144 Works

Data from: Convergent adaptation to dangerous prey proceeds through the same first-step mutation in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis

Michael Thomas Jonathan Hague, Chris R. Feldman, , , Michael T.J. Hague & Edmund D. Brodie
Convergent phenotypes often result from similar underlying genetics, but recent work suggests convergence may also occur in the historical order of substitutions en route to an adaptive outcome. We characterized convergence in the mutational steps to two independent outcomes of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in separate geographic lineages of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) that coevolved with toxic newts. Resistance is largely conferred by amino acid changes in the skeletal muscle sodium channel (NaV1.4) that...

Sex‐differences in disease avoidance behavior vary across modes of pathogen exposure

Carl N. Keiser, Volker H.W. Rudolf, Matthew C. Luksik & Julia B. Saltz
Sex‐differences in disease susceptibility are widespread, and these disparities are often compounded in cases where sexual dimorphism increases exposure risk to parasites for one sex more than the other. Studies rarely link sex‐differences in disease susceptibility to sex‐differences in infection avoidance behavior. Yet, understanding the intersection of hosts’ susceptibility to infection and infection avoidance behavior is essential to predicting infection risk variation. Here, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and a generalist entomopathogenic fungus,...

The biogeography of community assembly: latitude and predation drive variation in community trait distribution in a guild of epifaunal crustaceans

Collin Gross, Collin Gross, J Duffy, Kevin Hovel, Melissa Kardish, Pamela Reynolds, Christoffer Boström, Katharyn Boyer, Mathiew Cusson, Johan Eklöf, Aschwin Engelen, Klemens Eriksson, Joel Fodrie, John Griffin, Clara Hereu, Masakazu Hori, A Randall Hughes, Mikhail Ivanov, Pablo Jorgensen, Claudia Kruschel, Kun-Seop Lee, Jonathan Lefcheck, Karen McGlathery, Per-Olav Moksnes, Masahiro Nakaoka … & Jay Stachowicz
While considerable evidence exists of biogeographic patterns in the intensity of species interactions, the influence of these patterns on variation in community structure is less clear. Using a model selection approach on measures of trait dispersion in crustaceans associated with eelgrass (Zostera marina) spanning 30º of latitude in two oceans, we found that dispersion strongly increased with increasing predation and decreasing latitude. Ocean and epiphyte load appeared as secondary predictors; Pacific communities were more overdispersed...

Group and individual social network metrics are robust to changes in resource distribution in experimental populations of forked fungus beetles

Robin Costello, Phoebe Cook, Vincent Formica &
Social interactions drive many important ecological and evolutionary processes. It is therefore essential to understand the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that underlie social patterns. A central tenet of the field of behavioral ecology is the expectation that the distribution of resources shapes patterns of social interactions. We combined experimental manipulations with social network analyses to ask how patterns of resource distribution influence complex social interactions. We experimentally manipulated the distribution of an essential food and...

Data from: Exploring density and frequency dependent interactions experimentally: an R program for generating hexagonal fan designs.

Carly Rozins, Janis Antonovics, Michael Hood & Jae Hoon Cho
Species interactions and diversity are strongly impacted by local processes, with both the density of a focal species and its frequency in the community having an impact on its growth, survival, and fecundity. Yet, studies that attempt to control for variation in both frequency and density have traditionally required a large number of replicates. Hexagonal fan designs can include a range of both densities and frequencies in a single plot, providing large economies in space...

Data from: A sensory bias overrides learned preferences of bumblebees for honest signals in Mimulus guttatus

Ariela Haber, James Sims, Mark Mescher, Consuelo De Moraes & David Carr
Insect pollinators readily learn olfactory cues, and this is expected to select for “honest signals” that provide reliable information about floral rewards. However, plants might alternatively produce signals that exploit pollinators’ sensory biases, thereby relaxing selection for signal honesty. We examined the innate and learned preferences of Bombus impatiens for Mimulus guttatus floral scent phenotypes corresponding to different levels of pollen rewards in the presence and absence of the innately attractive floral volatile compound β-trans-bergamotene....

Data from: Opportunities to catalyze improved healthcare access in pluralistic systems: a cross-sectional study in Haiti

Molly Klarman, Justin Schon, Youseline Cajusma, Stacey Maples, Valery M Beau De Rochars, Chantale Baril & Eric J Nelson
Introduction. Gains to ensure global healthcare access are at risk of stalling because some old resilient challenges require new solutions. Our objective was to identify determinants of intended versus actual care-seeking behaviors in a pluralistic healthcare system that is reliant on both conventional and non-conventional providers and discover opportunities to catalyze improved healthcare access. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among households with children less than 5 years of age in Haiti. Households were randomly...

Dead litter of resident species first facilitates and then inhibits sequential life stages of range-expanding species

Rachel Smith, Julie Blaze & James Byers
1. Resident species can facilitate invading species (biotic assistance) or inhibit their expansion (biotic resistance). Species interactions are often context-dependent and the relative importance of biotic assistance versus resistance could vary with abiotic conditions or the life stage of the invading species, as invader stress tolerances and resource requirements change with ontogeny. In northeast Florida salt marshes, the abundant dead litter (wrack) of the native marsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, could influence the expansion success of...

Data used in timing is everything: Dichogamy and pollen germinability underlie variation in autonomous selfing among populations

Laura Galloway & Matthew Koski
Premise of the study: The evolution of multiple floral traits often underlies the transition from outcrossing to selfing. Such traits can influence the ability to self, and the timing at which selfing occurs, which in turn affects the costs of selfing. Species that display variation in autonomous selfing provide an opportunity to dissect the phenotypic changes that contribute to variability in the mating system. Methods: In a common garden, we measured dichogamy and herkogamy in...

Intercontinental dispersal and whole‐genome duplication contribute to loss of self‐incompatibility in a polyploid complex

Brittany Sutherland, Brandie M. Quarles & Laura F. Galloway
Premise of the Study Angiosperm species often shift from self-incompatibility to self-compatibility following population bottlenecks. Across the range of a species, population bottlenecks may result from multiple factors, each of which may affect the geographic distribution and magnitude of mating-system shifts. We describe how intercontinental dispersal and genome duplication facilitate loss of self-incompatibility. Methods Self and outcross pollinations were performed on plants from 24 populations of the Campanula rotundifolia polyploid complex. Populations spanned the geographic...

Hormonal pleiotropy structures genetic covariance

Tyler Wittman, Christopher Robinson, Joel McGlothlin & Robert Cox
Quantitative genetic theory proposes that phenotypic evolution is shaped by G, the matrix of genetic variances and covariances among traits. In species with separate sexes, the evolution of sexual dimorphism is also shaped by B, the matrix of between-sex genetic variances and covariances. Despite considerable focus on estimating these matrices, their underlying biological mechanisms are largely speculative. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that G and B are structured by hormonal pleiotropy, which occurs when one...

Variation in reproduction and gene flow between cytotypes in a polyploid complex: one size does not fit all

Brittany Sutherland & Laura Galloway
Whole-genome duplication is considered an important speciation mechanism in plants. However, its effect on reproductive isolation between higher cytotypes is not well understood. We used backcrosses between different ploidy levels and surveys of mixed-ploidy contact zones to determine how reproductive barriers differed with cytotype across a polyploid complex. We backcrossed F1 hybrids derived from 2X-4X and 4X-6X crosses in the Campanula rotundifolia autopolyploid complex, measured backcross fitness, and estimated backcross DNA cytotype. We then sampled...

Male competition reverses female preference for male chemical cues

Lisa Mitchem
Females must choose among potential mates with different phenotypes in a variety of social contexts. Many male traits are inherent and unchanging, but others are labile to social context. Competition, for example, can cause physiological changes that reflect recent wins and losses which fluctuate throughout time. We may expect females to respond differently to males depending on the outcome of their most recent fight. In Bolitotherus cornutus (forked fungus beetles), males compete for access to...

An experimental test of parasite adaptation to common vs. rare host genotypes

Amanda Gibson, P. Signe White, McKenna Penley, Jacobus De Roode & Levi Morran
A core hypothesis in coevolutionary theory proposes that parasites adapt to specifically infect common host genotypes. Under this hypothesis, parasites function as agents of negative frequency-dependent selection, favoring rare host genotypes. This parasite-mediated advantage of rarity is key to the idea that parasites maintain genetic variation and select for outcrossing in host populations. Here, we report the results of an experimental test of parasite adaptation to common vs. rare host genotypes. We selected the bacterial...

Does genetic diversity protect host populations from parasites? A meta-analysis across natural and agricultural systems

Amanda Gibson & Anna Nguyen
If parasites transmit more readily between closely related hosts, then parasite burdens should decrease with increased genetic diversity of host populations. This important hypothesis is often accepted at face value - notorious epidemics of crop monocultures testify to the vulnerability of host populations that have been purged of diversity. Yet the relationship between genetic diversity and parasitism likely varies across contexts, differing between crop and non-crop hosts and between experimental and natural host populations. Here,...

Westward range expansion from middle latitudes explains the Mississippi River discontinuity in a forest herb of eastern North America

Carly Prior, Nate Layman, Matthew Koski, Laura Galloway & Jeremiah Busch
It is often expected that temperate plants have expanded their geographic ranges northward from primarily southern refugia. Evidence for this hypothesis is mixed in eastern North American species, and there is increasing support for colonization from middle latitudes. We studied genome-wide patterns of variation in RADseq loci to test hypotheses concerning range expansion in a North American forest herb (Campanula americana). First, spatial patterns of genetic differentiation were determined. Then phylogenetic relationships and divergence times...

Data from: Sympatry and interference of divergent Microbotryum pathogen species.

Michael E Hood, Janis Antonovics, Monroe Wolf, Zachariah L Stern, Tatiana Giraud & Jessie L Abbate
The impact of infectious diseases in natural ecosystems is strongly influenced by the degree of pathogen specialization and by the local assemblies of potential host species. This study investigated anther-smut disease, caused by fungi in the genus Microbotryum, among natural populations of plants in the Caryophyllaceae. A broad geographic survey focused on sites of the disease on multiple host species in sympatry. Analysis of molecular identities for the pathogens revealed that sympatric disease was most...

Data from: \"Development of the draft genome sequence of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae as a reference of population genomic analysis\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 February 2015 – 31 March 2015

Yuki Minegishi, Minoru Ikeda, Lynda F. Delph, Laura A. Weingartner, Peter D. Fields, Laura Bertini, Carla Caruso, Silvia Proietti, Wolfgang Arthofer, Francesco Cicconardi, Heike Ritthammer, Birgit C. Schlick-Steiner, Florian M. Steiner, Gregor A. Wachter & Herbert C. Wagner
This article documents the public availability of the draft genome sequence data (raw reads, assembled contigs and unassembled reads) and RAD-tag read data of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae (Pleuronectiformes; Pleuronectidae).

Data from: Patterns of cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium in Silene latifolia: genomic heterogeneity and temporal stability

Peter D. Fields, David E. McCauley, Edward V. McAssey & Douglas R. Taylor
Non-random association of alleles in the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, or cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD), is both an important component of a number of evolutionary processes and a statistical indicator of others. The evolutionary significance of cyto-nuclear LD will depend on both its magnitude and how stable those associations are through time. Here, we use a longitudinal population genetic data set to explore the magnitude and temporal dynamics of cyto-nuclear disequilibria through time. We genotyped...

Data from: Spatial variation in Allee effects influences patterns of range expansion

Jonathan A. Walter, Derek M. Johnson & Kyle J. Haynes
Allee effects are thought to slow range expansion and contribute to stable range boundaries. Recent studies have shown Allee effects to vary spatiotemporally due to influences of environmental heterogeneity on population processes. Gradients in Allee effects might occur as a species' range approaches suboptimal conditions while expanding into new territory. Allee effects could exhibit patchiness if drivers of positive density dependence (e.g., mate finding rates) are influenced by habitat patchiness. However, theoretical studies have largely...

Data from: Does adaptive radiation of a host lineage promote ecological diversity of its bacterial communities? A test using gut microbiota of Anolis lizards

Tiantian Ren, Ariel F. Kahrl, Martin Wu & Robert M. Cox
Adaptive radiations provide unique opportunities to test whether and how recent ecological and evolutionary diversification of host species structures the composition of entire bacterial communities. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing of faecal samples to test for differences in the gut microbiota of six species of Puerto Rican Anolis lizards characterized by the evolution of distinct ‘ecomorphs’ related to differences in habitat use. We found substantial variation in the composition of the microbiota within each...

Data from: Co-occurrence and hybridization of anther-smut pathogens specialized on Dianthus hosts

Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud & Michael Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps. In contrast to prior studies on this pathogen...

Data from: Crop-associated virus infection in a native perennial grass: reduction in plant fitness and dynamic patterns of virus detection

Helen M. Alexander, Emily Bruns, Hayley Schebor & Carolyn M. Malmstrom
To understand the eco-evolutionary significance of plant viruses in nature, we must (i) quantify the effects of infection on plant fitness and (ii) recognize that native plants are increasingly exposed to crop-associated viruses. Studies of perennials are particularly needed: most of our knowledge of plant-virus interactions is from annuals, yet long-lived species dominate landscapes. Here we used aster models for life-history analysis and longitudinal measures of plant virus status to evaluate multi-year consequences of crop...

Data from: Recent admixture generates heterozygosity-fitness correlations during the range expansion of an invading species

Stephen R. Keller, Peter D. Fields, Andrea E. Berardi & Doug R. Taylor
Admixture, the mixing of historically isolated gene pools, can have immediate consequences for the genetic architecture of fitness traits. Admixture may be especially important for newly colonized populations, such as during range expansion and species invasions, by generating heterozygosity that can boost fitness through heterosis. Despite widespread evidence for admixture during species invasions, few studies have examined the demographic history leading to admixture, how admixture affects the heterozygosity and fitness of invasive genotypes, and whether...

Data from: Convergent evolution of phenotypic integration and its alignment with morphological diversification in Carribean Anolis ecomorphs

Jason J. Kolbe, Liam J. Revell, Brian Szekely, & Jonathan B Losos
The adaptive landscape and the G-matrix are keys concepts for understanding how quantitative characters evolve during adaptive radiation. In particular, whether the adaptive landscape can drive convergence of phenotypic integration (i.e., the pattern of phenotypic variation and covariation summarized in the P-matrix) is not well studied. We estimated and compared P for 19 morphological traits in eight species of Caribbean Anolis lizards, finding that similarity in P among species was not correlated with phylogenetic distance....

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