182 Works

Data from: Adaptive divergence at the margin of an invaded range

Francis Fatah Kilkenny & Laura F. Galloway
Invasive plant species threaten biological communities globally. However, relatively little is known about how evolutionary processes vary over the course of an invasion. To evaluate the importance of historical and adaptive drivers of range expansion, we compare the performance of North American populations of invasive Lonicera japonica from areas established 100-150 years ago, now the southern core of the range, to populations from the northern range margin, established within the last 65 years. Growth and...

Data from: Experimentally decoupling reproductive investment from energy storage to test the functional basis of a life-history tradeoff

Robert M. Cox, Matthew B. Lovern & Ryan Calsbeek
The ubiquitous life-history trade-off between reproduction and survival has long been hypothesized to reflect underlying energy-allocation trade-offs between reproductive investment and processes related to self-maintenance. Although recent work has questioned whether energy-allocation models provide sufficient explanations for the survival cost of reproduction, direct tests of this hypothesis are rare, especially in wild populations. This hypothesis was tested in a wild population of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) using a two-step experiment. First, stepwise variation in...

Data from: Determinants of genetic structure in a nonequilibrium metapopulation of the plant Silene latifolia

Peter D. Fields & Douglas R. Taylor
Population genetic differentiation will be influenced by the demographic history of populations, opportunities for migration among neighboring demes and founder effects associated with repeated extinction and recolonization. In natural populations, these factors are expected to interact with each other and their magnitudes will vary depending on the spatial distribution and age structure of local demes. Although each of these effects has been individually identified as important in structuring genetic variance, their relative magnitude is seldom...

Data from: Environmental effects on the structure of the G-matrix

Corlett Wolfe Wood, & Edmund D. Brodie
Genetic correlations between traits determine the multivariate response to selection in the short term, and thereby play a causal role in evolutionary change. While individual studies have documented environmentally induced changes in genetic correlations, the nature and extent of environmental effects on multivariate genetic architecture across species and environments remain largely uncharacterized. We reviewed the literature for estimates of the genetic variance-covariance (G) matrix in multiple environments, and compared differences in G between environments to...

Data from: An examination of fitness costs of glyphosate resistance in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea

Catherine L. Debban, Sara Okum, Kathleen E. Pieper, Ariana Wilson & Regina S. Baucom
Fitness costs are frequently invoked to explain the presence of genetic variation underlying plant defense across many types of damaging agents. Despite the expectation that costs of resistance are prevalent, however, they have been difficult to detect in nature. To examine the potential that resistance confers a fitness cost, we examined the survival and fitness of genetic lines of the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, that diverged in the level of resistance to the herbicide...

Data from: Toxicity and population structure of the Rough-Skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa) outside the range of an arms race with resistant predators

Michael T. J. Hague, Leleña A. Avila, Charles T. Hanifin, W. Andrew Snedden, Amber N. Stokes, , , Michael T.J. Hague & Edmund D. Brodie
Species interactions, and their fitness consequences, vary across the geographic range of a coevolutionary relationship. This spatial heterogeneity in reciprocal selection is predicted to generate a geographic mosaic of local adaptation, wherein coevolutionary traits are phenotypically variable from one location to the next. Under this framework, allopatric populations should lack variation in coevolutionary traits due to the absence of reciprocal selection. We examine phenotypic variation in tetrodotoxin (TTX) toxicity of the Rough-Skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa)...

Data from: Historical contingency in a multigene family facilitates adaptive evolution of toxin resistance

Joel McGlothlin, Megan Kobiela, Chris R. Feldman, Todd A. Castoe, Shana L. Geffeney, Charles T. Hanifin, Gabriela Toledo, Freek J. Vonk, Michael K. Richardson, , Michael Pfrender &
Novel adaptations must originate and function within an already established genome [ 1 ]. As a result, the ability of a species to adapt to new environmental challenges is predicted to be highly contingent on the evolutionary history of its lineage [ 2–6 ]. Despite a growing appreciation of the importance of historical contingency in the adaptive evolution of single proteins [ 7–11 ], we know surprisingly little about its role in shaping complex adaptations...

Data from: Analyzing negative feedback using a synthetic gene network expressed in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo

Ashley Jermusyk, Nicholas P. Murphy & Gregory Reeves
Background: A complex network of gene interactions controls gene regulation throughout development and the life of the organisms. Insights can be made into these processes by studying the functional interactions (or “motifs”) which make up these networks. Results: We sought to understand the functionality of one of these network motifs, negative feedback, in a multi-cellular system. This was accomplished using a synthetic network expressed in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo using the yeast proteins Gal4 (a...

Data from: Evolutionary shifts in habitat aridity predict evaporative water loss across squamate reptiles

Christian L. Cox & Robert M. Cox
Aridity is an important determinant of species distributions, shaping both ecological and evolutionary diversity. Lizards and snakes are often abundant in deserts, suggesting a high potential for adaptation or acclimation to arid habitats. However, phylogenetic evidence indicates that squamate diversity in deserts may be more strongly tied to speciation within arid habitats than to convergent evolution following repeated colonization from mesic habitats. To assess the frequency of evolutionary transitions in habitat aridity while simultaneously testing...

Data from: Systems analysis of adaptive responses to MAP Kinase pathway blockade in BRAF mutant melanoma

Brian J. Capaldo, Devin Roller, Mark J. Axelrod, Alex F. Koeppel, Emanuel F. Petricoin, Craig L. Slingluff, Michael J. Weber, Aaron J. Mackey, Daniel Gioeli & Stefan Bekiranov
Fifty percent of cutaneous melanomas are driven by activated BRAFV600E, but tumors treated with RAF inhibitors, even when they respond dramatically, rapidly adapt and develop resistance. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify the major mechanisms of intrinsic and adaptive resistance and develop drug combinations that target these resistance mechanisms. In a combinatorial drug screen on a panel of 12 treatment-naïve BRAFV600E mutant melanoma cell lines of varying levels of resistance to mitogen-activated protein...

Data from: The genetic architecture of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in sympatry within the Mimulus guttatus species complex

Kathleen G. Ferris, Laryssa L. Barnett, Benjamin K. Blackman & John H. Willis
The genetic architecture of local adaptation has been of central interest to evolutionary biologists since the modern synthesis. In addition to classic theory on the effect size of adaptive mutations by Fisher, Kimura and Orr, recent theory addresses the genetic architecture of local adaptation in the face of ongoing gene flow. This theory predicts that with substantial gene flow between populations local adaptation should proceed primarily through mutations of large effect or tightly linked clusters...

Data from: microCT-based phenomics in the zebrafish skeleton reveals virtues of deep phenotyping in a distributed organ system

Matthew Hur, Charlotte A. Gistelinck, Philippe Huber, Jane Lee, Marjorie H. Thompson, Adrian T. Monstad-Rios, Claire J. Watson, Sarah K. McMenamin, Andy Willaert, David M. Parichy, Paul Coucke & Ronald Y. Kwon
Phenomics, which ideally involves in-depth phenotyping at the whole-organism scale, may enhance our functional understanding of genetic variation. Here, we demonstrate methods to profile hundreds of phenotypic measures comprised of morphological and densitometric traits at a large number of sites within the axial skeleton of adult zebrafish. We show the potential for vertebral patterns to confer heightened sensitivity, with similar specificity, in discriminating mutant populations compared to analyzing individual vertebrae in isolation. We identify phenotypes...

Data from: Transmission and temporal dynamics of anther-smut disease (Microbotryum) on alpine carnation (Dianthus pavonius)

Emily L. Bruns, Janis Antonovics, Valentina Carasso & Michael Hood
1. Theory has shown that sterilizing diseases with frequency-dependent transmission (characteristics shared by many sexually transmitted diseases) can drive host populations to extinction. 2. Anther-smut disease (caused by Microbotryum sp.) has become a model plant pathogen system for studying the dynamics of vector and sexually transmitted diseases: infected individuals are sterilized, producing spores instead of pollen, and the disease is spread between reproductive individuals by insect pollinators. We investigated anther-smut disease in a heavily infected...

Data from: Competition drives trait evolution and character displacement between Mimulus species along an environmental gradient

Nicholas J. Kooyers, Brooke James & Benjamin K. Blackman
Closely related species may evolve to coexist stably in sympatry through niche differentiation driven by in situ competition, a process termed character displacement. Alternatively, past evolution in allopatry may have already sufficiently reduced niche overlap to permit establishment in sympatry, a process called ecological sorting. The relative importance of each process to niche differentiation is contentious even though they are not mutually exclusive and are both mediated via multivariate trait evolution. We explore how competition...

Data from: Randomized phase 2 study of FcRn antagonist efgartigimod in generalized myasthenia gravis

James F. Howard, Vera Bril, Ted M. Burns, Renato Mantegazza, Malgorzata Bilinska, Andrzej Szczudlik, Said Beydoun, Francisco Javier Rodriguez De Rivera Garrido, Fredrik Piehl, Mariarosa Rottoli, Philip Van Damme, Tuan Vu, Amelia Evoli, Miriam Freimer, Tahseen Mozaffar, E. Sally Ward, Torsten Dreier, Peter Ulrichts, Katrien Verschueren, Antonio Guglietta, Hans De Haard, Nicolas Leupin & Jan J. G. M. Verschuuren
Objective: To investigate safety and explore efficacy of efgartigimod (ARGX-113), an anti-neonatal Fc receptor immunoglobulin G1 Fc fragment, in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) with a history of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies, who were on stable standard-of-care myasthenia gravis (MG) treatment. Methods: A phase 2, exploratory, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 15-center study is described. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 4 doses over a 3-week period of either 10 mg/kg IV efgartigimod or...

Data from: Population spatial synchrony enhanced by periodicity and low detuning with environmental forcing

Kyle J. Haynes, Jonathan A. Walter & Andrew M. Liebhold
Explaining why fluctuations in abundances of spatially disjunct populations often are correlated through time is a major goal of population ecologists. We address two hypotheses receiving little to no testing in wild populations: a) that population cycling facilitates synchronization given weak coupling among populations, and b) that the ability of periodic external forces to synchronize oscillating populations is a function of the mismatch in timescales (detuning) between the force and the population. Here, we apply...

Data from: Response to joint selection on germination and flowering phenology depends on the direction of selection

Laura F. Galloway, Ray H.B. Watson, Holly R. Prendeville & Ray H. B. Watson
Background and Aims. Flowering and germination time are components of phenology, a complex phenotype that incorporates a number of traits. In natural populations, selection is likely to occur on multiple components of phenology at once. However, we have little knowledge of how joint selection on several phenological traits influences evolutionary response. Methods. We conducted one generation of artificial selection for all combinations of early and late germination and flowering on replicated lines within two independent...

Data from: Effect of the anther-smut fungus Microbotryum on the juvenile growth of its host Silene latifolia

Janis Antonovics, Jessica L. Abbate, Emily L. Bruns, Peter D. Fields, Nicole J. Forrester, Kimberley Gilbert, Michael E. Hood, Timothy Park & Douglas R. Taylor
Premise of the Study: Plant pathogens that form persistent systemic infections within plants have the potential to affect multiple plant life history traits, yet we tend to focus only on visible symptoms. Anther-smut disease of Silene latifolia caused by the fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces the anthers of its host to produce fungal spores in place of pollen, and the pathogen is primarily transmitted among flowering plants by pollinators. Nevertheless, most of its life cycle is...

Self-organising cicada choruses respond to the local sound and light environment

Lawrence Sheppard, Brandon Mechtley, Jonathan Walter & Daniel Reuman
1. Periodical cicadas exhibit an extraordinary capacity for self-organising spatially synchronous breeding behavior. The regular emergence of periodical cicada broods across the US is a phenomenon of longstanding public and scientific interest, as the cicadas of each brood emerge in huge numbers and briefly dominate their ecosystem. During the emergence, the 17-year periodical cicada species Magicicada cassini is found to form synchronised choruses, and we investigated their chorusing behavior from the standpoint of spatial synchrony....

Rapid reversal of a potentially constraining genetic covariance between leaf and flower traits in Silene latifolia

Janet Steven, Ingrid Anderson, Edmund Brodie & Lynda Delph
Genetic covariance between two traits generates correlated responses to selection, and may either enhance or constrain adaptation. Silene latifolia exhibits potentially constraining genetic covariance between specific leaf area and flower number in males. Flower number is likely to increase via fecundity selection but the correlated increase in specific leaf area increases mortality, and specific leaf area is under selection to decrease in dry habitats. We selected on trait combinations in two selection lines for four...

Data from: Synchronous effects produce cycles in deer populations and deer-vehicle collisions

Thomas Anderson, Lawrence Sheppard, Jon Walter, Robert Rolley & Dan Reuman
Population cycles are fundamentally linked with spatial synchrony, the prevailing paradigm being that populations with cyclic dynamics are easily synchronized. That is, population cycles help give rise to spatial synchrony. Here we demonstrate this process can work in reverse, with synchrony causing population cycles. We show that timescale-specific environmental effects, by synchronizing local population dynamics on certain timescales only, cause major population cycles over large areas in white-tailed deer. An important aspect of the new...

Data from: A geographic cline in the ability to self-fertilize is unrelated to the pollination environment

Laura Galloway, Matt Koski, Jeremiah Busch & Dena Grossenbacher
The reproductive assurance (RA) hypothesis predicts that the ability to autonomously self-fertilize should be favored in environments where a lack of mates or pollinators limits outcross reproduction. Because such limits to outcrossing are predicted to be most severe at range edges, elevated autonomy in peripheral populations is often attributed to RA. We test this hypothesis in 24 populations spanning the range of Campanula americana, including sampling at the range interior and three geographic range edges....

Improving intra- and inter-annual GPP predictions by using individual-tree inventories and leaf growth dynamics

Jing Fang, James Lutz, Herman Shugart, Xiaodong Yan, Wenqiang Xie & Feng Liu
Carbon sequestration is a key ecosystem service provided by forests. Inventory data based on individual trees are considered to be the most accurate method for estimating forest productivity. However, estimations of forest photosynthesis itself from inventory data remains understudied, particularly when considering the growth and development of individual trees under the background of global change. Here, we used the leaf growth process with phenology and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) storage to revise an individual-tree based carbon...

Immune responses in mice lacking STAT-1 in microglia

Tajie Harris & Maureen Cowan
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous intracellular protozoan parasite that establishes a life-long chronic infection largely restricted to the central nervous system (CNS). Constant immune pressure, notably IFN-γ-STAT1 signaling, is required for preventing fatal pathology during T. gondii infection. Here, we report that abrogation of STAT1 signaling in microglia, the resident immune cells of the CNS, is sufficient to induce a loss of parasite control in the CNS and susceptibility to toxoplasmic encephalitis during the early...

Transcriptional networks underlying a primary ovarian insufficiency disorder in alligators naturally exposed to EDCs: Transformed read counts and supplementary materials

Matthew Hale, Therese Koal, Tuan Hai Pham, John Bowden & Ben Parrott
Interactions between the endocrine system and environmental contaminants are responsible for impairing reproductive development and function. Despite the taxonomic diversity of affected species and attendant complexity inherent to natural systems, the underlying signaling pathways and cellular consequences are mostly studied in lab models. To resolve the genetic and endocrine pathways that mediate affected ovarian function in organisms exposed to endocrine disrupting contaminants in their natural environments, we assessed broad-scale transcriptional and steroidogenic responses to exogenous...

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