthew C. Metz, James D. Forester, Matthew J. Kauffman, Nathan Varley, Patrick J. White, Douglas W. Smith & Daniel R. MacNulty
A ‘landscape of fear’ (LOF) is a map that describes continuous spatial variation in an animal’s perception of predation risk. The relief on this map reflects, for example, places that an animal avoids to minimize risk. Although the LOF concept is a potential unifying theme in ecology that is often invoked to explain the ecological and conservation significance of fear, little is known about the daily dynamics of a LOF. Despite theory and data to...

Local adaptation across a complex bioclimatic landscape in two montane bumble bee species

Jason Jackson, Meaghan Pimsler, Kennan Oyen, James Strange, Michael Dillon & Jeffrey Lozier
Understanding evolutionary responses to variation in temperature and precipitation across species ranges is of fundamental interest given ongoing climate change. The importance of temperature and precipitation for multiple aspects of bumble bee (Bombus) biology, combined with large geographic ranges that expose populations to diverse environmental pressures, make these insects well-suited for studying local adaptation. We analyzed genome-wide sequence data from two widespread bumble bees, Bombus vosnesenskii and Bombus vancouverensis, using multiple Environmental Association Analysis methods...

Urbanization impacts apex predator gene flow but not genetic diversity across an urban-rural divide

Daryl R Trumbo, Patricia E Salerno, Kenneth Logan, Mat Alldredge, Roderick B Gagne, Christopher P Kozakiewicz, Simona Kraberger, Nick Fountain-Jones, Meggan E Craft, Scott Carver, Holly B Ernest, Kevin Crooks, Sue VandeWoude & W. Chris Funk
Apex predators are important indicators of intact natural ecosystems. They are also sensitive to urbanization because they require broad home ranges and extensive contiguous habitat to support their prey base. Pumas (Puma concolor) can persist near human developed areas, but urbanization may be detrimental to their movement ecology, population structure, and genetic diversity. To investigate potential effects of urbanization in population connectivity of pumas, we performed a landscape genomics study of 130 pumas on the...

Data from: Resource stability and geographic isolation are associated with genome divergence in western Palearctic crossbills

Thomas L. Parchman, Pim Edelaar, Kathryn Uckele, Eduardo T. Mezquida, Daniel Alonso, Joshua P. Jahner, Ron W. Summers & Craig W. Benkman
While many conifers produce annually variable seed crops, serotinous species (which hold seeds in cones for multiple years) represent unusually stable food resources for seed predators. Such stability is conducive to residency and potentially population divergence of consumers as exemplified by the Cassia crossbill (Loxia sinesciuris) in North America. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether three Mediterranean subspecies of common crossbills (L. curvirostra) associated with the serotinous Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) were more genetically distinct...

Data from: Anthropogenic land‐use change intensifies the effect of low flows on stream fishes

Richard H. Walker, Carlin E. Girard, Samantha L. Alford & Annika W. Walters
1. As ecosystems experience simultaneous disturbances, it is critical to understand how multiple stressors interact to affect ecological change. Land-use change (LUC) and extreme flow events are two important stressors that could interact to affect fish populations. 2. We evaluated the individual and interactive effects of discharge and LUC associated with oil and natural gas development (ONGD) on populations of two stream fishes over a seven-year period. We used repeated-state (i.e., abundance trends) and rate...

Data from: Long-term population dynamics of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. rostriformis): a cross-system analysis

David L. Strayer, Boris V. Adamovich, Rita Adrian, David C. Aldridge, Csilla Balogh, Lyubov E. Burlakova, Hannah B. Fried-Petersen, László G.‐Tóth, Amy L. Hetherington, Thomas S. Jones, Alexander Y. Karatayev, Jacqueline B. Madill, Oleg A. Makarevich, J. Ellen Marsden, Andre L. Martel, Dan Minchin, Thomas F. Nalepa, Ruurd Noordhuis, Timothy J. Robinson, Lars G. Rudstam, Astrid N. Schwalb, David R. Smith, Alan D. Steinman & Jonathan M. Jeschke
Dreissenid mussels (including the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel D. rostriformis) are among the world's most notorious invasive species, with large and widespread ecological and economic effects. However, their long‐term population dynamics are poorly known, even though these dynamics are critical to determining impacts and effective management. We gathered and analyzed 67 long‐term (>10 yr) data sets on dreissenid populations from lakes and rivers across Europe and North America. We addressed five...

Data from: Heterospecific eavesdropping in ant-following birds of the Neotropics is a learned behaviour

Henry S. Pollock, Ari E. Martinez, J.P. Kelley, Janeene M. Touchton, Corey E. Tarwater & J. Patrick Kelley
Animals eavesdrop on other species to obtain information about their environments. Heterospecific eavesdropping can yield tangible fitness benefits by providing valuable information about food resources and predator presence. The ability to eavesdrop may therefore be under strong selection, although extensive research on alarm-calling in avian mixed-species flocks has found only limited evidence that close association with another species could select for innate signal recognition. Nevertheless, very little is known about the evolution of eavesdropping behaviour...

Data from: Internet blogs, polar bears, and climate-change denial by proxy

Jeffrey A. Harvey, Daphne Van Den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J. M. Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C. Amstrup & Michael E. Mann
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a “poster species” for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence....

Body size determines the thermal coupling between insects and plant surfaces

Sylvain Pincebourde, Michael Dillon & Arthur Woods
1. Most studies in global change biology predict biological impacts of warming from information on macroclimates. Most organisms, however, live in microhabitats with physical conditions which are decoupled to varying degrees from those in macroclimates depending partly on organism body size. 2. Small ectotherms of a few millimetres in length live deep in surface boundary layers such that their heat budgets are dominated by different processes compared to larger ectotherms, whose bodies emerge from surface...

Data from: Drought mildly reduces plant dominance in a temperate prairie ecosystem across years

Karen Castillioni, Kevin Wilcox, Lifen Jiang, Chang Gyo Jung, Yiqi Luo & Lara Souza
1. Shifts in dominance and species reordering can occur in response to global change. However, it is not clear how altered precipitation and disturbance regimes interact to affect species composition and dominance. 2. We explored community-level diversity and compositional similarity responses, both across and within years, to a manipulated precipitation gradient and annual clipping in a mixed-grass prairie in Oklahoma, USA. We imposed seven precipitation treatments (five water exclusion levels [-20%, -40%, -60%, -80%, and...

Data from: Extending null scenarios with Faddy distributions in a probabilistic randomization protocol for presence-absence data

Jorge Navarro Alberto, Bryan Manly & Kenneth Gerow
1. The analysis of species occurrences at discrete locations makes use of statistical methods intended to elucidate whether a random process can explain a particular observed pattern of presences-absences (1-0). Various statistical methods have contributed to the development of null model analysis of (1-0) data in community ecology using randomization tests. Frequentist techniques assuming probability distributions under the null scenarios have been proposed, as in the work by Navarro and Manly (2009) (NM), a protocol...

Ecological and behavioral mechanisms of density-dependent habitat expansion in a recovering African ungulate population

Justine A. Becker, Matthew Hutchinson, Arjun Potter, Shinkyu Park, Jennifer Guyton, Kyler Abernathy, Victor Americo, Ana Gledis Da Conceiçāo, Tyler Kartzinel, Luca Kuziel, Naomi Leonard, Eli Lorenzi, Nuno Martins, Johan Pansu, William Scott, Maria Stahl, Kai Torrens, Marc Stalmans, Ryan Long & Robert Pringle
Major disturbances can temporarily remove factors that otherwise constrain population abundance and distribution. During such windows of relaxed top-down and/or bottom-up control, ungulate populations can grow rapidly, eventually leading to resource depletion and density-dependent expansion into less-preferred habitats. Although many studies have explored the demographic outcomes and ecological impacts of these processes, fewer have examined the individual-level mechanisms by which they occur. We investigated these mechanisms in Gorongosa National Park, where the Mozambican Civil War...

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