144 Works

Data from: Geographic variation in pollen color is associated with temperature stress

Laura Galloway & Matthew Koski
The evolution of flower color, especially petal pigmentation, has received substantial attention. Less understood is the evolutionary ecology of pollen pigmentation though it varies among and within species and its biochemical properties affect pollen viability. We characterize the distribution of pollen color across 24 populations of the North American herb Campanula americana, and assess the degree to which this variation is genetically based. We identify abiotic factors that covary with pollen color and test whether...

Contrasting parasite-mediated reductions in fitness within vs. between patches of a nematode host

Louis Thomas Bubrig, Anne Nicole Janisch, Emily Marie Tillet & Amanda Gibson
Host and parasites interact across spatial scales, but parasite-mediated fitness effects are often measured at local scales only. Recent work suggests that parasites can reduce host fitness during dispersal between patches, highlighting the potential for both within- and between-patch effects to contribute to the net fitness consequences of parasitism. Building on this work, we measured the contribution of the dispersal phase to parasite-mediated reductions in host fitness. We used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its...

Data from: An intronic transposon insertion associates with a trans-species color polymorphism in Midas cichlid fishes

Claudius Kratochwil, Andreas Kautt, Alexander Nater, Andreas Härer, Yipeng Liang, Frederico Henning & Axel Meyer
Polymorphisms have fascinated biologists for a long time, but their genetic underpinnings often remained elusive. Here, we aimed to uncover the genetic basis of the gold/dark polymorphism that is eponymous of Midas cichlid fish (Amphilophus spp.) adaptive radiations in Nicaraguan crater lakes. While most Midas cichlids are of the melanic “dark morph”, about 10% of individuals lose their melanic pigmentation during their ontogeny and transition into a conspicuous “gold morph”. Using a new haplotype-resolved long-read...

Halophila johnsonii phylogenetic analysis alignments

Kor-Jent Van Dijk, Michelle Waycott, Ainsley Calladine, Eric Bricker & Ed Biffin
Halophila johnsonii is an endangered seagrass species that is restricted to the Florida Bay region of Florida, USA. Its taxonomic status has been called into question, in particular, given the close morphological and genetic similarity of H. johnsonii and the widely distributed and morphologically variable H. ovalis, which is largely restricted to the Indo-Pacific region. While a close relationship to H. ovalis is uncontroversial, it remains uncertain whether H. johnsonii represents a distinct lineage or...

Pollen color morphs take different paths to fitness

Matthew Koski, Andrea Berardi & Laura Galloway
Color phenotypes are often involved in communication and are thus under selection by species interactions. However, selection may also act on color through correlated traits or alternative functions of biochemical pigments. Such forms of selection are instrumental in maintaining petal color diversity in plants. Pollen color also varies markedly, but the maintenance of this variation is little understood. In Campanula americana, pollen ranges from white to dark purple, with darker morphs garnering more pollinator visits...

Data from: The evolution of parasite host range in heterogeneous host populations

Amanda Gibson, Helena Baffoe-Bonnie, McKenna Penley, Julie Lin, Raythe Owens, Arooj Khalid & Levi Morran
Theory on the evolution of niche width argues that resource heterogeneity selects for niche breadth. For parasites, this theory predicts that parasite populations will evolve, or maintain, broader host ranges when selected in genetically diverse host populations relative to homogeneous host populations. To test this prediction, we selected the bacterial parasite Serratia marcescens to kill Caenorhabditis elegans in populations that were genetically heterogeneous (50% mix of two experimental genotypes) or homogeneous (100% of either genotype)....

Data from: The geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution is closely matched to prey population structure

Michael Hague, Amber Stokes, Chris Feldman, Edmund Brodie &
Reciprocal adaptation is the hallmark of arms race coevolution. Local coadaptation between natural enemies should generate a geographic mosaic pattern where both species have roughly matched abilities across their shared range. However, mosaic variation in ecologically relevant traits can also arise from processes unrelated to reciprocal selection, such as population structure or local environmental conditions. We tested whether these alternative processes can account for trait variation in the geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution between...

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity, but not adaptive tracking, underlies seasonal variation in post-cold hardening freeze tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster

Helen Stone, Priscilla Erickson & Alan Bergland
In temperate regions, an organism’s ability to rapidly adapt to seasonally varying environments is essential for its survival. In response to seasonal changes in selection pressure caused by variation in temperature, humidity, and food availability, some organisms exhibit plastic changes in phenotype. In other cases, seasonal variation in selection pressure can rapidly increase the frequency of genotypes that offer survival or reproductive advantages under the current conditions. Little is known about the relative influences of...

Host heterogeneity mitigates virulence evolution

P. Signe White, Angela Choi, Rishika Pandey, Arthur Menezes, McKenna Penley, Amanda Gibson, Jacobus De Roode, Levi Morran & Amanda K. Gibson
Parasites often infect genetically diverse host populations, and the evolutionary trajectories of parasite populations may be shaped by levels of host heterogeneity. Mixed genotype host populations, compared to homogeneous host populations, can reduce parasite prevalence and potentially reduce rates of parasite adaptation due to tradeoffs associated with adapting to specific host genotypes. Here, we used experimental evolution to select for increased virulence in populations of the bacterial parasite Serratia marcescens exposed to either heterogenous or...

Data from: Validation of serum neurofilaments as prognostic & potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for ALS

Michael Benatar, Lanyu Zhang, Lily Wang, Volkan Granit, Jeffrey Statland, Richard Barohn, Andrea Swenson, John Ravitz, Carlayne Jackson, Ted Burns, Jaya Trivedi, Erik Pioro, James Caress, Jonathan Katz, Jacob McCauley, Rosa Rademakers, Andrea Malaspina, Lyle Ostrow & Joanne Wuu
Objective. Identify preferred neurofilament assays, and clinically validate serum NfL and pNfH as prognostic and potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers relevant to ALS therapy development. Methods. Prospective, multi-center, longitudinal observational study of patients with ALS (n=229), primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, n=20) and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA, n=11). Biological specimens were collected, processed and stored according to strict standard operating procedures (SOPs) 1. Neurofilament assays were performed in a blinded manner by independent contract research organizations (CROs). Results....

Ambulatory physicians’ electronic health record self-efficacy

Martha Hellems
Objective: To assess ambulatory providers’ confidence in learning about and using the electronic health record (EHR). Materials and Methods: Providers were administered an EHR skills self-assessment survey. Results: 71 providers participated. Only 35% of respondents felt that they had strong EHR skills, 92% felt confident that they could learn new skills, and 90% felt they could improve with practice. 45% of faculty physicians felt confident that they could use the EHR in a time-efficient manner...

Data from: Nonlinearities between inhibition and T-type calcium channel activity bidirectionally regulate thalamic oscillations

Adam Lu, Christine Lee, Max Kleiman-Weiner, Brian Truong, Megan Wang, John Huguenard & Mark Beenhakker
Absence seizures result from 3-5 Hz generalized thalamocortical oscillations that depend on highly regulated inhibitory neurotransmission in the thalamus. Efficient reuptake of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is essential, and reuptake failure worsens seizures. Here, we show that blocking GABA transporters (GATs) in acute brain slices containing key parts of the thalamocortical seizure network modulates epileptiform activity. As expected, we found that blocking either GAT1 or GAT3 prolonged oscillations. However, blocking both GATs unexpectedly suppressed oscillations....

Strength in numbers? Cytotype frequency mediates effect of reproductive barriers in mixed-ploidy arrays.

Brittany Sutherland, Tomas Miranda-Katz & Laura Galloway
When differentiated lineages come into contact, their fates depend on demographic and reproductive factors. These factors have been well-studied in taxa of the same ploidy, but less is known about sympatric lineages that differ in ploidy, particularly with respect to demographic factors. We assessed prezygotic, postzygotic, and total reproductive isolation in naturally-pollinated arrays of diploid-tetraploid and tetraploid-hexaploid population mixes of Campanula rotundifolia by measuring pollinator transitions, seed yield, germination rate, and proportion of hybrid offspring....

Resistance correlations influence infection by foreign pathogens

Michael E. Hood, Noah Lerner, Victoria Luizzi, Janis Antonovics & Emily Bruns
Reciprocal selection promotes the specificity of host-pathogen associations and resistance polymorphisms in response to disease. However, plants and animals also vary in response to pathogen species not previously encountered in nature, with potential effects on new disease emergence. Using anther-smut disease, we show that resistance (measured as infection rates) to foreign pathogens can be correlated with standing variation in resistance to an endemic pathogen. In Silene vulgaris, genetic variation in resistance to its endemic anther-smut...

Data from: Temperature-dependent resetting of the molecular circadian oscillator in Drosophila.

Tadahiro Goda, Brandi Sharp & Herman Wijnen
Circadian clocks responsible for daily time keeping in a wide range of organisms synchronize to daily temperature cycles via pathways that remain poorly understood. To address this problem from the perspective of the molecular oscillator, we monitored temperature-dependent resetting of four of its core components in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster: the transcripts and proteins for the clock genes period (per) and timeless (tim). The molecular circadian cycle in adult heads exhibited parallel responses to temperature-mediated...

Data from: Comparative and population mitogenomic analyses of Madagascar’s extinct, giant ‘subfossil’ lemurs

Logan Kistler, Aakrosh Ratan, Laurie R. Godfrey, Brooke E. Crowley, Cris E. Hughes, Runhua Lei, Yinqui Cui, Mindy L. Wood, Kathleen M. Muldoon, Haingoson Andriamialison, John J. McGraw, Lynn P. Tomsho, Stephan C. Schuster, Webb Miller, Edward E. Louis, Anne D. Yoder, Ripan S. Malhi, George H. Perry & Yinqiu Cui
Humans first arrived on Madagascar only a few thousand years ago. Subsequent habitat destruction and hunting activities have had significant impacts on the island's biodiversity, including the extinction of megafauna. For example, we know of 17 recently extinct ‘subfossil’ lemur species, all of which were substantially larger (body mass ∼11–160 kg) than any living population of the ∼100 extant lemur species (largest body mass ∼6.8 kg). We used ancient DNA and genomic methods to study...

Data from: A threat to loyalty: Fear of missing out (FOMO) leads to reluctance to repeat current experiences

Ceren Hayran, Lalin Anik & Zeynep Gürhan-Canli
We investigate a popular but underresearched concept, the fear of missing out (FOMO), on desirable experiences of which an individual is aware, but in which they do not partake. Through laboratory and field studies, we establish FOMO’s pervasiveness as a psychological phenomenon, present real-life contexts wherein FOMO may be experienced, and explore its behavioral consequences. Specifically, we show that FOMO poses a threat to loyalty by decreasing one’s intentions to repeat a current experience and...

Data from: Morphology of the core fibrous layer of the cetacean tail fluke

William T. Gough, Frank E. Fish, Dylan K. Wainwright & Hilary Bart-Smith
The cetacean tail fluke blades are not supported by any vertebral elements. Instead, the majority of the blades are composed of a densely packed collagenous fiber matrix known as the core layer. Fluke blades from six species of odontocete cetaceans were examined to compare the morphology and orientation of fibers at different locations along the spanwise and chordwise fluke blade axes. The general fiber morphology was consistent with a three‐dimensional structure comprised of two‐dimensional sheets...

Data from: Cytonuclear incompatibility contributes to the early stages of speciation

Karen B. Barnard-Kubow, Nina So & Laura F. Galloway
Genetic incompatibility is a hallmark of speciation. Cytonuclear incompatibilities are proposed to be among the first genetic barriers to arise during speciation. Accordingly, reproductive isolation (RI) within species should be heavily influenced by interactions between the organelle and nuclear genomes. However, there are few clear examples of cytonuclear incompatibility within a species. Here, we show substantial postzygotic RI in first-generation hybrids between differentiated populations of an herbaceous plant (up to 92% reduction in fitness). RI...

Data from: Populations with greater flexibility in floral traits modify mating system in response to the pollinator environment

Lia Leibman, Anne Rowe, Matthew H. Koski & Laura F. Galloway
1. Mixed mating and variation in outcrossing rate among populations of the same species are common. Outcrossing can be affected by pollinator activity and floral traits that facilitate or impede autonomous self-fertilization. However, the relative contribution of pollen limitation and evolved differences in the ability to self fertilize to variation in the mating system is poorly understood and can only be disentangled using an experimental approach. 2. We placed arrays of plants from eight Campanula...

Data from: Convergent evolution of sexual dimorphism in skull shape using distinct developmental strategies

Emma Sherratt, Joel William McGlothlin, , Jonathan B. Losos, Arhat Abzhanov, Thomas J. Sanger & Edmund D. Brodie
Studies integrating evolutionary and developmental analyses of morphological variation are of growing interest to biologists as they promise to shed fresh light on the mechanisms of morphological diversification. Sexually dimorphic traits tend to be incredibly divergent across taxa. Such diversification must arise through evolutionary modifications to sex differences during development. Nevertheless, few studies of dimorphism have attempted to synthesize evolutionary and developmental perspectives. Using geometric morphometric analysis of head shape for 50 Anolis species, we...

Data from: Hunting to extinction: biology and regional economy influence extinction risk and the impact of hunting in artiodactyls

Samantha A. Price & John L. Gittleman
Half of all artiodactyls (even-toed hoofed mammals) are threatened with extinction, around double the mammalian average. Here, using a complete species-level phylogeny, we construct a multivariate model to assess for the first time which intrinsic (biological) and extrinsic (anthropogenic and environmental) factors influence variation in extinction risk in artiodactyls. Globally artiodactyls at greatest risk live in economically less developed areas, have older weaning ages and smaller geographical ranges. Our findings suggest that identifying predictors of...

Data from: The jack-of-all-trades is master of none: a pathogen's ability to infect a greater number of host genotypes comes at a cost of delayed reproduction.

Emily L. Bruns, Martin L. Carson, Georgiana May & Emily Bruns
A trade-off between a pathogen's ability to infect many hosts and its reproductive capacity on each host genotype is predicted to limit the evolution of an expanded host range, yet few empirical results provide evidence for the magnitude of such trade-offs. Here, we test the hypothesis for a trade-off between the number of host genotypes that a fungal pathogen can infect (host genotype range) and its reproductive capacity on susceptible plant hosts. We utilized strains...

Data from: Bayesian inference of a complex invasion history revealed by nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity in the colonizing plant, Silene latifolia

Stephen R. Keller, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Peter D. Fields & Douglas R. Taylor
Species invading new ranges are subject to a series of demographic events that can strongly shape genetic diversity. Describing this demographic history is important for understanding where invasive species come from and how they spread, and is critical to testing hypotheses of post-invasion adaptation. Here, we analyze nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity to study the invasion history of the widespread colonizing weed, Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae). Bayesian clustering and PCA revealed strong population structure in the...

Data from: Relative effects of LDL-C on ischaemic stroke & coronary disease: a Mendelian randomization study

Elsa Valdes-Marquez, Sarah Parish, Robert Clarke, Traiani Stari, Bradford B. Worrall & Jemma C. Hopewell
Objective: To examine the causal relevance of lifelong differences in LDL-C for ischaemic stroke (IS) relative to that for coronary heart disease (CHD) using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods: We undertook a two-sample Mendelian randomization, based on summary data, to estimate the causal relevance of LDL-C for risk of IS and CHD. Information from 62 independent genetic variants with genome-wide significant effects on LDL-C levels was used to estimate the causal effects of LDL-C for...

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