147 Works

Data from: Convergent evolution of phenotypic integration and its alignment with morphological diversification in Carribean Anolis ecomorphs

Jason J. Kolbe, Liam J. Revell, Brian Szekely, & Jonathan B Losos
The adaptive landscape and the G-matrix are keys concepts for understanding how quantitative characters evolve during adaptive radiation. In particular, whether the adaptive landscape can drive convergence of phenotypic integration (i.e., the pattern of phenotypic variation and covariation summarized in the P-matrix) is not well studied. We estimated and compared P for 19 morphological traits in eight species of Caribbean Anolis lizards, finding that similarity in P among species was not correlated with phylogenetic distance....

Data from: Hunting to extinction: biology and regional economy influence extinction risk and the impact of hunting in artiodactyls

Samantha A. Price, John L. Gittleman, Samantha A Price & John L Gittleman
Half of all artiodactyls (even-toed hoofed mammals) are threatened with extinction, around double the mammalian average. Here, using a complete species-level phylogeny, we construct a multivariate model to assess for the first time which intrinsic (biological) and extrinsic (anthropogenic and environmental) factors influence variation in extinction risk in artiodactyls. Globally artiodactyls at greatest risk live in economically less developed areas, have older weaning ages and smaller geographical ranges. Our findings suggest that identifying predictors of...

Sperm morphology and count vary with fine-scale changes in local density in a wild lizard population

Matthew C Kustra, Ariel F Kahrl, Aaron M Reedy, Daniel A Warner & Robert M Cox
Given that sperm production can be costly, theory predicts that males should optimally adjust the quantity and/or quality of their sperm in response to their social environment to maximize their paternity success. Although experiments demonstrate that males can alter their ejaculates in response to manipulations of the social environment and studies show that ejaculate traits covary with social environment across populations, it is unknown whether individual variation in sperm traits corresponds to natural variation found...

Data from: Is there a disease-free halo at species range limits? The co-distribution of anther-smut disease and its host species

Emily L. Bruns, Janis Antonovics & Michael Hood
1. While disease is widely recognized as affecting host population size, it has rarely been considered to play a role in determining host range limits. Many diseases may not be able to persist near the range limit if host population density falls below the critical threshold level for pathogen invasion. However, in vector- and sexually-transmitted diseases, pathogen transmission may be largely independent of host density and theory demonstrates that diseases with frequency-dependent transmission may persist...

Data from: Two subunits of human ORC are dispensable for DNA replication and proliferation

Etsuko Shibata, Manjari Kiran, Yoshiyuki Shibata, Samarendra Singh, Shashi Kiran & Anindya Dutta
The six-subunit Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) is believed to be an essential eukaryotic ATPase that binds to origins of replication as a ring-shaped heterohexamer to load MCM2-7 and initiate DNA replication. We have discovered that human cell lines in culture proliferate with intact chromosomal origins of replication after disruption of both alleles of ORC2 or of the ATPase subunit, ORC1. The ORC1 or ORC2-depleted cells replicate with decreased chromatin loading of MCM2-7 and become critically...

Data from: Early changes in transient adenosine during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury

Mallikarjunarao Ganesana & B. Jill Venton
Adenosine is an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system, and tissue adenosine levels increase during ischemic events, attenuating excitotoxic neuronal injury. Recently, our lab developed an electrochemical fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) method that identified rapid, spontaneous changes in adenosine concentrations that last only about 3 seconds. Here, we investigated the effects of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion on the concentration and frequency of transient adenosine release in the caudate-putamen. In anesthetized rats, data were collected...

Data from: The role of infectious disease in the evolution of females: evidence from anther-smut disease on a gynodioecious alpine carnation

Emily L. Bruns, Ian Miller, Michael E. Hood, Valentina Carasso & Janis Antonovics
In flowering plants, the evolution of females is widely hypothesized to be the first step in the evolutionary pathway to separate male and female sexes, or dioecy. Natural enemies have the potential to drive this evolution if they preferentially attack hermaphrodites over females. We studied sex-based differences in exposure to anther-smut (Microbotryum), a sterilizing pollinator-transmitted disease, in Dianthus pavonius, a gynodioecious perennial herb. We found that within a heavily diseased population, females consistently had lower...

Data from: The contribution of maternal effects to selection response: an empirical test of competing models

Joel William McGlothlin & Laura F. Galloway
Maternal effects can dramatically influence the evolutionary process, in some cases facilitating and in others hindering adaptive evolution. Maternal effects have been incorporated into quantitative genetic models using two theoretical frameworks: the variance-components approach, which partitions variance into direct and maternal components, and the trait-based approach, which assumes that maternal effects are mediated by specific maternal traits. Here, we demonstrate parallels between these models and test their ability to predict evolutionary change. First, we show...

Data from: The extent and genetic basis of phenotypic divergence in life history traits in Mimulus guttatus

Jannice Friedman, Alex D. Twyford, John H. Willis & Benjamin K. Blackman
Differential natural selection acting on populations in contrasting environments often results in adaptive divergence in multivariate phenotypes. Multivariate trait divergence across populations could be caused by selection on pleiotropic alleles or through many independent loci with trait-specific effects. Here, we assess patterns of association between a suite of traits contributing to life history divergence in the common monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, and examine the genetic architecture underlying these correlations. A common garden survey of 74 populations...

Data from: Biparental chloroplast inheritance leads to rescue from cytonuclear incompatibility

Karen B. Barnard-Kubow, Morgan A. McCoy & Laura F. Galloway
Although organelle inheritance is predominantly maternal across animals and plants, biparental chloroplast inheritance has arisen multiple times in the angiosperms. Biparental inheritance has the potential to impact the evolutionary dynamics of cytonuclear incompatibility, interactions between nuclear and organelle genomes that are proposed to be among the earliest types of genetic incompatibility to arise in speciation. We examine the interplay between biparental inheritance and cytonuclear incompatibility in Campanulastrum americanum, a plant species exhibiting both traits. We...

Data from: Challenging the inbreeding hypothesis in a eusocial mammal: population genetics of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

Colleen M. Ingram, Nicholas J. Troendle, Clare A. Gill, Stanton Braude & Rodney L. Honeycutt
The role of genetic relatedness in the evolution of eusociality has been the topic of much debate, especially when contrasting eusocial insects with vertebrates displaying reproductive altruism. The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, was the first described eusocial mammal. Although this discovery was based on an ecological constraints model of eusocial evolution, early genetic studies reported high levels of relatedness in naked mole-rats, providing a compelling argument that low dispersal rates and consanguineous mating (inbreeding as...

Data from: Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty

Douglas J. Kennett, Stephen Plog, Richard J. George, Brendan J. Culleton, Adam S. Watson, Pontus Skoglund, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Kristin Stewardson, Logan Kistler, Steven A. LeBlanc, Peter M. Whiteley, David Reich & George H. Perry
For societies with writing systems, hereditary leadership is documented as one of the hallmarks of early political complexity and governance. In contrast, it is unknown whether hereditary succession played a role in the early formation of prehistoric complex societies that lacked writing. Here we use an archaeogenomic approach to identify an elite matriline that persisted between 800 and 1130 CE in Chaco Canyon, the centre of an expansive prehistoric complex society in the Southwestern United...

Data from: Adaptive dynamics of cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila

Subhash Rajpurohit, Robert Hanus, Vladimir Vrkoslav, Emily L. Behrman, Alan O. Bergland, Dmitri Petrov, Josef Cvacka & Paul S. Schmidt
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are hydrophobic compounds deposited on the arthropod cuticle that are of functional significance with respect to stress tolerance, social interactions, and mating dynamics. We characterized CHC profiles in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster at five levels: across a latitudinal transect in the eastern U.S., as a function of developmental temperature during culture, across seasonal time in replicate years, and as a function of rapid evolution in experimental mesocosms in the field. Furthermore,...

Data from: A generation time effect on the rate of molecular evolution in bacteria

Cory Andrew Weller, Martin Wu & Cory Weller
Molecular evolutionary rate varies significantly among species and a strict global molecular clock has been rejected across the tree of life. Generation time is one primary life-history trait that influences the molecular evolutionary rate. Theory predicts that organisms with shorter generation times evolve faster because of the accumulation of more DNA replication errors per unit time. While the generation-time effect has been demonstrated consistently in plants and animals, the evidence of its existence in bacteria...

Data from: A low-threshold potassium current enhances sparseness and reliability in a model of avian auditory cortex

Margot C. Bjoring & C. Daniel Meliza
Birdsong is a complex vocal communication signal, and like humans, birds need to discriminate between similar sequences of sound with different meanings. The caudal mesopallium (CM) is a cortical-level auditory area implicated in song discrimination. CM neurons respond sparsely to conspecific song and are tolerant of production variability. Intracellular recordings in CM have identified a diversity of intrinsic membrane dynamics, which could contribute to the emergence of these higher-order functional properties. We investigated this hypothesis...

Data from: Seasonal ecosystem metabolism across shallow benthic habitats measured by aquatic eddy covariance

Karl M. Attard, Ivan F. Rodil, Ronnie N. Glud, Peter Berg, Joanna Norkko & Alf Norkko
This submission consists of 40 eddy covariance datasets collected from six shallow sites in the Baltic Sea over an 18 month period. Hourly fluxes were extracted from the high-density data streams and were used to compute daily rates of benthic metabolism (gross primary production (GPP), respiration (R), and net ecosystem metabolism (NEM); in mmol O2 m-2 d-1). These were converted to C assuming an O2 : C of 1.0 for GPP and R. A description...

Unique genetic signatures of local adaptation over space and time for diapause, an ecologically relevant complex trait, in Drosophila melanogaster

Priscilla A Erickson, Cory A Weller, Daniel Y Song, Paul Schmidt, Alan O Bergland & Alyssa Bangerter
Organisms living in seasonally variable environments utilize cues such as light and temperature to induce plastic responses, enabling them to exploit favorable seasons and avoid unfavorable ones. Local adapation can result in variation in seasonal responses, but the genetic basis and evolutionary history of this variation remains elusive. Many insects, including Drosophila melanogaster, are able to undergo an arrest of reproductive development (diapause) in response to unfavorable conditions. In D. melanogaster, the ability to diapause...

Modeling pulsed evolution and time-independent variation improves the confidence level of ancestral and hidden state predictions

Yingnan Gao & Martin Wu
Ancestral state reconstruction is not only a fundamental tool for studying trait evolution, but also very useful for predicting the unknown trait values (hidden states) of extant species. A well-known problem in ancestral and hidden state predictions is that the uncertainty associated with predictions can be so large that predictions themselves are of little use. Therefore, for meaningful interpretation of predicted traits and hypothesis testing, it is prudent to accurately assess the uncertainty of the...

Disentangling the influence of water limitation and simultaneous above and belowground herbivory on plant tolerance and resistance to stress

Fabiane Mundim, Ernane Vieira-Neto, Hans Alborn & Emilio Bruna
1. Plants face multiple biotic and abiotic stressors simultaneously. Many species can tolerate and resist stress, but countermeasures differ between roots and leaves. Since herbivores and environmental conditions modulate costs and benefits of plant defense traits, stress responses are context-dependent. We examined whole-plant tolerance and resistance responses to individual and combined effects of above and belowground herbivory under variable water conditions. 2. We manipulated water availability and access by two common herbivores (Spodoptera exigua caterpillars...

Infection data and spore counts for cross inoculation experiments

Emily Bruns, Janis Antonovics & Michael Hood
Determining the processes that drive the evolution of pathogen host range can inform our understanding of disease dynamics and the potential for host-shifts. In natural populations, patterns of host range could be driven by genetically based differences in pathogen infectivity or ecological differences in host availability. In northwestern Italy, four reproductively isolated lineages of the fungal plant-pathogen Microbotryum have been shown to co-occur on several species in the genus Dianthus. We carried out cross-inoculation experiments...

Data from: Reproductive tradeoffs and phenotypic selection change with body condition, but not with predation regime, across island lizard populations

Robert Cox
Tradeoffs between reproduction and survival are central to life-history theory and are expected to shape patterns of phenotypic selection, but the ecological factors structuring these tradeoffs and resultuant patterns of selection are generally unknown. We manipulated reproductive investment and predation regime in island populations of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) to test (1) whether previously documented increases in the survival of experimentally non-reproductive females (OVX = ovariectomy) reflect the greater susceptibility of reproductive females (SHAM...

Sex linkage of the skeletal muscle sodium channel gene (SCN4A) explains apparent deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium of tetrodotoxin-resistance alleles in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis)

Kerry Gendreau, Michael Hague, Chris Feldman, , & Joel McGlothlin
The arms race between tetrodotoxin-bearing Pacific newts (Taricha) and their garter snake predators (Thamnophis) in western North America has become a classic example of coevolution, shedding light on predator-prey dynamics, the molecular basis of adaptation, and patterns of convergent evolution. Newts are defended by tetrodotoxin (TTX), a neurotoxin that binds to voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav proteins), arresting electrical activity in nerves and muscles and paralyzing would-be predators. However, populations of the common garter snake (T....

The effects of age on the demography of a perennial plant depend on interactions with size and environment

Heide Maria Baden, Johan P. Dahlgren, Deborah Ann Roach, Fritz Hans Schweingruber, Kasper Reitzel & Kim Lundgreen
Age-dependence of the demographic rates survival, fecundity and individual growth is a fundamental aspect of population biological theory. Knowledge about plant ageing can also be important for conservation and agriculture as it will improve the accuracy of population viability assessments and long-term performance assessments in perennial crops. Recent studies show age effects on demographic rates for several plant species, yet much remains to be learned about the patterns and mechanisms of plant ageing, particularly about...

Sacramento River green sturgeon acoustic telemetry detections

Scott Colborne, Lawrence Sheppard, Daniel O'Donnell, Daniel Reuman, Jonathan Walter, Gabriel Singer, John Kelly, Michael Thomas & Andrew Rypel
Abstract for publication titled: Intraspecific variation in migration timing of green sturgeon in the Sacramento River system Understanding movement patterns of anadromous fishes is critical to conservation management of declining wild populations and preservation of habitats. Yet, the duration of observations for individual animals can constrain accurate descriptions of movements. In this study, we synthesized over a decade (2006-2018) of acoustic telemetry tracking observations of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) in the Sacramento River system to...

Group composition of individual personalities alters social network structure in experimental populations of forked fungus beetles

Phoebe Cook, Olivia Baker, Robin Costello, Vincent Formica & Edmund Brodie
Social network structure is a critical group character that mediates the flow of information, pathogens, and resources among individuals in a population, yet little is known about what shapes social structures. In this study, we experimentally tested whether social network structure depends on the personalities of group members. Replicate groups of forked fungus beetles (Bolitotherus cornutus) were engineered to include only members previously assessed as either more social or less social. We found that individuals...

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